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Soyuz 1
Soyuz 1
(Russian: Союз 1 , Union 1) was a manned spaceflight of the Soviet space program. Launched into orbit on 23 April 1967 carrying cosmonaut Colonel Vladimir Komarov, Soyuz 1
Soyuz 1
was the first crewed flight of the Soyuz spacecraft. The mission plan was complex, involving a rendezvous with Soyuz 2
Soyuz 2
and an exchange of crew members before returning to Earth. However, the launch of Soyuz 2
Soyuz 2
was called off due to thunderstorms. The flight was plagued with technical issues, and Komarov was killed when the descent module crashed into the ground due to a parachute failure. This was the first in-flight fatality in the history of spaceflight.

Contents

1 Crew

1.1 Backup crew

2 Mission parameters 3 Background 4 Mission details 5 Legacy 6 References 7 External links

Crew[edit]

Position Cosmonaut

Pilot Vladimir Komarov Second and last spaceflight

Backup crew[edit]

Position Cosmonaut

Pilot Yuri Gagarin

Mission parameters[edit]

Mass: 6,450 kg (14,220 lb) Perigee: 197 km (122 mi) Apogee: 223 km (139 mi) Inclination: 50.8° Period: 88.7 minutes

Background[edit] Soyuz 1
Soyuz 1
was the first manned flight of the first-generation Soyuz 7K-OK spacecraft and Soyuz rocket, designed as part of the Soviet lunar program. It was the first Soviet manned spaceflight in over two years, and the first Soviet manned flight following the death of the Chief Designer of the space program Sergei Korolev. Komarov was launched on Soyuz 1
Soyuz 1
despite failures of the previous unmanned tests of the 7K-OK, Cosmos 133
Cosmos 133
and Cosmos 140. A third attempted test flight was a launch failure; a launch abort triggered a malfunction of the launch escape system, causing the rocket to explode on the pad. The escape system successfully pulled the spacecraft to safety.[3] Prior to launch, Soyuz 1
Soyuz 1
engineers are said to have reported 203 design faults to party leaders, but their concerns "were overruled by political pressures for a series of space feats to mark the anniversary of Lenin's birthday."[4] It is not clear how much of this pressure resulted from the need to continue beating the United States in the Space Race
Space Race
and have Soviets first on the Moon, or to take advantage of the recent setbacks in the U.S. space program with the Apollo 1
Apollo 1
disaster. Yuri Gagarin
Yuri Gagarin
was the backup pilot for Soyuz 1, and was aware of the design problems and the pressures from the Politburo to proceed with the flight. He attempted to "bump" Komarov from the mission, knowing that the Soviet leadership would not risk a national hero on the flight.[5] At the same time, Komarov refused to pass on the mission, even though he believed it to be doomed. He explained that he could not risk Gagarin's life.[5] Mission planners intended to launch a second Soyuz flight the next day carrying cosmonauts Valery Bykovsky, Yevgeny Khrunov, and Aleksei Yeliseyev, with Khrunov and Yeliseyev scheduled to do an EVA over to Soyuz 1. Mission details[edit] Soyuz 1
Soyuz 1
was launched on 23 April 1967 at 00:32 UTC from Baikonur Cosmodrome carrying Komarov, the first Soviet cosmonaut to fly in space twice. Problems began shortly after launch when one solar panel failed to unfold, leading to a shortage of power for the spacecraft's systems. Further problems with the orientation detectors complicated maneuvering the craft. By orbit 13, the automatic stabilization system was completely dead, and the manual system was only partially effective. The crew of Soyuz 2
Soyuz 2
modified their mission goals, preparing themselves for a launch that would include fixing the solar panel of Soyuz 1. However, that night, thunderstorms at Baikonur Cosmodrome
Baikonur Cosmodrome
in Kazakhstan affected the booster's electrical system, causing the mission to be called off.[6] As a result of Komarov's report during the 13th orbit, the flight director decided to abort the mission. After 18 orbits, Soyuz 1
Soyuz 1
fired its retrorockets and reentered the Earth's atmosphere. Despite the technical difficulties up to that point, Komarov might still have landed safely. To slow the descent, first the drogue parachute was deployed, followed by the main parachute. However, due to a defect, the main parachute did not unfold; the exact reason for the main parachute malfunction is disputed.[7][8] Komarov then activated the manually deployed reserve chute, but it became tangled with the drogue chute, which did not release as intended. As a result, the Soyuz reentry module
Soyuz reentry module
fell to Earth in Orenburg Oblast almost entirely unimpeded, at about 40 m/s (140 km/h; 89 mph). A rescue helicopter spotted the descent module lying on its side with the parachute spread across the ground. The retrorockets then started firing which concerned the rescuers since they were supposed to activate a few moments prior to touchdown. By the time they landed and approached, the descent module was in flames with black smoke filling the air and streams of molten metal dripping from the exterior. The entire base of the capsule burned through. By this point, it was obvious that Komarov had not survived, but there was no code signal for a cosmonaut's death, so the rescuers fired a signal flare calling for medical assistance. Another group of rescuers in an aircraft then arrived and attempted to extinguish the blazing spacecraft with portable fire extinguishers. This proved insufficient and they instead began using shovels to throw dirt onto it. The descent module then completely disintegrated, leaving only a pile of debris topped by the entry hatch. When the fire at last ended, the rescuers were able to dig through the rubble to find Komarov's remains strapped into the center couch. Doctors pronounced the cause of death to be from multiple blunt-force injuries. The body was transported to Moscow for an official autopsy in a military hospital where the cause of death was verified to match the field doctors' conclusions. The Soyuz 1
Soyuz 1
crash site coordinates are 51°21′41″N 59°33′44″E / 51.3615°N 59.5622°E / 51.3615; 59.5622, which is 3 km (1.9 mi) west of Karabutak, Province of Orenburg in the Russian Federation. This is about 275 km (171 mi) east-southeast of Orenburg. There is a memorial monument at the site in the form of a black column with a bust of Komarov at the top, in a small park on the roadside.[2][9][10] Eight years after Komarov's death, a story began circulating that Komarov cursed the engineers and flight staff, and spoke to his wife as he descended,[11] and these transmissions were received by an NSA listening station near Istanbul. Historians regard this to be untrue.[12] Komarov was posthumously awarded a second Gold Star. He was given a state funeral, and his ashes were interred in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis at Red Square, Moscow.[4] Legacy[edit] The Soyuz 1
Soyuz 1
tragedy delayed the launch of Soyuz 2
Soyuz 2
and Soyuz 3
Soyuz 3
until 25 October 1968. This eighteen-month gap, with the addition of the explosion of an unmanned N-1 rocket
N-1 rocket
on July 3, 1969, scuttled Soviet plans of landing a cosmonaut on the Moon. The original mission of Soyuz 1
Soyuz 1
and Soyuz 2
Soyuz 2
was ultimately completed by Soyuz 4
Soyuz 4
and Soyuz 5. A much improved Soyuz program emerged from this eighteen-month delay, mirroring the improvements made in Project Apollo
Project Apollo
after the Apollo 1 tragedy. Although it failed to reach the Moon, the Soyuz went on to be repurposed from the centerpiece of the Zond lunar program to the people-carrier of the Salyut
Salyut
space station program, the Mir
Mir
space station, and the International Space Station. Although it suffered another tragedy with the Soyuz 11
Soyuz 11
accident in 1971, and went through several incidents with non-fatal launch aborts and landing mishaps, it has become one of the longest-lived and most dependable manned spacecraft yet designed. Komarov is commemorated in two memorials left on the Lunar surface: one left at Tranquility Base by Apollo 11,[13] and the Fallen Astronaut
Astronaut
plaque left by Apollo 15. References[edit]

