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Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
were people who disagreed with certain features in the embodiment of Soviet ideology and who were willing to speak out against them.[1] The term dissident was used in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the period following Joseph Stalin's death until the fall of communism.[2] It was used to refer to small groups of marginalized intellectuals whose modest challenges to the Soviet regime met protection and encouragement from correspondents.[3] Following the etymology of the term, a dissident is considered to "sit apart" from the regime.[4] As dissenters began self-identifying as dissidents, the term came to refer to an individual whose non-conformism was perceived to be for the good of a society.[5][6][7] Political opposition in the USSR was barely visible and, with rare exceptions, of little consequence.[8] Instead, an important element of dissident activity in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was informing society (both inside the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and in foreign countries) about violation of laws and human rights. Over time, the dissident movement created vivid awareness of Soviet Communist abuses.[9] Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
who criticized the state faced possible legal sanctions under the Soviet Criminal Code[10] and faced the choice of exile, the mental hospital, or the labor camp.[11] Anti-Soviet political behavior, in particular, being outspoken in opposition to the authorities, demonstrating for reform, writing books were defined in some persons as being simultaneously a criminal act (e.g., violation of Articles 70 or 190-1), a symptom (e.g., "delusion of reformism"), and a diagnosis (e.g., "sluggish schizophrenia").[12]

Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
in the upper row: Naum Meiman, Sofiya Kallistratova, Petro Grigorenko, his wife Zinaida Grigorenko, Tatyana Velikanova's mother, priest Father Sergei Zheludkov and Andrei Sakharov; in the lower row: Genrikh Altunyan and Alexander Podrabinek. Photo taken on 16 October 1977[13]

Moscow Helsinki Group
Moscow Helsinki Group
members Yuliya Vishnevskya, Lyudmila Alexeyeva, Dina Kaminskaya, Kronid Lyubarsky
Kronid Lyubarsky
in Munich, 1978

Yuri Orlov, founder of the Moscow
Moscow
Helsinki Group

Yelena Bonner
Yelena Bonner
and Andrei Sakharov
Andrei Sakharov
after their arrival for the conferment of the honorary doctorate in law from the University of Groningen, 15 June 1989

Contents

1 The 1950s–1960s 2 The 1970s

2.1 Repression of the Helsinki Watch Groups

3 Currents of dissidence

3.1 Civil and human rights movement 3.2 Movements of deported nations 3.3 Emigration
Emigration
movements 3.4 Religious movements 3.5 National movements 3.6 Literary and cultural 3.7 Other groups

4 Dissidents and the Cold War 5 Dissidents about their dissent 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading

8.1 Outsiders' works 8.2 Insiders' works

9 Audiovisual material

The 1950s–1960s[edit] In the 1950s, Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
started leaking criticism to the West by sending documents and statements to foreign diplomatic missions in Moscow.[14] In the 1960s, Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
frequently declared that the rights the government of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
denied them were universal rights, possessed by everyone regardless of race, religion and nationality.[15] In August 1969, for instance, the Initiating Group for Defense of Civil Rights in the USSR appealed to the United Nations Committee on Human Rights to defend the human rights being trampled on by Soviet authorities in a number of trials.[16] The 1970s[edit]

"Our history shows that most of the people can be fooled for a very long time. But now all this idiocy is coming into clear contradiction with the fact that we have some level of openness." (Vladimir Voinovich)[17]

The heyday of the dissenters as a presence in the Western public life was the 1970s.[18] The Helsinki Accords
Helsinki Accords
inspired dissidents in the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland
Poland
to openly protest human rights failures by their own governments.[19] The Soviet dissidents demanded that the Soviet authorities implement their own commitments proceeding from the Helsinki Agreement with the same zeal and in the same way as formerly the outspoken legalists expected the Soviet authorities to adhere strictly to the letter of their constitution.[20] Dissident Russian and East European intellectuals who urged compliance with the Helsinki accords have been subjected to official repression.[21] According to Soviet dissident Leonid Plyushch, Moscow
Moscow
has taken advantage of the Helsinki security pact to improve its economy while increasing the suppression of political dissenters.[22] 50 members of Soviet Helsinki Groups were imprisoned.[23] Сases of political prisoners and prisoners of conscience in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
were divulged by Amnesty International in 1975[24] and by The Committee for the Defense of Soviet Political Prisoners in 1975[25] and 1976.[26][27] US President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
in his inaugural address on 20 January 1977 announced that human rights would be central to foreign policy during his administration.[28] In February, Carter sent Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov a letter expressing his support for the latter’s stance on human rights.[28][29] In the wake of Carter's letter to Sakharov, the USSR cautioned against attempts "to interfere' in its affairs under "a thought-up pretext of 'defending human rights.'"[30] Because of Carter's open show of support for Soviet dissidents, the KGB
KGB
was able to link dissent with American imperialism through suggesting that such protest is a cover for American espionage in the Soviet Union.[31] The KGB
KGB
head Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
determined, "The need has thus emerged to terminate the actions of Orlov, fellow Helsinki monitor Ginzburg and others once and for all, on the basis of existing law."[32] According to Dmitri Volkogonov
Dmitri Volkogonov
and Harold Shukman, it was Andropov who approved the numerous trials of human rights activists such as Andrei Amalrik, Vladimir Bukovsky, Vyacheslav Chornovil, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, Alexander Ginzburg, Natalya Gorbanevskaya, Pyotr Grigorenko, Anatoly Shcharansky, and others.[33] According to Soviet dissident Yuri Glazov, Andropov was a paradigmatic Homo Sovieticus and personally conducted disinformation campaigns against his main opponents and dissidents Andrei Sakharov
Andrei Sakharov
and Alexander Solzhenitsyn.[34]

"If we accept human rights violations as just "their way" of doing things, then we are all guilty." (Andrei Sakharov)[35]

Voluntary and involuntary emigration allowed the authorities to rid themselves of many political active intellectuals including writers Valentin Turchin, Georgi Vladimov, Vladimir Voinovich, Lev Kopelev, Vladimir Maximov, Naum Korzhavin, Vasily Aksyonov
Vasily Aksyonov
and others.[36]:194 A Chronicle of Current Events
A Chronicle of Current Events
covered 424 political trials, in which 753 people were convicted, and no one of the accused was acquitted; in addition, 164 people were declared insane and sent to compulsory treatment in a psychiatric hospital.[37] According to Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
and Western critics, the KGB
KGB
had routinely sent dissenters to psychiatrists for diagnosing to avoid embarrassing publiс trials and to discredit dissidence as the product of ill minds.[38][39] On the grounds that political dissenters in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
were psychotic and deluded, they were locked away in psychiatric hospitals and treated with neuroleptics.[40] Confinement of political dissenters in psychiatric institutions had become a common practice.[41] That technique could be called the "medicalization" of dissidence or psychiatric terror, the now familiar form of repression applied in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to Leonid Plyushch, Pyotr Grigorenko, and many others.[42] Finally, many persons at that time tended to believe that dissidents were abnormal people whose commitment to mental hospitals was quite justified.[36]:96[43] In the opinion of the Moscow Helsinki Group
Moscow Helsinki Group
chairwoman Lyudmila Alexeyeva, the attribution of a mental illness to a prominent figure who came out with a political declaration or action is the most significant factor in the assessment of psychiatry during the 1960–1980s.[44] At that time Soviet dissident Vladimir Bukovsky
Vladimir Bukovsky
wrote A New Mental Illness in the USSR: The Opposition published in French,[45] German,[46] Italian,[47] Spanish[48] and (coathored with Semyon Gluzman) A Manual on Psychiatry for Dissidents published in Russian,[49] English,[50] French,[51] Italian,[52] German,[53] Danish.[54] Repression of the Helsinki Watch Groups[edit] Main articles: Moscow
Moscow
Helsinki Group, Ukrainian Helsinki Group, and Lithuanian Helsinki Group In 1977-1979 and again in 1980-1982, the KGB
KGB
reacted to the Helsinki Watch Groups in Moscow, Kiev, Vilnius, Tbilisi, and Erevan by launching large-scale arrests and sentencing its members to in prison, labor camp, internal exile and psychiatric imprisonment. From the members of the Moscow
Moscow
Helsinki Group, 1978 saw its members Yuri Orlov, Vladimir Slepak and Anatoly Shcharansky
Anatoly Shcharansky
sentenced to lengthy labor camp terms and internal exile for "anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda" and treason. Another wave of arrests followed in the early 1980s: Malva Landa, Viktor Nekipelov, Leonard Ternovsky, Feliks Serebrov, Tatiana Osipova, Anatoly Marchenko, and Ivan Kovalev.[55]:249 Soviet authorities offered some activists the "opportunity" to emigrate. Lyudmila Alexeyeva
Lyudmila Alexeyeva
emigrated in 1977. The Moscow Helsinki Group
Moscow Helsinki Group
founding members Mikhail Bernshtam, Alexander Korchak, Vitaly Rubin also emigrated, and Pyotr Grigorenko
Pyotr Grigorenko
was stripped of his Soviet citizenship while seeking medical treatment abroad.[56] The Ukrainian Helsinki Group
Ukrainian Helsinki Group
suffered severe repressions throughout 1977-1982, with at times multiple labor camp sentences handed out to Mykola Rudenko, Oleksy Tykhy, Myroslav Marynovych, Mykola Matusevych, Levko Lukyanenko, Oles Berdnyk, Mykola Horbal, Zinovy Krasivsky, Vitaly Kalynychenko, Vyacheslav Chornovil, Olha Heyko, Vasyl Stus, Oksana Meshko, Ivan Sokulsky, Ivan Kandyba, Petro Rozumny, Vasyl Striltsiv, Yaroslav Lesiv, Vasyl Sichko, Yuri Lytvyn, Petro Sichko.[55]:250–251 By 1983 the Ukrainian Helsinki Group
Ukrainian Helsinki Group
had 37 members, of whom 22 were in prison camps, 5 were in exile, 6 emigrated to the West, 3 were released and were living in Ukraine, 1 (Mykhailo Melnyk) committed suicide.[57] The Lithuanian Helsinki Group saw its members subjected to two waves of imprisonment for anti-Soviet activities and "organization of religious processions": Viktoras Petkus was sentenced in 1978; others followed in 1980-1981: Algirdas Statkevičius, Vytautas Skuodys, Mečislovas Jurevičius, and Vytautas Vaičiūnas.[55]:251–252 Currents of dissidence[edit] Civil and human rights movement[edit] Main article: Human rights
Human rights
movement in the Soviet Union Starting in the 1960s, the early years of the Brezhnev stagnation, dissidents in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
increasingly turned their attention towards civil and eventually human rights concerns. The fight for civil and human rights focused on issues of freedom of expression, freedom of conscience, freedom to emigrate, punitive psychiatry, and the plight of political prisoners. It was characterized by a new openness of dissent, a concern for legality, the rejection of any 'underground' and violent struggle.[58] Throughout the 1960s-1980s, those active in the civil and human rights movement engaged in a variety of activities: The documentation of political repression and rights violations in samizdat (unsanctioned press); individual and collective protest letters and petitions; unsanctioned demonstrations; mutual aid for prisoners of conscience; and, most prominently, civic watch groups appealing to the international community. Repercussions for these activities ranged from dismissal from work and studies to many years of imprisonment in labor camps and being subjected to punitive psychiatry. Dissidents active in the movement in the 1960s introduced a "legalist" approach of avoiding moral and political commentary in favor of close attention to legal and procedural issues. Following several landmark political trials, coverage of arrests and trials in samizdat became more common. This activity eventually led to the founding of the Chronicle of Current Events
Chronicle of Current Events
in April 1968. The unofficial newsletter reported violations of civil rights and judicial procedure by the Soviet government and responses to those violations by citizens across the USSR.[59] During the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s, the rights-based strategy of dissent incorporated human rights ideas and rhetoric. The movement included figures such as Valery Chalidze, Yuri Orlov, and Lyudmila Alexeyeva. Special
Special
groups were founded such as the Initiative Group for the Defense of Human Rights in the USSR (1969) and the Committee on Human Rights in the USSR (1970). The signing of the Helsinki Accords
Helsinki Accords
(1975) containing human rights clauses provided rights campaigners with a new hope to use international instruments. This led to the creation of dedicated Helsinki Watch Groups in Moscow ( Moscow
Moscow
Helsinki Group), Kiev (Ukrainian Helsinki Group), Vilnius (Lithuanian Helsinki Group), Tbilisi, and Erevan (1976–77).[60]:159–194 The civil and human rights initiatives played a significant role in providing a common language for Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
with varying concerns, and became a common cause for social groups in the dissident milieu ranging from activists in the youth subculture to academics such as Andrei Sakharov. Due to the contacts with Western journalists as well as the political focus during détente (Helsinki Accords), those active in the human rights movement were among those most visible in the West (next to refuseniks). Movements of deported nations[edit]

