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Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean (Glycine max). It is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils and the second most consumed vegetable oil.[2] As a drying oil, processed soybean oil is also used as a base for printing inks (soy ink) and oil paints.

History

Chinese records dating prior to 2000 B.C. mention use of cultivated soybeans to produce edible soy oil.[3] Ancient Chinese literature reveals that soybeans were extensively cultivated and highly valued as a use for the soybean oil production process before written records were kept.[4]

Production

Soybean oil, meal and beans

To produce soybean oil, the soybeans are cracked, adjusted for moisture content, heated to between 60 and 88 °C (140–190 °F), rolled into flakes, and solvent-extracted with hexanes. The oil is then refined, blended for different applications, and sometimes hydrogenated. Soybean oils, both liquid and partially hydrogenated are sold as "vegetable oil," or are ingredients in a wide variety of processed foods. Most of the remaining residue (soybean meal) is used as animal feed.

In the 2002–2003 growing season, 30.6 million tons (MT) of soybean oil were produced worldwide, constituting about half of worldwide edible vegetable oil production, and thirty percent of all fats and oils produced, including animal fats and oils derived from tropical plants.[5] In 2018–2019, world production was at 57.4 MT with the leading producers including China (16.6 MT), US (10.9 MT), Argentina (8.4 MT), Brazil (8.2 MT), and EU (3.2 MT).[6]

Composition

Per 100 g, soybean oil has 16 g of saturated fat, 23 g of monounsaturated fat, and 58 g of polyunsaturated fat.[7][8] The major unsaturated fatty acids in soybean oil triglycerides are the polyunsaturates alpha-linolenic acid (C-18:3), 7-10%, and linoleic acid (C-18:2), 51%; and the monounsaturate oleic acid (C-18:1), 23%.[9] It also contains the saturated fatty acids stearic acid (C-18:0), 4%, and palmitic acid (C-16:0), 10%.

The high-proportion of oxidation-prone polyunsaturated fatty acid is undesirable for some uses, such as cooking oils. Three companies, Monsanto Company, DuPont/Bunge, and Asoyia in 2004 introduced low linolenic Roundup Ready soybeans. Hydrogenation may be used to reduce the unsaturation in linolenic acid. The resulting oil is called hydrogenated soybean oil. If the hydrogenation is only partially complete, the oil may contain small amounts of trans fat.

Comparison to other vegetable oils

Properties of vegetable oils[10][11]
Type Processing
treatment[12]
Saturated
fatty acids
Monounsaturated
fatty acids
Polyunsaturated
fatty acids
Smoke point
Total[10] Oleic
acid
(ω-9)
Total[10] α-Linolenic
acid
(ω-3)
Linoleic
acid
(ω-6)
ω-6:3
ratio
Almond oil
Avocado[13] 11.6 70.6 52-66[14] 13.5 1 12.5 12.5:1 250 °C (482 °F)[15]
Brazil nut[16] 24.8 32.7 31.3 42.0 0.1 41.9 419:1 208 °C (406 °F)[17]
Canola[18] 7.4 63.3 61.8 28.1 9.1 18.6 2:1 238 °C (460 °F)[17]
Cashew oil
Chia seeds
Cocoa butter oil
Coconut[19] 82.5 6.3 6 1.7 175 °C (347 °F)[17]
Corn[20] 12.9 27.6 27.3 54.7 1 58 58:1 232 °C (450 °F)[21]
Chinese records dating prior to 2000 B.C. mention use of cultivated soybeans to produce edible soy oil.[3] Ancient Chinese literature reveals that soybeans were extensively cultivated and highly valued as a use for the soybean oil production process before written records were kept.[4]

Production

Soybean oil, meal and beans

To produce soybean oil, the soybeans are cracked, adjusted for moisture content, heated to between 60 and 88 °C (140–190 °F), rolled into flakes, and solvent-extracted with hexanes. The oil is then refined, blended for different applications, and sometimes hydrogenated. Soybean oils, both liquid and partially hydrogenated are sold as "vegetable oil," or are ingredients in a wide variety of processed foods. Most of the remaining residue (soybean meal) is used as animal feed.

In the 2002–2003 growing season, 30.6 million tons (MT) of soybean oil were produced worldwide, constituting about half of worldwide edible vegetable oil production, and thirty percent of all fats and oils produced, including animal fats and oils derived from tropical plants.[5] In 2018–2019, world production was at 57.4 MT with the leading producers including China (1

To produce soybean oil, the soybeans are cracked, adjusted for moisture content, heated to between 60 and 88 °C (140–190 °F), rolled into flakes, and solvent-extracted with hexanes. The oil is then refined, blended for different applications, and sometimes hydrogenated. Soybean oils, both liquid and partially hydrogenated are sold as "vegetable oil," or are ingredients in a wide variety of processed foods. Most of the remaining residue (soybean meal) is used as animal feed.