^ "Baikonur LC1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 2009-04-15. Retrieved 2009-03-04.  ^ a b "Google Maps – Soyuz 1
Soyuz 1
Crash Site – Memorial Monument Photo". Retrieved 2010-12-25.  ^ Part 1 – Soyuz in Mir
Mir
Hardware Heritage by David S. F. Portree. ^ a b "24 April 1967: Russian cosmonaut dies in space crash". On This Day. BBC. April 24, 1967. Retrieved 2009-04-15.  ^ a b "Cosmonaut Crashed Into Earth 'Crying In Rage' : Krulwich Wonders..." NPR. 2011-03-18. Retrieved 2012-04-09.  ^ French, Francis and Burgess, Colin. "In the Shadow of the Moon". University of Nebraska Press, 2007, p. 177. ^ "[FPSPACE] The Red Stuff". Friends-partners.org. 2000-10-24. Retrieved 2012-04-09.  ^ "[The Soyuz-1 accident investigation]". Retrieved 2015-01-05.  ^ "Google Maps – Soyuz 1
Soyuz 1
Crash Site – Memorial Monument Location". Retrieved 2010-12-25.  ^ "Google Maps – Soyuz 1
Soyuz 1
Crash Site – Memorial Monument Photo closeup". Retrieved 2010-12-25.  ^ "Soyuz 1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2009-04-15.  ^ French, Francis and Burgess, Colin. "In the Shadow of the Moon". University of Nebraska Press, 2007, p. 181. ^ Aldrin, Buzz; McConnell, Malcolm (1989-07-01). Men from Earth. Bantam. ISBN 978-0-553-05374-6. 