In 1944 THE WHOLE OF OUR PEOPLE was slanderously accused of betraying the Soviet Мotherland and was forcibly deported from the Crimea. [...] [O]n 5 September 1967, there appeared a Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet which cleared us of the charge of treason but described us not as Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
but as “citizens of Tatar nationality formerly resident in the Crimea”, thus legitimizing our banishment from our home country and liquidating us as a nation.

We did not grasp the significance of the decree immediately. After it was published, several thousand people traveled to the Crimea
Crimea
but were once again forcibly expelled. The protest which our people sent to the party Central Committee was left unanswered, as were also the protests of representatives of the Soviet public who supported us. The authorities replied to us only with persecution and court cases.

Since 1959 more than two hundred of the most active and courageous representatives have been sentenced to terms of up to seven years although they had always acted within the limits of the Soviet Constitution.

– Appeal by Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
to World Public Opinion, Chronicle of Current Events Issue No 2 (30 June 1968)[61]

See also: Population transfer in the Soviet Union Several national or ethnic groups who had been deported under Stalin formed movements to return to their homelands. In particular, the Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
aimed to return to Crimea, the Meskhetian Turks
Meskhetian Turks
to South Georgia and ethnic Germans aimed to resettle along the Volga River near Saratov. The Crimean Tatar movement takes a prominent place among the movement of deported nations. The Tatars had been refused the right to return to the Crimea, even though the laws justifying their deportation had been overturned. Their first collective letter calling for the restoration dates to 1957.[62] In the early 1960s, the Crimean Tatars had begun to establish initiative groups in the places where they had been forcibly resettled. Led by Mustafa Dzhemilev, they founded their own democratic and decentralized organization, considered unique in the history of independent movements in the Soviet Union.[63]:131[64]:7 Emigration
Emigration
movements[edit] Further information: Refusenik The emigration movements in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
included the movement of Soviet Jews
Soviet Jews
to emigrate to Israel and of the Volga Germans
Volga Germans
to emigrate to West Germany. Soviet Jews
Soviet Jews
were routinely denied permission to emigrate by the authorities of the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and other countries of the Eastern bloc.[65] A movement for the right to emigrate formed in the 1960s, which also gave rise to a revival of interest in Jewish culture. The refusenik cause gathered considerable attention in the West. Citizens of German origin who lived in the Baltic states
Baltic states
prior to their annexation in 1940 and descendants of the eighteenth-century Volga German settlers also formed a movement to leave the Soviet Union.[63]:132[66]:67 In 1972, the West German government entered an agreement with the Soviet authorities which permitted between 6000 and 8000 people to emigrate to West Germany every year for the rest of the decade. As a result, almost 70000 ethnic Germans had left the Soviet Union by the mid-1980s.[66]:67 Similarly, Armenians achieved a small emigration. By the mid-1980s, over 15000 Armenians had emigrated.[66]:68 Religious movements[edit] For a broader coverage related to this topic, see Persecution of Christians in the Soviet Union. The religious movements in the USSR included Russian Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant movements. They focused on the freedom to practice their faith and resistance to interference by the state in their internal affairs.[64]:8 The Russian Orthodox movement remained relatively small. The Catholic movement in Lithuania was part of the larger Lithuanian national movement. Protestant groups which opposed the anti-religious state directives included the Baptists, the Seventh-day Adventists, and the Pentecostals. Similar to the Jewish and German dissident movements, many in the independent Pentecostal movement pursued emigration. National movements[edit] The national movements included the Russian national dissidents as well as dissident movements from Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Georgia, and Armenia. Among the nations that lived in their own territories with the status of republics within the Soviet Union, the first movement to emerge in the 1960s was the Ukrainian movement. Its aspiration was to resist the Russification of Ukraine
Russification of Ukraine
and to insist on equal rights and democratization for the republic.[64]:7 In Lithuania, the national movement of the 1970s was closely linked to the Catholic movement.[64]:7 Literary and cultural[edit]

TASS press release on the expulsion of Alexandr Solzhenitzyn: By Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., A. Solzhenitsyn has been deprived of his citizenship for systematic actions incompatible with being a citizen of the U.S.S.R. and for damaging the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Solzhenitzyn’s family may join him when they consider it necessary. Izvestia, 15 February 1974.[67]

Several landmark examples of dissenting writers played a significant role for the wider dissident movement. These include the persecutions of Osip Mandelshtam, Boris Pasternak, Mikhail Bulgakov, and Joseph Brodsky, as well as the publication of The Gulag Archipelago
The Gulag Archipelago
by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. In literary world, there were dozens of literati who participated in dissident movement, including Vasily Aksyonov, Arkadiy Belinkov, Leonid Borodin, Joseph Brodsky, Georgi Vladimov, Vladimir Voinovich, Aleksandr Galich, Venedikt Yerofeyev, Alexander Zinoviev, Lev Kopelev, Naum Korzhavin, Vladimir Maximov, Viktor Nekrasov, Andrei Sinyavsky, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, and Varlam Shalamov.[68] In the early Soviet Union, non-conforming academics were exiled via so-called Philosophers' ships.[69] Later, figures such as cultural theorist Grigori Pomerants were among active dissidents.[64]:327 Other intersections of cultural and literary nonconformism with dissidents include the wide field of Soviet Nonconformist Art, such as the painters of the underground Lianozovo group, and artists active in the "Second Culture". Other groups[edit] Other groups included the Socialists, the movements for socioeconomic rights (especially the independent unions), as well as women's, environmental, and peace movements.[63]:132[64]:3–18 Dissidents and the Cold War[edit]

President Reagan delivering the March 23, 1983 speech initiating Star Wars program

Responding to the issue of refuseniks in the Soviet Union, the United States Congress passed the Jackson–Vanik amendment
Jackson–Vanik amendment
in 1974. The provision in United States federal law
United States federal law
intended to affect U.S. trade relations with countries of the Communist bloc that restrict freedom of emigration and other human rights. The eight member countries of the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
signed the Helsinki Final Act in August 1975. The "third basket" of the Act included extensive human rights clauses.[70]:99–100 When Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
entered office in 1976, he broadened his advisory circle to include critics of US–Soviet détente. He voiced support for the Czech dissident movement known as Charter 77, and publicly expressed concern about the Soviet treatment of dissidents Aleksandr Ginzburg and Andrei Sakharov. In 1977, Carter received prominent dissident Vladimir Bukovsky
Vladimir Bukovsky
in the White House, asserting that he did not intend "to be timid" in his support of human rights.[71]:73 In 1979, the US Helsinki Watch Committee was established, funded by the Ford Foundation. Founded after the example of the Moscow
Moscow
Helsinki Group and similar watch groups in the Soviet bloc, it also aimed to monitor compliance with the human rights provisions of the Helsinki Accords and to provide moral support for those struggling for that objective inside the Soviet bloc. It acted as aconduit for information on repression in the Soviet Union, and lobbied policy-makers in the United States to continue to press the issue with Soviet leaders.[72]:460 US President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
attributed to the view that the "brutal treatment of Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
was due to bureaucratic inertia."[73] On 14 November 1988, he held a meeting with Andrei Sakharov
Andrei Sakharov
at the White House
White House
and said that Soviet human rights abuses are impeding progress and would continue to do so until the problem is "completely eliminated."[74] Whether talking to about one hundred dissidents in a broadcast to the Soviet people
Soviet people
or at the U.S. Embassy, Reagan’s agenda was one of freedom to travel, freedom of speech, freedom of religion.[75] There is an opinion that Star Wars program, which was launched in the US under Ronald Reagan, was a major factor in the chain of events that led to the first defeat of the USSR in the Cold War and later to the collapse of the communist regime in the country.[76] Dissidents about their dissent[edit] Andrei Sakharov
Andrei Sakharov
said, "Everyone wants to have a job, be married, have children, be happy, but dissidents must be prepared to see their lives destroyed and those dear to them hurt. When I look at my situation and my family's situation and that of my country, I realize that things are getting steadily worse."[77] Fellow dissident and one of the founders of the Moscow
Moscow
Helsinki Group Lyudmila Alexeyeva
Lyudmila Alexeyeva
wrote:

What would happen if citizens acted on the assumption that they have rights? If one person did it, he would become a martyr; if two people did it, they would be labeled an enemy organization; if thousands of people did it, the state would have to become less oppressive.[64]:275

According to Soviet dissident Victor Davydoff, totalitarian system has no mechanisms that could change the behavior of the ruling group from within.[78] Any attempts to change this are immediately suppressed through repression.[78] Dissidents appealed to international human rights organizations, foreign governments, and there was a result.[78] See also[edit]

Human rights
Human rights
movement in the Soviet Union Samizdat A Chronicle of Current Events Chronicle of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in Lithuania They Chose Freedom
They Chose Freedom
(4 parts) – 2005 documentary by Vladimir Kara-Murza Jr. Parallels, Events, People (36 parts) – 2013 documentary by Natella Boltyanskaya Refusenik
Refusenik
– 2007 documentary by Laura Bialis

Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal Russia portal Society portal Politics portal Freedom of speech portal Human rights
Human rights
portal

References[edit]

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activism and the end of the Cold War: a transnational history of the Helsinki network. Cambridge University Press. p. 73. ISBN 1139498924.  ^ Volkogonov, Dmitri; Shukman, Harold (1998). Autopsy for an empire: the seven leaders who built the Soviet regime. Simon & Schuster. p. 342. ISBN 0684834200.  ^ Tismaneanu, Vladimir (18 August 2014). "Who was Yuri Andropov? Ideologue, policeman, apparatchik: why a deceased Soviet butcher has an ever-growing mini-cult following". FrontPage Magazine.  ^ Yankelevich, Tatyana (1985). "Silence is the crime". Human Rights (13): 40.  ^ a b Shlapentokh, Vladimir (1990). Soviet intellectuals and political power: the post-Stalin era. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1850432848.  ^ Ерошок, Зоя (13 February 2015). "Людмила Алексеева: "Я — человек, склонный быть счастливым"" [Lyudmila Alexeyeva, "I am a man prone to be happy"]. Novaya Gazeta
Novaya Gazeta
(in Russian) (15).  ^ Murray, Thomas (June 1983). "Genetic screening in the workplace: ethical issues". Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 25 (6): 451–454. doi:10.1097/00043764-198306000-00009. PMID 6886846.  ^ Reich, Walter (August 1978). "Diagnosing Soviet dissidents. Courage becomes madness, and deviance disease". Harper's Magazine. 257 (1539): 31–37. PMID 11662503.  ^ Bowers, Leonard (2003). The social nature of mental illness. Routledge. p. 135. ISBN 1134587279.  ^ Shapiro, Leon (1971). "Soviet Union". American Jewish Year Book (72): 400–410. JSTOR 23605325.  ^ Sharlet, Robert (Autumn 1978). "Dissent and repression in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: changing patterns since Khrushchev". International Journal. 33 (4): 763–795. doi:10.2307/40201689. JSTOR 40201689.  ^ Shlapentokh, Vladimir (March 1990). "The justification of political conformism: the mythology of Soviet intellectuals". Studies in Soviet Thought. 39 (2): 111–135. doi:10.1007/BF00838027. JSTOR 20100501.  ^ "Выступления П.Д. Тищенко, Б.Г. Юдина, А.И. Антонова, А.Г. Гофмана, В.Н. Краснова, Б.А. Воскресенского" [Speeches by P.D. Tishchenko, B.G. Yudin, A.I. Antonov, A.G. Gofman, V.N. Krasnov, B.A. Voskresensky]. Nezavisimiy Psikhiatricheskiy Zhurnal [The Independent Psychiatric Journal] (in Russian) (2). 2004. ISSN 1028-8554. Retrieved 14 January 2012.  ^ Boukovsky 1971. ^ Bukowski 1971. ^ Bukovskij 1972. ^ Bukovsky 1972. ^ Bukovsky & Gluzman 1975a. ^ Bukovsky and Gluzman (1975b, 1975c, 1975d) ^ Boukovsky & Glouzmann 1975. ^ Bukovskij, Gluzman & Leva 1979. ^ Bukowski & Gluzman 1976. ^ Bukovskiĭ & Gluzman 1975e. ^ a b c "Appendix B. Imprisoned members of the Helsinki monitoring groups in the USSR and Lithuania". Implementation of the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe: findings and recommendations seven years after Helsinki. Report submitted to the Congress of the United States by the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. November 1982 (PDF, immediate download). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1982. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015.  ^ Snyder, Sarah (2011). Human rights
Human rights
activism and the end of the Cold War: a transnational history of the Helsinki network. Human rights
Human rights
in history. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 75. ISBN 1107645107.  ^ Zinkevych, Osyp (1993). "Ukrainian Helsinki Group". In Kubiĭovych, Volodymyr; Struk, Danylo. Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Vol. 5. University of Toronto Press. pp. 387–388. ISBN 0802030106.  ^ Daniel, Alexander (2002). "Истоки и корни диссидентской активности в СССР" [Sources and roots of dissident activity in the USSR]. Неприкосновенный запас [Emergency Ration] (in Russian). 1 (21).  ^ Horvath, Robert (2005). The legacy of Soviet dissent: dissidents, democratisation and radical nationalism in Russia. London & New York: Routledge. pp. 70–129. ISBN 0415333202.  ^ Thomas, Daniel (2001). The Helsinki effect: international norms, human rights, and the demise of communism. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691048584.  ^ A Chronicle of Current Events, No 2 (30 June 1968) – 2.4 Appeal by Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
to World Public Opinion ^ Natella Boltyanskaya
Natella Boltyanskaya
(30 December 2013). "Двадцать четвертая серия. История крымских татар" [Part twenty four. History of the Crimean Tatars]. Voice of America (in Russian). Parallels, Events, People.  ^ a b c Gerlant, Uta (2010). ""The law is our only language": Soviet dissidents and human rights". Human rights
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and history: a challenge for education. Berlin: Stiftung "Erinnerung, Verantwortung und Zukunft". pp. 130–141. ISBN 978-3-9810631-9-6.  ^ a b c d e f g Alexeyeva, Ludmilla (1987). Soviet dissent: contemporary movements for national, religious, and human rights. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. p. 275. ISBN 0-8195-6176-2.  ^ Azbel', Mark; Forbes, Grace (1981). Refusenik, trapped in the Soviet Union. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0395302269.  ^ a b c Cracraft, James; Rubenstein, Joshua (1988). "Dissent". The Soviet Union
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Today: An Interpretive Guide. pp. 64–75. ISBN 978-0-226-22628-6. Retrieved 2016-03-29.  ^ Stratman, David (July 1975). "Political and lumpen prisoners, the question of compliance, and socioliterary investigation". Stanford Law Review. 27 (6): 1629–1641. doi:10.2307/1228187. JSTOR 1228187.  ^ "Писатели-диссиденты: биобиблиографические статьи (начало)" [Dissident writers: bibliographic articles (beginning)]. Новое литературное обозрение [New Literary Review] (in Russian) (66). 2004.  ^ Gregory, Paul (Spring 2009). "The ship of philosophers: how the early USSR dealt with dissident intellectuals". The Independent Review. 13 (4): 485–492.  ^ Thomas, Daniel (2001). The Helsinki effect: international norms, human rights, and the demise of Communism. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691048592.  ^ Mitchell, Nancy (2011). "The Cold War
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and Jimmy Carter". In Melvyn P. Leffler, Odd Arne Westad (eds.). Volume III: Endings. The Cambridge History of the Cold War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 66–88. ISBN 978-0-521-83721-7. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Foot, Rosemary (2011). "The Cold War
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and human rights". In Melvyn P. Leffler, Odd Arne Westad (eds.). Volume III: Endings. The Cambridge History of the Cold War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 445–465. ISBN 978-0-521-83721-7. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Altshuler, Stuart (2005). From exodus to freedom: a history of the Soviet Jewry movement. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 61. ISBN 0742549364.  ^ Lee, Gary (15 November 1988). "President receives Sakharov". The Washington Post.  ^ Edwards, Lee (2005). The essential Ronald Reagan: a profile in courage, justice, and wisdom. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 136. ISBN 0742543757.  ^ Ackerman, Galina (2006). "Еще раз о диссидентах – об их роли в падении советского режима" [Once again about dissidents – about their role in the fall of the Soviet regime]. Kontinent
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(in Russian) (128).  ^ Hadden, Briton; Luce, Henry (1977). "The World". Time (109): 29.  ^ a b c Гальперович, Данила (21 October 2015). "Для выхода "Хроники текущих событий" в России опять пришло время" [Time is ripe again for issuing A Chronicle of Current Events
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Further reading[edit] Outsiders' works[edit]