In the 2002–2003 growing season, 30.6 million tons (MT) of soybean oil were produced worldwide, constituting about half of worldwide edible vegetable oil production, and thirty percent of all fats and oils produced, including animal fats and oils derived from tropical plants.[5] In 2018–2019, world production was at 57.4 MT with the leading producers including China (16.6 MT), US (10.9 MT), Argentina (8.4 MT), Brazil (8.2 MT), and EU (3.2 MT).[6]

Composition

Per 100 g, soybean oil has 16 g of saturated fat, 23 g of monounsaturated fat, and 58 g of

In the 2002–2003 growing season, 30.6 million tons (MT) of soybean oil were produced worldwide, constituting about half of worldwide edible vegetable oil production, and thirty percent of all fats and oils produced, including animal fats and oils derived from tropical plants.[5] In 2018–2019, world production was at 57.4 MT with the leading producers including China (16.6 MT), US (10.9 MT), Argentina (8.4 MT), Brazil (8.2 MT), and EU (3.2 MT).[6]

Per 100 g, soybean oil has 16 g of saturated fat, 23 g of monounsaturated fat, and 58 g of polyunsaturated fat.[7][8] The major unsaturated fatty acids in soybean oil triglycerides are the polyunsaturates alpha-linolenic acid (C-18:3), 7-10%, and linoleic acid (C-18:2), 51%; and the monounsaturate oleic acid (C-18:1), 23%.[9] It also contains the saturated fatty acids stearic acid (C-18:0), 4%, and palmitic acid (C-16:0), 10%.

The high-proportion of oxidation-prone polyunsaturated fatty acid is undesirable for some uses, such as cooking oils. Three companies, Monsanto Company, DuPont/Monsanto Company, DuPont/Bunge, and Asoyia in 2004 introduced low linolenic Roundup Ready soybeans. Hydrogenation may be used to reduce the unsaturation in linolenic acid. The resulting oil is called hydrogenated soybean oil. If the hydrogenation is only partially complete, the oil may contain small amounts of trans fat.


Applications

Food

Soybean oil is mostly used for frying and baking. It is also used as a condiment for salads.

Properties of common cooking fats (per 100 g)
Type of fat Total fat (g) Saturated fat (g) Mono­unsaturated fat (g) Poly­unsaturated fat (g) Smoke point
Butter[40] 80-88 43-48 15-19 2-3 150 °C (302 °F)[41]
Canola oil[42] 100 6-7 62-64 24-26 205 °C (401 °F)[43][44]
Coconut oil[45] 99 83 6 2 177 °C (351 °F)
Corn oil[46] 100 13-14 27-29 52-54 230 °C (446 °F)[41]
Lard[47] 100 39 45 11 190 °C (374 °F)[41]
Peanut oil[48] 100 17 46 32 225 °C (437 °F)[41]
Olive oil[49] 100 13-19 59-74 6-16 190 °C (374 °F)[41]
Rice bran oil 100 25 38 37 250 °C (482 °F)[50]
Soybean oil[51] 100 15 22 57-58 257 °C (495 °F)[41]
Suet[52] 94 52 32 3 200 °C (392 °F)
Sunflower oil[53] 100 10 20 66 225 °C (437 °F)[41]
Sunflower oil (high oleic) 100 12 84[43] 4[43]
Vegetable shortening [54] 100 25 41 28 165 °C (329 °F)[41]

Drying oils

Soybean oil is one of many drying oils, which means that it will slowly harden (due to free-radical based polymerization) upon exposure to air, forming a flexible, transparent, and waterproof solid. Because of this property, it is used in some printing ink and oil paint formulations. However, other oils (such as linseed oil) may be superior for some drying oil applications.

Medical uses

Soybean oil is indicated for parenteral nutrition as a source of calories and essential fatty acids.[55][56]

Fixative for insect repellents

While soybean oil has no direct insect repellent activity, it is used as a fixative to extend the short duration of action of essential oils such as geranium oil in several commercial products.[57][58]

Trading

Soybean oil is traded at the Chicago Board of Trade in contracts of 60,000 pounds at a time. Prices are listed in cents and hundredths of a cent per pound.

References

  1. ^ a b "Fat emulsion Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 30 June 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  2. ^ https://www.stat

    Soybean oil is mostly used for frying and baking. It is also used as a condiment for salads.

    Properties of common cooking fats (per 100 g)
    Type of fat Total fat (g) Saturated fat (g) Mono­unsaturated fat (g) drying oils, which means that it will slowly harden (due to free-radical based polymerization) upon exposure to air, forming a flexible, transparent, and waterproof solid. Because of this property, it is used in some printing ink and oil paint formulations. However, other oils (such as linseed oil) may be superior for some drying oil applications.

    Medical uses

    Soybean oil is indicated for parenteral nutrition as a source of calories and essential fatty acids.[55][56]

    Fixative for insect repellents

    While soybean oil has no direct insect repellent activity, it is used as a fixative to extend the short duration of action of essential oils such as geranium oil in several commercial products.[57][58]

    Trading

    Soybean oil is traded at the Chicago Board of Trade in contracts of 60,000 pounds at a time. Prices are listed in cents and hundredths of a cent per pound.

    References

    1. ^ a b "Fat emulsion Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 30 June 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
    2. ^ https://www.statista.com/statistics/263937/vegetable-oils-global-consumption/
    3. Soybean oil is indicated for parenteral nutrition as a source of calories and essential fatty acids.[55][56]

      Fixative for insect repellents

      Soybean oil is traded at the Chicago Board of Trade in contracts of 60,000 pounds at a time. Prices are listed in cents and hundredths of a cent per pound.

      References