External links[edit]

Soviet Union portal Spaceflight portal

An analysis of the Soyuz-1 flight from Sven Grahn Soyuz-1 on the Encyclopedia Astronautica

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Soyuz human spaceflight programme

Main topics

Soyuz (rocket family) Soyuz (spacecraft) Baikonur Cosmodrome

Site 1/5 Site 31/6

List of Soyuz missions List of Soviet manned space missions List of Russian manned space missions

Current missions

Soyuz MS-07 MS-08

Future missions

2018

Soyuz MS-09 MS-10 MS-11

2019

Soyuz MS-12 MS-13 MS-14 MS-15

Past missions (by spacecraft type)

Soyuz 7K-OK (1966–1970)

Kosmos 133† Soyuz 7K-OK No.1† Kosmos 140 Soyuz 1† Kosmos 186 188 212 213 238 Soyuz 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Soyuz 7K-L1
Soyuz 7K-L1
(1967–1970) (Zond lunar programme)

Kosmos 146 154† Zond 1967A† 1967B† Zond 4 1968A† 1968B† 5 6 1969A† Zond-M 1† M 2† Zond 7 8 9 10

Soyuz 7K-L1E (1969–1970)

Soyuz 7K-L1E No.1† Kosmos 382

Soyuz 7K-LOK
Soyuz 7K-LOK
(1971–1972)

Soyuz 7K-LOK
Soyuz 7K-LOK
No.1† No.2†

Soyuz 7K-OKS
Soyuz 7K-OKS
(1971)

Soyuz 10† 11†

Soyuz 7K-T (1972–1981)

Kosmos 496 573 Soyuz 12 Kosmos 613 Soyuz 13 Kosmos 656 Soyuz 14 15† 17 18a† 18 20 (uncrewed) 21 23† 24 25† 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 (uncrewed landing) 33† 34 (uncrewed launch) 35 36 37 38 39 40

Soyuz 7K-TM
Soyuz 7K-TM
(1974–1976)

Kosmos 638 672 Soyuz 16 19 (Apollo–Soyuz Test Project) 22

Soyuz 7K-S
Soyuz 7K-S
(1974–1976)

Kosmos 670 772† 869†

Soyuz-T
Soyuz-T
(1978–1986)

Kosmos 1001† 1074 Soyuz T-1
Soyuz T-1
(uncrewed) T-2 T-3 T-4 T-5 T-6 T-7 T-8† T-9 T-10a† T-10 T-11 T-12 T-13 T-14 T-15

Soyuz-TM
Soyuz-TM
(1986–2002)

Soyuz TM-1
Soyuz TM-1
(uncrewed) TM-2 TM-3 TM-4 TM-5 TM-6 TM-7 TM-8 TM-9 TM-10 TM-11 TM-12 TM-13 TM-14 TM-15 TM-16 TM-17 TM-18 TM-19 TM-20 TM-21 TM-22 TM-23 TM-24 TM-25 TM-26 TM-27 TM-28 TM-29 TM-30 TM-31 TM-32 TM-33 TM-34

Soyuz-TMA
Soyuz-TMA
(2002–2012)

Soyuz TMA-1 TMA-2 TMA-3 TMA-4 TMA-5 TMA-6 TMA-7 TMA-8 TMA-9 TMA-10 TMA-11 TMA-12 TMA-13 TMA-14 TMA-15 TMA-16 TMA-17 TMA-18 TMA-19 TMA-20 TMA-21 TMA-22

Soyuz-TMA-M (2010–2016)

Soyuz TMA-01M TMA-02M TMA-03M TMA-04M TMA-05M TMA-06M TMA-07M TMA-08M TMA-09M TMA-10M TMA-11M TMA-12M TMA-13M TMA-14M TMA-15M TMA-16M TMA-17M TMA-18M TMA-19M TMA-20M

Soyuz MS
Soyuz MS
(2016–present)

Soyuz MS-01 MS-02 MS-03 MS-04 MS-05 MS-06

Uncrewed missions are designated with Kosmos numbers; crewed missions get a Soyuz number. Failed missions are denoted with a † symbol. Cancelled missions are in italics.