"Chomsky signs statement hitting Soviet repression". The Harvard Crimson. 31 October 1973.  Civil dissent in the USSR: the Ford and Carter administrations' treatment of human rights during the era of the Moscow
Moscow
Helsinki Group. University of Scranton. 2012.  De la dissidence à la démocratie: passé, présent, avenir de la Russie: actes du colloque consacré à la mémoire de Vladimir Maximov [From dissent to democracy: past, present and future of Russia: proceedings of a symposium dedicated to commemoration of Vladimir Maximov] (in French). Paris: Éditions du Rocher. 1996. ISBN 226802430X.  Dissenso cristiano in URSS [Christian dissent in the USSR] (in Italian). Bologna: Editrice Missionaria Italiana. 1974. OCLC 64387170.  Dissent, ethnonationalism, and the politics of coercion in the USSR. Carleton University. 1990.  "Dissent, psychiatry, and the Soviet Union". The Lancet. 1 (7854): 419–420. 9 March 1974. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(74)93195-x. PMID 11643587.  "Human rights: the dissidents v. Moscow". Time. 109 (8): 28. 21 February 1977.  Il dissenso culturale nell'URSS: documenti leterari edel samizdat [The cultural dissent in the USSR: literary documents of samizdat] (in Italian). La biennale di Venezia. 1977.  Politics and deviance: the social control of dissidents in the Soviet Union, 1965–78. University of Essex. 1980.  "Sakharov case spotlights Soviet efforts against dissidents". The Hour. 26 May 1984.  Slavophiles and westernizers in Soviet dissent. Wellesley College. 1975.  "Solzhenitsyn urges Slavic nation to replace U.S.S.R.: dissent: exiled writer launches a vehement attack on Gorbachev's policies. His article will be distributed widely in the Soviet Union". Los Angeles Times. 19 September 1990.  "Soviet activists honoured". Nature. 290 (5801): 7. 5 March 1981. Bibcode:1981Natur.290R...7.. doi:10.1038/290007b0.  Soviet dissent and the American national interest. Defense Technical Information Center. 1986.  Soviet dissident scientists, 1966–78: a study. Defense Technical Information Center. 1979.  " Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
and Jimmy Carter". Memorial. Retrieved 28 November 2015.  "Soviet dissidents: another taken". Nature. 288 (5788): 206. 20 November 1980. Bibcode:1980Natur.288R.206.. doi:10.1038/288206b0.  " Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
seek paper support". New Scientist. 74 (1054): 517. 2 June 1977.  "Soviet-era dissidents despise Putin". The Washington Times. 13 November 2004.  "Soviet nuclear dissent". Nature. 337 (6205): 292. 26 January 1989. Bibcode:1989Natur.337Q.292.. doi:10.1038/337292a0. PMID 2911370.  "Soviet Union: bad days for dissidents". Time. 26 April 1976.  "Soviet Union: crackdown on dissent". Time. 18 December 1972.  "Soviet Union: dissent = insanity". Time. 19 December 1969.  "Soviet Union: exile for dissenters". Time. 20 August 1973.  "Soviet Union: music of dissent". Time. 7 September 1970.  "Soviet Union: smothering dissent". Time. 11 February 1974.  "Soviet Union: support for dissent". Nature. 245 (5422): 178. 28 September 1973. Bibcode:1973Natur.245..178O. doi:10.1038/245178a0.  "Soviet Union, the war: asylums or prisons?". Time. 7 February 1972.  The human rights movement and dissidents in the Soviet Union: can their demand for legality prevent arbitrariness?. University of Maine School of Law. 1985.  "The KGB
KGB
file of Andrei Sakharov. Index of documents" (in English and Russian).  "Two Soviet giants, in dissent". The New York Times. 29 September 1990.  U.S. policy toward Russia: warnings and dissent. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2000.  "US science academy supports dissident scientists". New Scientist. 77 (1084): 3. 5 January 1978.  "Western pressure for Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
continues". New Scientist. 85 (1197): 720. 6 March 1980.  Власть и диссиденты: Из документов КГБ и ЦК КПСС [Authority and dissidents: From documents by the KGB and the Central Committee of the CPSU] (PDF) (in Russian). Moscow: Moscow
Moscow
Helsinki Group. 2006. ISBN 5-98440-034-0. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 March 2013.  "Писатели-диссиденты: биобиблиографические статьи (начало)" [Dissident writers: bibliographic articles (beginning)]. Новое литературное обозрение [New Literary Review] (in Russian) (66). 2004.  "Писатели-диссиденты: биобиблиографические статьи (продолжение)" [Dissident writers: bibliographic articles (continuance)]. Новое литературное обозрение [New Literary Review] (in Russian) (67). 2004.  "Писатели-диссиденты: биобиблиографические статьи (окончание)" [Dissident writers: bibliographic articles (ending)]. Новое литературное обозрение [New Literary Review] (in Russian) (68). 2004.  "П.Л. Капица и Ю.В. Андропов об инакомыслии" [P.L. Kapitsa and Yu.V. Andropov about dissent]. Kommunist (in Russian) (7). 1991.  "Resistance to Unfreedom in the USSR". The Andrei Sakharov
Andrei Sakharov
Museum and Public Center "Peace, Progress, Human Rights".  Ackerman, Galina (2006). "Еще раз о диссидентах — об их роли в падении советского режима" [Once again about dissidents – about their role in the fall of the Soviet regime]. Kontinent
Kontinent
(in Russian) (128).  Adelstein, Robert (30 September 1976). "Soviet dissidents: keeping the flame alight". Nature. 263 (5576): 363–364. Bibcode:1976Natur.263..363A. doi:10.1038/263363a0.  Anderson, Elena (1994). Repressive policies against Soviet dissent in the post-Stalin era, 1964–1972.  Antunes, Melo (1978). Libertà e socialismo: momenti storici del dissenso [Liberty and socialism: historical moments of dissent] (in Italian). Milan: SugarCo Ed. OCLC 256585424.  Aron, Leon (19 March 2008). "The return of Soviet dissidents". The Moscow
Moscow
Times.  Astrachan, Antony (22 September 1973). " Détente
Détente
and dissent". The New Republic: 15–18.  Aucouturier, Michel (1981–1982). "Les revues de l'émigration et de la dissidence russes" [Magazines of emigration and Russian dissent]. Le Débat (in French). 9: 72–79. doi:10.3917/deba.009.0072.  Barashkov, Gregory (2007). "Диссидентское движение в СССР(1960–1970)" [Dissident movement in the USSR (1960–1970)] (PDF, immediate download). Известия Саратовского университета. Серия Экономика. Управление. Право (in Russian). 7 (1): 102–104.  Barber, John (October 1997). "Opposition in Russia". Government and Opposition. 32 (4): 598–613. doi:10.1111/j.1477-7053.1997.tb00448.x.  Barghoorn, Frederick (1971). The general pattern of Soviet dissent. Research Institute on Communist Affairs, School of International Affairs, Columbia University.  Barghoorn, Frederick (1974). "Soviet dissenters on Soviet nationality policy". In Bell, Wendell; Freeman, Walter. Ethnicity and nation-building: comparative, international, and historical perspectives. Beverly Hills, London: Sage Publications. pp. 117–133. ISBN 0803901739.  Barghoorn, Frederick (1976). Détente
Détente
and the democratic movement in the USSR. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0029018501.  Barghoorn, Frederick (1983). "Regime–dissenter relations after Khrushchev: some observations". In Solomon, Susan; Skilling, Harold. Pluralism in the Soviet Union. Macmillan. pp. 131–168. ISBN 0333345827.  Barghoorn, Frederick (Spring–Summer 1983). "Regime–dissenter confrontation in the USSR: samizdat and Western views, 1972–1982". Studies in Comparative Communism. 16 (1–2): 99–119. doi:10.1016/0039-3592(83)90046-7.  Barringer, Felicity (27 May 1988). "Toward the summit; Soviet warns Reagan about seeing dissidents". The New York Times.  Bartsch, Günter (August 1972). "Intellektuelle opposition in der Sowjetunion" [Intellectual opposition in the Soviet Union]. Politische Vierteljahresschrift (in German). 13 (1): 159–160. JSTOR 24195773.  Belotserkovsky, Vadim (1975). "Soviet dissenters: Solzhenitsyn, Sakharov, Medvedev". Partisan Review. 42 (1): 35–68.  Bengelsdorf, Herbert (May 1971). "Psychiatric commitment of dissenters in Russia: a myth?". American Journal of Psychiatry. 127 (11): 1575–6. doi:10.1176/ajp.127.11.1575. PMID 4251661.  Bennigsen, Alexandre (January 1978). "Muslim religious conservatism and dissent in the USSR". Religion in Communist Lands. 6 (3): 153–161. doi:10.1080/09637497808430874.  Bergman, Jay (January 1992). " Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
on the Russian intelligentsia, 1956–1985: the search for a usable past". The Russian Review. 51 (1): 16–35. doi:10.2307/131244. JSTOR 131244.  Bergman, Jay (May 1998). "Reading fiction to understand the Soviet Union: Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
on Orwell's 1984". History of European Ideas. 23 (5–6): 173–192. doi:10.1016/S0191-6599(98)00001-1.  Bergman, Jay (December 1998). "Was the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
totalitarian? The view of Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
and the reformers of the Gorbachev era". Studies in East European Thought. 50 (4): 247–281. doi:10.1023/A:1008690818176. JSTOR 20099686.  Bernstein, Richard (12 April 1988). "Exiled Soviet dissidents' group in dispute over threat to dissenters". The New York Times.  Beyrau, Dietrich (1993). Intelligenz und Dissens. Die russischen Bildungsschichten in der Sowjetunion 1917 bis 1985 [Intelligentsia and dissent. The Russian educational stratum in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1917 to 1985] (in German). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht. ISBN 3525362315.  Biddulph, Howard (September 1972). "Soviet intellectual dissent as a political counter-culture". The Western Political Quarterly. 25 (3): 522–533. doi:10.2307/446966. JSTOR 446966.  Bilinsky, Yaroslav (September 1983). "Russian dissidents and their attitudes toward the non‐Russian Nations: Russian dissidents' attitudes toward the political strivings of the non‐Russian nations in the Soviet Union". Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity. 11 (2): 190–204. doi:10.1080/00905998308407967.  Bilocerkowycz, Jaroslaw (1988). Soviet Ukrainian dissent: a study of political alienation. Westview Press. ISBN 0813372402.  Bird, Christopher (April 1972). ""Psychiatry" to silence dissent". The Russian Review. 31 (2): 175–178. doi:10.2307/128209. JSTOR 128209.  Bittner, Stephen (2008). "Dissidence and the end of the Thaw". The many lives of Khrushchev's Thaw: experience and memory in Moscow's Arbat. Cornell University Press. pp. 174–210. ISBN 0801446066.  Blake, Patricia (1 December 1980). "Soviet Union: killing the spirit of Helsinki". Time.  Bloch, Sidney; Reddaway, Peter (21 July 1977). "Your disease is dissent!". New Scientist. 75 (1061): 149–151. PMID 11663776.  Bloch, Sidney; Reddaway, Peter (1977). Psychiatric terror: How Soviet psychiatry is used to suppress dissent. Basic Books. ISBN 0465064884.  Bloch, Sidney; Reddaway, Peter (1985). "Psychiatrists and dissenters in the Soviet Union". In Stover, Eric; Nightingale, Elena. The breaking of bodies and minds: torture, psychiatric abuse, and the health professions. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. pp. 132–163. ISBN 0716717336.  Bloche, Gregg (Spring 1986). "Law, theory, and politics: the dilemma of Soviet psychiatry". The Yale Journal of International Law. 11 (2): 298–358.  Bociurkiw, Bohdan (April 1970). "Political dissent in the Soviet Union". Studies in Comparative Communism. 3 (2): 74–105. doi:10.1016/S0039-3592(70)80117-X.  Bociurkiw, Bohdan (July 1970). "Review: the voices of dissent and the visions of gloom". The Russian Review. 29 (3): 328–335. doi:10.2307/127541.  Bonavia, David (October 1972). "Prospects for Soviet dissidents". The World Today. 28 (10): 451–457. JSTOR 40394564.  Boobbyer, Philip (October 2000). "Truth-telling, conscience and dissent in late Soviet Russia: evidence from oral histories". European History Quarterly. 30 (4): 553–585. doi:10.1177/026569140003000404.  Boobbyer, Philip (2005). Conscience, dissent and reform in Soviet Russia. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415331862.  Bourdeaux, Michael (October 1969). "Dissent in the Russian Orthodox Church". The Russian Review. 28 (4): 416–427. doi:10.2307/127161. JSTOR 127161.  Brahm, Heinz (1978). Die sowjetischen Dissidenten: Strömungen und Ziele [The Soviet dissidents: trends and goals] (in German). Bundesinstitut für Ostwissenschaftliche und Internationale Studien.  Breuillard, Sabine (1 January 1993). "La dissidence en U.R.S.S. : les années 1950–1980 – objet d'étude, sources, problèmes de méthode (Colloque de Moscou, 24–26 août 1992)" [Dissent in the U.S.S.R.: The 1950–1980s – object of study, sources, methodological problems ( Moscow
Moscow
symposium, 24–26 August 1992)]. Revue des Études Slaves (in French). 65 (2): 423–428.  Brumberg, Abraham (1970). In quest of justice: protest and dissent in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
today. New York: Praeger.  Brumberg, Abraham (July 1974). "Dissent in Russia". Foreign Affairs. 52 (4): 781–798. doi:10.2307/20038087. JSTOR 20038087.  Brunsdale, Mitzi (1 October 1982). "Chronicling Soviet dissidence". Current History. 81 (477): 333–334.  Campa, Riccardo (1 July 1979). "El fenómeno de la disidencia en la U.R.S.S." [The phenomenon of dissent in the U.S.S.R.]. Arbor (in Spanish). 103 (403): 345.  Cattle, David (October 1970). "Dissent and stability in the Soviet Union". Current History. 59 (350): 220–225.  Chapple, Richard (February 1976). "Criminals and criminality according to the Soviet dissidents–works of Andrey Sinyavsky and Yuly Daniel". In Fox, Vernon. Proceedings of the 21st annual Southern conference on corrections. 21. Tallahassee: Florida State University. pp. 149–158.  Cherkasov, Petr (March 2005). "Dissidence at IMEMO". Russian Politics & Law. 43 (2): 31–69. doi:10.1080/10611940.2005.11066946.  Chiama, Jean; Soulet, Jean-François (1982). Histoire de la dissidence: oppositions et révoltes en URSS et dans les démocraties populaires, de la mort de Staline à nos jours [History of dissent: oppositions and revolts in the USSR and the people's democracies, from the death of Stalin to the present day] (in French). Paris: Seuil.  Chiampana, Andrea (July 2014). "Tra diritti umani e distensione: L'amministrazione Carter e il dissenso in Urss" [Between human rights and détente: the Carter administration and dissent in the USSR]. Cold War History (in Italian). 14 (3): 452–453. doi:10.1080/14682745.2014.917800.  Chodoff, Paul (February 1974). "Involuntary hospitalization of political dissenters in the Soviet Union". Psychiatric Opinion. 11 (1): 5–19.  Chodoff, Paul (7 June 1974). "Soviet dissidents". Science. 184 (4141): 1030. Bibcode:1974Sci...184.1030C. doi:10.1126/science.184.4141.1030-a. JSTOR 1738392.  Chodoff, Paul (May 1978). "Psychiatric terror: How Soviet psychiatry is used to suppress dissent". American Journal of Psychiatry. 135 (5): 629. doi:10.1176/ajp.135.5.629.  Chomsky, Noam (21 August 1969). "A reply to Joseph Alsop". The New York Review of Books.  Chomsky, Noam; Barsamian, David (1992). Chronicles of dissent: interviews with David Barsamian. Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press. ISBN 1873176902.  Chung, Pham (March 1978). "On the behavior of a totalitarian regime toward dissidents: an economic analysis". Public Choice. 33 (1): 75–84. doi:10.1007/BF00123945.  Ciuciura, Theodore (January 1979). "Dissent, law and psychiatry in the Soviet Union". Canadian Slavonic Papers. 21 (1): 98–108. doi:10.1080/00085006.1979.11091571. JSTOR 40867419. PMID 11614322.  Clark, Ernest (April 1975). "Russian dissidents debate détente". Dissent. 22 (2): 116–117.  Clementi, Marco (2002). Il diritto al dissenso: il progetto costituzionale di Andrej Sacharov [The right to dissent: Andrei Sakharov's constitutional project] (in Italian). Rome: Odradek Edizioni. ISBN 8886973446.  Clementi, Marco (2007). Storia del dissenso sovietico (1953–1991) [History of the Soviet dissent (1953–1991)] (in Italian). Rome: Odradek Edizioni. ISBN 8886973853.  Cline, Francis (28 March 1991). "Soviet opposition defies ban on rally". The New York Times.  Cline, Ray (1974). Understanding the Solzhenitsyn affair: dissent and its control in the USSR. Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, Georgetown University. OCLC 02090746.  Contessi, Pier Luigi (January–February 1980). "URSS: il clamore del dissenso e il silenzio dell' opposizione" [USSR: the cry of dissent and the silence of the opposition]. Il Mulino (in Italian) (267): 149–158. doi:10.1402/14404.  Coogan, Kevin; Vanden Heuvel, Katrina (19 March 1988). "An internation story: U.S. fund for Soviet dissidents". The Nation.  Crowfoot, John (October 2015). "The USSR's voice of opposition" (PDF). The World Today. 71 (5): 40. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 March 2016.  Cox, Michael (January 1976). "The politics of the dissenting intellectual". Critique: Journal of Socialist Theory. 5 (1): 5–34. doi:10.1080/03017607508413163.  Cutler, Robert (October 1980). "Soviet dissent under Khrushchev: an analytical study". Comparative Politics. 13 (1): 15–35. doi:10.2307/421761. JSTOR 421761.  Dalos, György (2012). "Der Umgang mit dem Dissens" [Dealing with dissent]. Lebt wohl, Genossen!: Der Untergang des sowjetischen Imperiums [Farewell, comrades!: the fall of the Soviet empire] (in German). C.H.Beck. pp. 14–16. ISBN 3406621791.  Daniels, Susan (1985). Carter administration's influence on coverage of Soviet dissidents. University of Texas at Austin.  Daucé, Françoise (2006). "Les usages militants de la mémoire dissidente en Russie post-soviétique" [Militant use of dissident memory in post-Soviet Russia]. Revue d'études comparatives Est-Ouest (in French). 37 (1): 43–66.  De Boer, S. P.; Driessen, Evert; Verhaar, Hendrik (1982). Biographical dictionary of dissidents in the Soviet Union: 1956–1975. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9024725380.  Dean, Richard (January–March 1980). "Contacts with the West: the dissidents' view of Western support for the human rights movement in the Soviet Union". Universal Human Rights. 2 (1): 47–65. doi:10.2307/761802. JSTOR 761802.  Dean, Richard (1980–1981). "Beyond Helsinki: the Soviet view of human rights in international law". Virginia Journal of International Law (21): 55–95.  Dell'Asta, Marta (2003). Una via per incominciare: il dissenso in URSS dal 1917 al 1990 [One way to begin: dissent in the USSR from 1917 to 1990] (in Italian). Milan: La casa di Matriona. ISBN 8887240477.  Derbyshire, Ian (1987) [1986]. "Internal opposition: dissidence and regionalism". The politics in the Soviet Union: from Brezhnev to Gorbachev (2 ed.). Edinburgh: Chambers. pp. 113–136. ISBN 0550207457.  Deutscher, Tamara (1 March 1976). 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since the fall of Khrushchev (2 ed.). Macmillan. pp. 121–156. ISBN 0333233379.  Reddaway, Peter (1983) [1980]. "Policy towards dissent since Khrushchev". In Schapiro, Leonard; Rigby, Thomas; Brown, Archie; Reddaway, Peter. Authority, power, and policy in the USSR: essays dedicated to Leonard Schapiro (2 ed.). Macmillan. pp. 158–192. ISBN 0333257022.  Reddaway, Peter (2010). "How much did popular disaffection contribute to the collapse of the USSR?". In Fortescue, S. Russian politics from Lenin to Putin. London: Macmillan. pp. 152–184. ISBN 0230575870.  Reddaway, Peter (1984) [1976]. "The development of dissent in the USSR". In Griffith, William. The Soviet empire: expansion and détente (2 ed.). Lexington books. pp. 57–84. ISBN 0669004219.  Reddaway, Peter (September 2012). "Soviet policies toward dissent, 1953–1986". Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 24 (1/2): 57–82.  Reich, Rebecca (2010). Thinking differently: psychiatry, literature and dissent in the late Soviet period. Harvard University.  Renom, Jaime Olives (January–April 1986). "Unión Soviética: la cuestión de los disidentes" [Soviet Union: the issue of dissidents] (PDF). Cuenta y razón (in Spanish) (22): 85–93. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 March 2016.  Rial, Horacio (2006). "Todos somos disidentes soviéticos. Pentimento" [We are all Soviet dissidents. Repentance]. La Ilustración liberal: revista española y americana (in Spanish) (17–21).  Rich, Vera (30 September 1976). "Soviet dissidents: he who would dissident be". Nature. 263 (5576): 361–362. Bibcode:1976Natur.263..361R. doi:10.1038/263361a0.  Rich, Vera (9 December 1976). "USSR: bottling up dissent. Reports on recent developments concerning dissidents in the USSR and Eastern Europe". Nature. 264 (5586): 501–502. Bibcode:1976Natur.264..501R. doi:10.1038/264501a0.  Rich, Vera (8 September 1977). "USSR: discrediting the dissidents". Nature. 269 (5624): 100. Bibcode:1977Natur.269..100R. doi:10.1038/269100a0.  Rich, Vera (24 November 1977). "Leading Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
in London". Nature. 270 (5635): 290. Bibcode:1977Natur.270R.290R. doi:10.1038/270290b0.  Rich, Vera (15 December 1977). "Stalin's scientific deputy addresses dissident meeting". Nature. 270 (5638): 550. Bibcode:1977Natur.270..550R. doi:10.1038/270550a0.  Rich, Vera (17 May 1979). "Soviet dissident charged". Nature. 279 (5710): 178. Bibcode:1979Natur.279..178R. doi:10.1038/279178b0.  Rich, Vera (11 February 1982). "Soviet dissidents: helpers divided". Nature. 295 (5849): 450. Bibcode:1982Natur.295R.450R. doi:10.1038/295450c0.  Rich, Vera (16 January 1986). "Refusnik scientists: dissenting dissidents agree". Nature. 319 (6050): 169. Bibcode:1986Natur.319..169R. doi:10.1038/319169b0.  Richter, Derek (August 1971). "Political dissenters in mental hospitals". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 119 (549): 225–226. doi:10.1192/bjp.119.549.225.  Rinzler, Michael (Spring 1994). "Battling authoritarianism through treaty: Soviet dissent and international human rights regimes". Harvard International Law Journal. 35 (2): 461–498.  Ripa di Meana, Carlo; Mecucci, Gabriella (2007). L'ordine di Mosca: fermate la biennale del dissenso [The order of Moscow: to stop the biennial of dissent] (in Italian). Rome: Liberal. ISBN 8888835377.  Robert, Horvath (October 2015). ""Sakharov would be with us": Limonov, Strategy-31, and the dissident legacy". The Russian Review. 74 (4): 581–598. doi:10.1111/russ.12049.  Roberts, Steven (19 March 1963). "The politics of dissent: turmoil in Soviet literature". The Harvard Crimson.  Robinson, Harlow (3 December 1980). "Soviet dissent seen form outside and from inside the USSR; On Soviet Dissent: Interviews with Piero Ostellino, by Roy Medvedev". The Christian Science Monitor.  Robinson, Paul (21 January 1989). "Psychiatric imprisonment of Soviet dissidents". British Medical Journal. 298 (6667): 195. doi:10.1136/bmj.298.6667.195. JSTOR 29703310.  Ronza, R (1970). Samizdat: dissenso e contestazione nell'Unione Sovietica [Samizdat: dissent and protest in the Soviet Union] (in Italian). Milan: IPL. ISBN 8878362034.  Rothberg, Abraham (1972). The heirs of Stalin: dissidence and the Soviet regime, 1953–1970. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801406676.  Rubenstein, Joshua (1 September 1978). "The enduring voice of the Soviet dissidents". Columbia Journalism Review. 17 (3): 32–39.  Rubenstein, Joshua (1980). Soviet dissidents: their struggle for human rights. Beacon Press. ISBN 0807032131.  Rudnytsky, Ivan (Fall 1981). "The political thought of Soviet Ukrainian dissent". Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 6 (2): 3.  Rutman, Roman (January 1973). "Jews and dissenters: connections and divergences". Soviet Jewish Affairs. 3 (2): 26–37. doi:10.1080/13501677308577163.  Rywkin, Michael (March 1981). "Dissent in Soviet Central Asia". Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity. 9 (1): 27–34. doi:10.1080/00905998108407900.  Salter, Leonard (Fall 1978). "American lawyers and Russian dissidents: the lawyer as social engineer". The International Lawyer. 12 (12): 869–875. JSTOR 40706698.  Samatan, Marie (1980). "Droits de l'homme et répression en URSS: l'appareil et les victimes" [ Human rights
Human rights
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Hoover Digest
(2).  Saunders, George (1974). Samizdat: voices of the Soviet opposition. Pathfinder Press. ISBN 0873489144.  Savranskaya, Svetlana (2009). " Human rights
Human rights