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← 1966  ·  Orbital launches in 1967  ·  1968 →

Intelsat II F-2 OPS 1664 OPS 9321 · OPS 9322 · OPS 9323 · OPS 9324 · OPS 9325 · OPS 9326 · OPS 9327 · OPS 9328 Kosmos 138 Kosmos 139 ESSA-4 OV3-5 OPS 4399 Lunar Orbiter 3
Lunar Orbiter 3
Kosmos 140
Kosmos 140
OPS 6073 Diadème 1 Kosmos 141 Kosmos 142 Diadème 2 OPS 4750 OPS 4204 Kosmos 143 Kosmos 144 Kosmos 145 OSO 3
OSO 3
Kosmos 146
Kosmos 146
Kosmos 147 Kosmos 148 Kosmos 149 Kosmos 150 · OGCh No.8 Intelsat II F-3 Kosmos 151 Kosmos 152 OPS 4779 Kosmos 153 ATS-2 · RPM-481 Kosmos 154 Kosmos 155 Unnamed OPS 0100 Surveyor 3
Surveyor 3
ESSA-5 Soyuz 1
Soyuz 1
San Marco 2 OPS 4243 Kosmos 156 OPS 6638 · OPS 6679 · ERS-18 · ERS-20 · ERS-27 Lunar Orbiter 4
Lunar Orbiter 4
Ariel 3
Ariel 3
OPS 4696 · OPS 1967 Kosmos 157 Kosmos 158 Kosmos 159 Kosmos 160 OPS 7218 Kosmos 161 OPS 4321 · OPS 5557 Explorer 34 Molniya-1 No.8 ESRO-2A NRL PL-151 · NRL PL-152 · NRL PL-153 · NRL PL-154 · NRL-PL 159 · Timation 1 · Calsphere 3 · Calsphere 4 · OPS 5712 Kosmos 162 OPS 4360 Kosmos 163 Kosmos 164 Venera 4
Venera 4
Kosmos 165 Mariner 5
Mariner 5
Kosmos 166 OPS 3559 · OPS 1873 Kosmos 167 Zenit-4 No.32 OPS 4286 Unnamed SECOR-9 · Aurora OPS 9331 · OPS 9332 · OPS 9333 · OPS 9334 · LES-5 · DODGE Kosmos 168 Surveyor 4
Surveyor 4
Kosmos 169 Explorer 35
Explorer 35
Zenit-4 No.33 OPS 1879 OV1-11 · OV1-12 · OV1-86 OGO-4 Kosmos 170 Lunar Orbiter 5
Lunar Orbiter 5
OPS 4827 Kosmos 171 Kosmos 172 OPS 4886 OPS 7202 Kosmos 173 Kosmos 174 Zenit-2 No.51 Biosatellite 2
Biosatellite 2
Surveyor 5
Surveyor 5
Kosmos 175 Kosmos 176 OPS 5089 Kosmos 177 Kosmos 178 OPS 4941 Kosmos 179 OPS 4947 Kosmos 180 Unnamed 7K-L1 No.4L Intelsat II F-4 Molniya-1 No.9 OPS 1264 Kosmos 181 Kosmos 182 Kosmos 183 OSO 4
OSO 4
Molniya-1 No.12 Kosmos 184 OPS 4995 Kosmos 185 Kosmos 186
Kosmos 186
Kosmos 187 Kosmos 188
Kosmos 188
Kosmos 189 OPS 0562 · OPS 1587 Kosmos 190 ATS-3
ATS-3
Surveyor 6
Surveyor 6
Apollo 4
Apollo 4
ESSA-6 Kosmos 191 7K-L1 No.5L Kosmos 192 Kosmos 193 WRESAT Kosmos 194 OV3-6 OPS 5000 OPS 1001 Pioneer 8 · ERS-30 Kosmos 195 Kosmos 196 Kosmos 197 Kosmos 198

Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted in brackets.

v t e

Soviet manned lunar programs

Launch vehicles and upper stages

N1 rocket Proton rocket Block D

Spacecraft

LK-1 VA spacecraft LK-700 Zond (Soyuz 7K-L1) Zond-M (Soyuz 7K-L1S) Zond-LOK (Soyuz 7K-L1E) LOK (Soyuz 7K-L3) LK (spacecraft)

Other hardware

Lunokhod-LK Krechet-94

Soyuz docking tests

Soyuz 1, Soyuz 2A Soyuz 2, Soyuz 3 Soyuz 4, Soyuz 5 Soyuz 6, Soyuz 7, Soyuz 8 Soyuz Kontakt 1, 2

Zond (7K-L1/L1S) lunar flyby missions

Kosmos 146 Kosmos 154 Zond 1967A Zond 1967B Zond 4 Zond 1968A Zond 1968B Zond 5 Zond 6 Zond 1969A Zond-M 1 (L1S 1) Zond-M 2 (L1S 2) Zond 7 Zond 8 Zond 9 Zond 10

LOK (7K-LOK/L1E) test missions

Kosmos 382
Kosmos 382
(Zond-LOK 2) Zond-LOK 1 LOK 1 LOK 2

LK Lander (T2K) test missions

Kosmos 379 Kosmos 382 Kosmos 398 Kos