movement in the USSR after the signing of the Helsinki Final Act, and the reaction of Soviet authorities". In Nuti, Leopoldo. The crisis of détente in Europe: from Helsinki to Gorbachev, 1975–1985. London, New York: Routledge. pp. 26–40. ISBN 1134044984.  Schweitzer, Glenn (2013) [1989]. "Refuseniks, dissidents, and scientific exchanges". Techno-diplomacy: US-Soviet confrontations in science and technology (2 ed.). Springer. pp. 230–252. ISBN 1489960465.  Seleznev, Viktor (2009). Кто выбирает свободу. Саратов: Хроника инакомыслия. 1920–1980-е годы [Who chooses freedom. Saratov: Chronicle of dissent. The 1920s–1980s] (PDF) (in Russian). Saratov.  Serebryakova, Elena (2012). "Мир глазами диссидента (по книге В. Буковского "И возвращается ветер…")" [World through the eyes of a dissident (about the book of V. Bukovsky «The wind returns…»)] (PDF). Управленческое консультирование (in Russian) (4): 132–138. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 March 2016.  Shanker, Thom (25 December 1986). "Free political dissidents, Sakharov tells Gorbachev". The Chicago Tribune.  Shanker, Thom; Moseley, Ray (31 May 1988). "Reagan keeps focus on rights. President holds talks with Soviet dissidents". The Chicago Tribune.  Sharlet, Robert (Autumn 1978). "Dissent and repression in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: changing patterns since Khrushchev". International Journal. 33 (4): 763–795. doi:10.2307/40201689. JSTOR 40201689.  Sharlet, Robert (1 October 1980). "Growing Soviet dissidence". Current History. 79 (459): 96–100.  Sharlet, Robert (1984). "Dissent and the "Contra-System" in the Soviet Union". Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science. 35 (3): 135–146. doi:10.2307/1174123.  Sharlet, Robert (October 1986). "Soviet dissent since Brezhnev". Current History. 85 (513): 321–324, 340.  Shatz, Marshall (1980). Soviet dissent in historical perspective. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521231728.  Shlapentokh, Dmitry (August 2005). "President Bush, Shcharansky and the tradition of Russian dissent". Contemporary Review. 287 (1675): 71–81.  Shirokorad, Alexander (2014). Диссиденты 1956–1990 гг [Dissidents of 1956–1990] (in Russian). Moscow: Алгоритм. ISBN 5443807323.  Siegel, George (Spring 1964). "Voices in dissonance". The Slavic and East European Journal. 8 (1): 66–71. doi:10.2307/303978. JSTOR 303978.  Simirenko, Alex (November 1975). "A new type of Soviet resistance?". Society. 13 (1): 35–37. doi:10.1007/BF02699992.  Simon, Gerhard (1974). Church, state, and opposition in the U.S.S.R. University of California Press. ISBN 0520026128.  Sinatti, Piero (1974). Il dissenso in URSS [Dissent in the USSR] (in Italian). Rome: La nuova sinistra; Savelli.  Sinatti, Piero (1978). Il dissenso in Urss nell'epoca di Breznev: antologia della Cronaca degli avvenimenti correnti (documenti e interventi) [Dissent in the USSR in the era of Brezhnev: anthology of A Chronicle of Current Events
A Chronicle of Current Events
(documents and interviews)] (in Italian). Firenze: Vallecchi.  Smith, Fred (Winter 1991). "Sakharov and Solzhenitsyn: dissidents with a different world view". The Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies. 16 (4): 469–476.  Smith, Gordon (1988). "Dissent: political, ethnic, and religious". Soviet politics: continuity and contradiction. Macmillan Education. pp. 294–320. ISBN 0333459199.  Solovyov, Vladimir; Klepikova, Elena (17 August 1987). "The Kremlin and dissidents: time for compromise". Chicago Tribune.  Spechler, Dina (1982). Permitted dissent in the USSR: Novy mir and the Soviet regime. New York: Praeger. ISBN 0030606217.  Spechler, Dina (1982). "Permitted dissent and Soviet politics: the case of Novyi Mir". The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review. 9 (1): 1–39. doi:10.1163/187633282X00028.  Spiegel, Philip (2008). Triumph over tyranny: the heroic campaigns that saved 2,000,000 Soviet Jews. Devora Publishing. ISBN 1615849386.  Sun, Marjorie (8 October 1982). "Soviets clamp down on dissident groups". Science. 218 (4568): 139. Bibcode:1982Sci...218..139S. doi:10.1126/science.218.4568.139. PMID 17753431.  Surovtseva, Ekaterina (2014). "А.И. Солженицын и А.Д. Сахаров: дискуссия вокруг "Письма вождям Советского Союза" и её восприятие в эмигрантской печати (М. Агурский)" [A.I. Solzhenitsyn and A.D. Sakharov: the debate around "Letter to the Soviet leaders" and its perception in the emigre press (M. Agursky)] (PDF, immediate download). Филологические науки. Вопросы теории и практики (in Russian). 9 (39, part 2): 159–161. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 March 2016.  Surovtseva, Ekaterina (2015). "А.И. Солженицын, А.Д. Сахаров и Р. Медведев: дискуссия вокруг "Письма вождям Советского Союза" и её восприятие в эмигрантской печати (М. Агурский)" [A.I. Solzhenitsyn, A.D. Sakharov and R. Medvedev: the debate around "Letter to the Soviet leaders" and its perception in the emigre press (M. Agursky)]. Молодой ученый (in Russian) (2): 608–613. Archived from the original on 19 April 2015.  Surrett, William (1987). Formalization and contemporary patterns and conditions of modern Soviet dissidence.  Suslensky, Yakov (September 1983). "The treatment of activities of Russian and non‐Russian dissidents by the Soviet regime: a comparative analysis". Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity. 11 (2): 232–243. doi:10.1080/00905998308407969.  Sweeting, Stephen (Spring 2010). "Postmodern strategies of resistance: Solzhenitsyn and Havel". Journal of Integrated Studies. 1 (1): 1–10.  Szulc, Tad (Summer 1978). "Living with dissent". Foreign Policy (31): 180–191. doi:10.2307/1148152. JSTOR 1148152.  Tarnawsky, Ostap (Fall 1981). "Dissident poets in Ukraine". Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 6 (2): 17–27.  Tarnow, Alexander von (1976). La Russia del dissenso [Russia of dissent] (in Italian). Rome: Ciarrapico. ASIN B00RW46CO0.  Tikos, Laszlo (June 1973). "Dissent among non‐Russian writers of the U.S.S.R. — A philologist's analysis". Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity. 1 (2): 10–16. doi:10.1080/00905997308407741.  Tökés, Rudolf (1975). Dissent in the USSR: politics, ideology, and people. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801816610.  Tonge, William (20 July 1974). "Psychiatry and political dissent". The Lancet. 304 (7873): 150–152. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(74)91569-4. PMID 4135437.  Tria, Massimo (2011). "L'invasione vista dai sovietici, fra approvazione e dissenso" [The imaginative invasion of the Soviets, from approval to dissent]. In Caccamo, Francesco; Helan, Pavel; Tria, Massimo. Primavera di Praga, risveglio europeo [Prague Spring, European awakening] (in Italian). Firenze University Press. pp. 97–126. ISBN 8864532692.  Trigos, Ludmilla (2009). "The decembrists and dissidence: myth and anti-myth from the 1960s–1980s". The decembrist myth in Russian culture. Macmillan. pp. 141–160. ISBN 0230619169.  Ulam, Adam (1981). Russia's failed revolutions: from the decembrists to the dissidents. Littlehampton Book
Book
Services. ISBN 0297779400.  Vaissié, Cécile (1999). Pour votre liberté et pour la nôtre: le combat des dissidents de Russie [For your and our freedom: the struggle of Russian dissidents] (in French). Laffont. ISBN 2221090470.  Vaissié, Cécile (July–September 1999). ""La Chronique des évenements en cours". Une revue de la dissidence dans l'URSS brejnévienne" [A Chronicle of Current Events. A review of dissidence in the Brezhnev USSR]. Vingtième Siècle. Revue d'histoire (in French) (63): 107–118. doi:10.2307/3770704. JSTOR 3770704.  Vaissié, Cécile (2000). Russie, une femme en dissidence : Larissa Bogoraz [Russia, a woman in dissent: Larisa Bogoraz] (in French). Plon. ISBN 225919155X.  Vaissié, Cécile (2011). "Le combat des dissidents de Russie en Occident" [The struggle of Russian dissidents in the West]. In Falkowski, Wojciech; Marès, Antoine. Les intellectuels en exil face aux régimes totalitaires [Intellectuals in exile deal with totalitarian regimes] (in French). Paris: Institut d'études slaves. pp. 143–155.  Vaissié, Cécile (2014). "Archiver les samizdats de la dissidence russe" [Archive of samizdat by the Russian dissent]. Écrire l’histoire (in French) (13–14): 129–135. doi:10.4000/elh.487.  Vaissié, Cécile (2014). "'Black robe, golden epaulettes': from the Russian dissidents to Pussy Riot" (PDF, immediate download). Religion and Gender. 4 (2): 166–183. doi:10.18352/rg.9255. Archived from the original on 27 February 2016.  Vardys, Stanley (September 1982). "The nature and philosophy of Baltic dissent: a comparative perspective". Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity. 10 (2): 121–136. doi:10.1080/00905998208407936.  Vigdorova, Frida; Katz, Michael (2014). "The trial of Joseph Brodsky". New England Review. 34 (3–4): 183–207. doi:10.1353/ner.2014.0022.  Voren, Robert van (2009). On dissidents and madness: from the Soviet Union of Leonid Brezhnev to the "Soviet Union" of Vladimir Putin. Amsterdam—New York: Rodopi Publishers. ISBN 978-90-420-2585-1.  Walsh, John (6 April 1973). "Soviet-American science accord: could dissent deter detente?". Science. 180 (4081): 40–43. Bibcode:1973Sci...180...40W. doi:10.1126/science.180.4081.40. JSTOR 1735290. PMID 17757967.  Weeks, Albert (1975). Andrei Sakharov
Andrei Sakharov
and the Soviet dissidents: a critical commentary. Monarch Press. ISBN 067100963X.  Westrate, Mike (2012). "The self against the state: Valery Abramkin and the destruction of dissident identity" (PDF). Acta Slavica Iaponica. 31: 105‒121. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 February 2016.  White, Sarah (25 June 1981). "New crackdown on Russian dissidents and refusniks". New Scientist. 90 (1259): 816.  White, Sarah (11 February 1982). "Science keeps the dissidents hoping". New Scientist. 93 (1292): 359.  Wilke, Manfred (2007). "Solschenizyn und der Westen" [Solzhenitsyn and the West]. In Veen, Hans-Joachim; Mählert, Ulrich; März, Peter. Wechselwirkungen Ost-West: Dissidenz, Opposition und Zivilgesellschaft 1975–1989 [East-West interactions: dissidence, opposition and civil society 1975–1989] (in German). Böhlau Verlag Köln Weimar. pp. 149–172. ISBN 3412233064.  Willis, David (15 January 1981). "Currents of nationalism, dissent beneath crust of communist conformity". The Christian Science Monitor.  Windholz, George (November 1985). "Psychiatric commitments of religious dissenters in Tsarist and Soviet Russia: two case studies". Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes. 48 (4): 329–340. doi:10.1080/00332747.1985.11024294.  Woll, Josephine; Treml, Vladimir (1983). Soviet dissident literature: a critical guide. G.K. Hall. ISBN 081618626X.  Woychyshyn, Nestor (1986). Soviet Ukrainian political dissidents in the West: their politics, interaction, and impact after exile to the West, 1965–1983. Ottawa, Canada: Carleton University.  Wynn, Allan (1987). Notes of a non-conspirator: working with Russian dissidents. London: Andre Deutsch. ISBN 0233981497.  Wynn, Allan; Dewhirst, Martin; Stone, Harold (1986). Fifth International Sakharov Hearing: Proceedings, April, 1985. Andre Deutsch. ISBN 0233980504.  Wyszomirskia, Margaret; Oleszczukb, Thomas; Smith, Theresa (March 1988). "Cultural dissent and defection: the case of Soviet nonconformist artists". Journal of Arts Management and Law. 18 (1): 44–62. doi:10.1080/07335113.1988.9942181.  Yakobson, Sergius; Allen, Robert (1968). Aspects of intellectual ferment and dissent in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
prepared at the request of Senator Thomas J. Dodd for the Subcommittee to investigate the administration of the Internal Security Act and other internal security laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Publishing Office. OCLC 3330.  Yeo, Clayton (June 1975). "Psychiatry, the law and dissent in the Soviet Union". Review of the International Commission of Jurists (14): 34–41. PMID 11662196.  Zanchetta, Barbara (February 2012). "L'appuntamento mancato: la sinistra italiana e il dissenso nei regimi comunisti (1968–1989)" [The missed appointment: the Italian left and the dissent in the communist regimes (1968–1989)]. Cold War
Cold War
History (in Italian). 12 (1): 178–179. doi:10.1080/14682745.2012.655450.  Zdravomyslov, Andrei (1995). "Диссидентское движение в свете социологии конфликта. А.Д. Сахаров" [Dissident movement in the light of sociology of conflict. A.D. Sakharov]. Социология конфликта. Россия на путях преодоления кризиса. Учебное пособие для студентов высших учебных заведений [Sociology of conflict. Russia on ways to overcome crisis. Textbook for students of higher educational institutions] (in Russian). Moscow: Аспект-пресс. pp. 264–267. ISBN 5756700099.  Zukerman, William (1964). Voice of dissent: Jewish problems, 1948–1961. Brookman Associates.  Zuzowski, Robert (December 1985). "The significance of dissent in the Soviet Union". Australian Outlook. 39 (3): 165–170. doi:10.1080/10357718508444890.  Zveteremich, Pietro (1983). Dissenso e no: esiste una letteratura "sovietica"?: estratto da Nuovi Annali della Facoltà di Magistero dell'Università di Messina [Dissent and no: does "Soviet" literature exist?: extract from New Annals of the Faculty of Education at the University of Messina] (in Italian). Editrice Herder. 

Insiders' works[edit]

Alexeyeva, Ludmilla (1977–1978). "The human rights movement in the USSR". Survey. 23 (4): 72–85.  Alekseeva, Liudmila (1980). The diversity of Soviet dissent: ideologies, goals and direction, 1965–1980.  Alexeyeva, Ludmilla (1987) [1985]. Soviet dissent: contemporary movements for national, religious, and human rights (2 ed.). Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0-8195-6176-2.  Amalrik, Andrei (1982). Записки диссидента [Dissident's Notes] (in Russian). Ann Arbor: Ардис.  Amalrik, Andrei (1 March 1978). " Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
and the American press: a reply". Columbia Journalism Review. 16 (6): 63.  Boukovsky, Vladimir (1995). Jugement à Moscou – un dissident dans les archives du Kremlin [Judgement in Moscow
Moscow
– a dissident in the Kremlin archives] (in French). Paris: Robert Laffont. ISBN 2-221-07460-2.  Brodsky, Joseph (19 September 1974). "An appeal for Vladimir Maramzin". The New York Review of Books.  Brodsky, Joseph (23 January 1975). "Victims". The New York Review of Books.  Brodsky, Joseph (5 March 1981). " Nadezhda Mandelstam (1899–1980)". The New York Review of Books.  Brodsky, Joseph (March 1992). "Poetry as a form of resistance to reality". Publications of the Modern Language Association of America. 107 (2): 220–225.  Bukovsky, Vladimir (1978). To build a castle: my life as a dissenter (PDF). London: Andrei Deutsch. ISBN 0-233-97023-1.  Boukovsky, Vladimir. Une nouvelle maladie mentale en URSS: l'opposition [A new mental illness in the USSR: the opposition]. Paris: Le Seuil; 1971. French. ISBN 2020025272. Bukowski, Wladimir. UdSSR. Opposition. Eine neue Geisteskrankheit in der Sowjetunion? Eine Dokumentation von W. Bukowskij [The USSR. Opposition. A new mental illness in the Soviet Union? Documentation by V. Bukovsky]. München: Carl Hanser Verlag; 1971. German. ISBN 3446115714. Bukovskij, Vladimir. Una nuova malattia mentale in Urss: l'opposizione [A new mental illness in the USSR: opposition]. Milan: Etas Kompass; 1972. Italian. Bukovsky, Vladimir. Una nueva enfermedad mental en la U.R.S.S.: la oposición [A new mental illness in the USSR: opposition]. México: Lasser Press; 1972. Spanish. Bukovsky, Vladimir; Gluzman, Semyon [Владимир Буковский, Семён Глузман]. Пособие по психиатрии для инакомыслящих [A manual on psychiatry for dissidents]. Хроника защиты прав в СССР [Chronicle of defense of rights in the USSR]. January–February 1975a;(13):36–61. Russian. The work in Russian was also published in: Коротенко, Ада; Аликина, Наталия (2002). Советская психиатрия: Заблуждения и умысел. Киев: Издательство «Сфера». pp. 197–218. ISBN 966-7841-36-7.  The work in English was published in: Bloch, Sidney; Reddaway, Peter (1977). Russia's political hospitals: the abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union. Victor Gollancz Ltd. pp. 419–440. ISBN 0-575-02318-X.  Bukovsky, Vladimir; Gluzman, Semyon. A manual on psychiatry for dissidents. Survey: A Journal of East and West Studies. Winter–Spring 1975b;21(1):180–199. Bukovsky, Vladimir; Gluzman, Semyon. A manual of psychiatry for political dissidents. London: Amnesty International; 1975c. OCLC 872337790. Bukovsky, Vladimir; Gluzman, Semyon. A dissident’s guide to psychiatry. A Chronicle of Human Rights in the USSR. 1975d;(13):31–57. Bukovskiĭ, Vladimir; Gluzman, Semyon. Håndbog i psykiatri for afvigere. Göteborg: Samarbetsdynamik AB; 1975e. Danish. ISBN 9185396001. OCLC
OCLC
7551381. Boukovsky, Vladimir; Glouzmann, Semion. Guide de psychiatrie pour les dissidents soviétiques: dédié à Lonia Pliouchtch, victime de la terreur psychiatrique. Esprit. September 1975;449(9):307–332. French. Bukovskij, Vladimir; Gluzman, Semen; Leva, Marco. Guida psichiatrica per dissidenti. Con esempi pratici e una lettera dal Gulag. Milan: L'erba voglio; 1979. Italian. Bukowski, Wladimir; Gluzman, Semen. Psychiatrie-handbuch für dissidenten. Samisdat. Stimmen aus dem „anderen Rußland". 1976;(Nr. 8):29–48. German. Bunyan, Gordon; Hurst, P.D. (April 1977). "Political opposition in the Soviet Union: are the dissidents really important?". Australian Outlook. 31 (1): 61–74. doi:10.1080/10357717708444592.  Chalidze, Valery (1976). Литературные дела КГБ: дела Суперфина, Эткинда, Хейфеца, Марамзина: в приложении — документы о советской цензуре [The literary cases of the KGB: the cases of Superfin, Etkind, Heifetz, Maramzin: there are documents about Soviet censorship in the application] (in Russian). New York: Хроника.  Chalidze, Valery (1 June 1977). "How important is Soviet dissent?". Commentary. 63 (6): 57.  Daniel, Alexander (2002). "Истоки и корни диссидентской активности в СССР" [Sources and roots of dissident activity in the USSR]. Неприкосновенный запас [Emergency Ration] (in Russian). 1 (21).  Daniel, Aleksander; Gluza, Zbigniew, eds. (2007). Słownik dysydentów. Czołowe postacie ruchów opozycyjnych w krajach komunistycznych w latach 1956–1989. Tom 1 [Dictionary of dissidents. The leading figures of the opposition movements in communist countries in 1956–1989. Volume 1] (in Polish). Warszaw: Karta. ISBN 838828889X.  Daniel, Aleksander; Gluza, Zbigniew, eds. (2007). Słownik dysydentów. Czołowe postacie ruchów opozycyjnych w krajach komunistycznych w latach 1956–1989. Tom 2 [Dictionary of dissidents. The leading figures of the opposition movements in communist countries in 1956–1989. Volume 2] (in Polish). Warszaw: Karta. ISBN 8388288849.  Etkind, Efim (1978). Notes of a non-conspirator. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192117394.  Etkind, Efim (1982) [1978]. Unblutige Hinrichtung. Warum ich die Sowjetunion verlassen musste [Bloodless execution. Why I had to leave the Soviet Union] (in German) (2 ed.). München: Piper Verlag GmbH. ISBN 3492023398.  Etkind, Efim (1988). Процесс Иосифа Бродского [The trial of Joseph Brodsky] (in Russian). London: Overseas Publications Interchange Ltd. ISBN 1870128702.  Galanskov, Youri (1982). Le manifeste humain précédé par les témoignages de Vladimir Boukovsky, Nathalia Gorbanevskaïa, Alexandre Guinzbourg, Edouard Kouznetsov [Human manifesto preceded by testimonies of Vladimir Bukovsky, Natalya Gorbanevskaya, Alexander Ginzburg, Eduard Kuznetsov] (in French). Lausanne: Editions L'Age d'Homme. ISBN 2825109207.  Glazov, Yuri (June 1979). "The Soviet intelligentsia, dissidents and the West". Studies in Soviet Thought. 19 (4): 321–344. doi:10.1007/BF00832020. JSTOR 20098853.  Gluzman, Semyon (2012). Рисунки по памяти, или воспоминания отсидента [Pictures drawn from memory, or the released dissident’s memories] (in Russian). Kiev: Издательский дом Дмитрия Бураго. ISBN 9664891215.  Goricheva, Tatiana (1987). Talking about God is dangerous: the diary of a Russian dissident. New York: Crossroad Publishing Company. ISBN 0824507983.  Grigoryants, Sergei (23 February 1988). "Soviet psychiatric prisoners" (PDF). The New York Times. p. A31. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 December 2011.  Grigoryants, Sergei (January 1989). "Camps with guards in white gowns: thousands of Mengeles, millions of victims". Glasnost
Glasnost
(16–18): 34–35.  Isajiw, Christina (2013). Negotiating human rights: in defence of dissidents during the Soviet era: a memoir. University of Alberta Press. ISBN 1894865332.  Kaminskaya, Dina (1982). Final judgment: my life as a Soviet defense attorney. Translated by Michael Glenny. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671247395.  Koryagin, Anatoly (March 1989). "The involvement of Soviet psychiatry in the persecution of dissenters". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 154 (3): 336–340. doi:10.1192/bjp.154.3.336. PMID 2597834.  Levich, Yevgeny (1976). "Soviet dissidents: trying to keep in touch". Nature. 263 (5576): 366–367. Bibcode:1976Natur.263..366L. doi:10.1038/263366a0.  Lewis, Anthony (20 September 1985). "Soviet crackdown on dissidents shows paranoia, not confidence". Spokane Chronicle. p. 14.  Litvinov, Pavel (1969). Dear Comrade: Pavel Litvinov
Pavel Litvinov
and the voices of Soviet citizens in dissent. Pitman Publishing Corporation. ASIN B000O05GKK.  Litvinov, Pavel (March 1975). "The human rights movement in the USSR". Index on Censorship. 4 (1): 11–15. doi:10.1080/03064227508532389.  Litvinov, Pavel (Winter 1980). "Momentary enthusiasms don't help – only persistence will secure human rights gains". Jurimetrics. 21 (2): 135–142. JSTOR 29761738.  Lubarsky, Cronid (1979). Soziale Basis und Umfang des sowjetischen Dissidententums [Social basis and scope of Soviet dissidence] (in German). Köln: Bundesinstitut für Ostwissenschaftliche und Internationale Studien.  Lubarsky, Cronid (1979). "Social basis and scope of Soviet dissidence". Osteuropa. 29 (11): 923–935.  Lubarsky, Cronid (May 1988). "The human rights movement and perestroika". Index on Censorship. 17 (5): 16–20. doi:10.1080/03064228808534412.  Mal'cev, Jurij (2015). "I dissidenti sovietici in Italia" [The Soviet dissidents in Italy]. Enthymema (in Italian) (12): 155–159. doi:10.13130/2037-2426/4951.  Mal'cev, Jurij (2015). "Советские диссиденты в Италии" [The Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
in Italy]. Enthymema (in Russian) (12): 156–160. doi:10.13130/2037-2426/4951.  Medvedev, Roy (March 1979). "The future of Soviet dissent". Index on Censorship. 8 (2): 25–31. doi:10.1080/03064227908532898.  Medvedev, Roy (1 January 1984). "Andropov and the dissidents: the internal atmosphere under the new Soviet leadership". Dissent. 31 (1): 97–102.  Medvedev, Roy (2 July 1997). "Russia still needs dissidents to defend rights". The Moscow
Moscow
Times.  Medvedev, Roy; Vladimov, Georgi (May 1979). "Controversy: dissent among dissidents". Index on Censorship. 8 (3): 33–37. doi:10.1080/03064227908532924.  Medvedev, Roy; Medvedev, Zhores (1976). "Krushchev's secret speech". Australian Left Review. 1 (52): 34–37.  Medvedev, Roy; Ostellino, Piero (1980). On Soviet dissent. New York: Columbia University
Columbia University
Press. ISBN 0231048122.  Medvedev, Zhores (21 February 1976). "The defeat of Russian dissent". The Spectator: 8–9.  Medvedev, Zhores (4 November 1976). "Two decades off dissidence". New Scientist. 72 (1025): 264–267.  Orlov, Yuri (1988). "The Soviet Union, human rights, and national security". In Corillon, Carol. Science and human rights. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. pp. 62–67.  Mihajlov, Mihajlo (September 2006). "Appointment with destiny: a dissident's tale". Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 18 (1/2): 113–120.  Navrozov, Lev (1 November 1973). "On Soviet dissidence". Commentary. 56 (5): 31–36.  Plyushch, Leonid; Mikhaylov, Mikhaylo; Belotserkovsky, Vadim; Elberfeld, Yan; Andreev, Herman; Vishnevskaya, Yuliya; Yanov, Alexander; Levitin-Krasnov, Anatoly; Etkind, Efim; Kushev, Yevgeny (1976). СССР. Демократические альтернативы: сборник статей и документов [USSR. Democratic alternatives: a collection of articles and documents] (in Russian). Achberg. ISBN 3881030700. OCLC 3953394.  Plyushch, Leonid; Khodorovich, Tatyana (1979). History's carnival: a dissident's autobiography. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 0151416141.  Podrabinek, Alexander (2014). Диссиденты [Dissidents] (in Russian). Moscow: АСТ. ISBN 5170824017.  Sakharov, Andrei (21 March 1974). "How I came to dissent". The New York Review of Books.  Sakharov, Andrei (Fall 1978). "The human rights movement in the USSR and Eastern Europe: its goals, significance, and difficulties". Trialogue (19): 4–7, 26–27.  Sakharov, Andrei; Turchin, Valentin; Medvedev, Roy (6 June 1970). "The need for democratization". The Saturday Review: 26–27.  Shtromas, Alexander (1979) [1977]. Who are the Soviet dissidents? (2 ed.). University of Bradford.  Shtromas, Alexander (Summer–Autumn 1979). "Dissent and political change in the Soviet Union". Studies in Comparative Communism. 12 (2–3): 212–244. doi:10.1016/0039-3592(79)90010-3.  Shtromas, Alexander (Autumn–Winter 1987). "Dissent, nationalism, and the Soviet future". Studies in Comparative Communism. 20 (3–4): 277–285.  Sinyavsky, Andrei (April 1979). " Andrei Sinyavsky
Andrei Sinyavsky
on dissidence". Encounter. 52 (4): 91–93.  Sinyavsky, Andrei (Spring 1984). "Dissent as a personal experience". Dissent. 31 (2): 152–161.  Solzhenitsyn, Alexander (November 1970). "Two from Solzhenitsyn (letters)" (PDF). Dissent. 17 (6): 558–559. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 October 2015.  Trotsky, Leon (1922). Dictatorship vs. democracy (terrorism and communism): a reply to Karl Kautsky by Leon Trotsky (PDF). New York City: Workers party of America. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015.  Trotsky, Leon; Rakovsky, Christian; Pyatakov, Georgy; Zinoviev, Grigory; et al. (1973) [1927]. The platform of the joint opposition (the document submitted to the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party in September 1927) (2 ed.). London: New Park Publications Ltd. ISBN 0902030418.  Trotskij, Lev; Zinov’ev, Grigorij (1969). La piattaforma dell'opposizione nell'URSS [The platform of opposition in the USSR] (in Italian). Rome: Samonà e Savelli Editore. A000091776.  Venclova, Tomas (Summer 2009). "Lithuanian dissent in the context of Central and Eastern Europe: 1953–1980". Lithuanian Quarterly Journal of Arts and Sciences. 55 (2): 38–50.  Voinovich, Vladimir (1994). Дело № 34840 [The Case No 34840] (in Russian). Moscow: Text. ISBN 5871060951.  Yakunin, Gleb (January 1994). "First open letter to Patriarch Aleksi II". Religion, State and Society. 22 (3): 311–316. doi:10.1080/09637499408431652.  Yakunin, Gleb (January 1994). "Second open letter to Patriarch Aleksi II". Religion, State and Society. 22 (3): 320–321. doi:10.1080/09637499408431655. 

Audiovisual material[edit]

"Альфавит инакомыслия" [Alphabet of dissent] (in Russian). Radio Liberty.  Natella Boltyanskaya
Natella Boltyanskaya
(16 March 2016). "Episode One – Dissidents: Who are they?". Voice of America. Parallels, Events, People.  Natella Boltyanskaya
Natella Boltyanskaya
(16 March 2016). "Episode Two – Dissidents: What did they want?". Voice of America. Parallels, Events, People.  Лошак, Андрей (3 September 2013). "Анатомия процесса" [The anatomy of a trial (video of the documentary)] (in Russian). Dozhd.  Певзнер, Гелия. "Сергей Ковалев: "Голоса мудрецов — ничтожная доля процента"" [Sergei Kovalev:"Voices of sages is a tiny fraction of percent"] (in Russian). Radio France Internationale.  Подрабинек, Александр (31 May 2014). "Военная экспансия и репрессии" [Military expansion and repression] (in Russian). Radio Liberty.  Vladimir V. Kara-Murza
Vladimir V. Kara-Murza
(22 August 2013). "They Chose Freedom: The Story of Soviet Dissidents (The documentary in English available to watch online)". Institute of Modern Russia.  The history of the MHG and human rights movement, in Russian, 53 min on YouTube Václav Havel and Soviet Dissidents, 8 min on YouTube "Nonconformism and Dissent in the Soviet Bloc: Guiding Legacy or Passing Memory?". Harriman Institute, Columbia University. 1 April 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2016. 

Day 1, Panel 1, 84 min on YouTube Day 2, Panel 1, 134 min on YouTube Day 2, Panel 2, 119 min on YouTube Day 2, Panel 3, 112 min on YouTube Day 3, Panel 1, 83 min on YouTube Day 3, Panel 2, 106 min on YouTube Day 3, Panel 3, 107 min on YouTube

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