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SOUTHWARK (/ˈsʌðərk/ SUDH-ərk ) is a district of Central London
London
and part of the London Borough of Southwark . Situated 1.5 miles (2.4 km) east of Charing Cross
Charing Cross
, it forms one of the oldest parts of London
London
and fronts the River Thames
River Thames
to the north. It historically formed an ancient borough in the county of Surrey
Surrey
, made up of a number of parishes, which increasingly came under the influence and jurisdiction of the City of London
City of London
. As an inner district of London, Southwark
Southwark
experienced rapid depopulation during the late-19th and early-20th centuries. It is now at an advanced stage of regeneration and is the county town of Greater London
Greater London
which is the location of the City Hall offices of the Greater London
Greater London
Authority . Southwark
Southwark
had a population of 30,119 in 2011.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Toponymy * 1.2 Early history * 1.3 Urbanisation * 1.4 Local governance * 1.5 Relationship with the City of London
City of London

* 2 Governance * 3 Geography * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links

HISTORY

TOPONYMY

The name Suthriganaweorc or Suthringa geweorche is recorded for the area in the 10th-century Anglo-Saxon document known as the Burghal Hidage and means "fort of the men of Surrey
Surrey
" or "the defensive work of the men of Surrey". Southwark
Southwark
is recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book
Domesday Book
as Sudweca. The name means "southern defensive work" and is formed from the Old English
Old English
sūth and weorc. The southern location is in reference to the City of London
City of London
to the north, Southwark
Southwark
being at the southern end of London Bridge
London Bridge
. Until 1889, the county of Surrey included the present-day London
London
borough of Southwark, yet the name has been used for various areas of civil administration, including the ancient BOROUGH OF SOUTHWARK, the Metropolitan Borough of Southwark and the current London Borough of Southwark . The ancient borough of Southwark
Southwark
was also known simply as THE BOROUGH—or BOROUGH—and this name, in distinction from 'The City', has persisted as an alternative name for the area. Southwark
Southwark
was also simultaneously referred to as the Ward of BRIDGE WITHOUT when administered by the City (from 1550 to 1900) and as an Aldermanry until 1978.

EARLY HISTORY

Museum of London, inscription on stela that mentions for the first time 'Londoners'

Southwark
Southwark
is on a previously marshy area south of the River Thames
River Thames
. Recent excavation has revealed prehistoric activity including evidence of early ploughing, burial mounds and ritual activity. The area was originally a series of islands in the River Thames
River Thames
. This formed the best place to bridge the Thames and the area became an important part of Londinium
Londinium
owing its importance to its position as the endpoint of the Roman London Bridge
London Bridge
. Two Roman roads , Stane Street and Watling Street , met at Southwark
Southwark
in what is now Borough High Street . Archaeological work at Tabard Street in 2004 discovered a plaque with the earliest reference to 'Londoners' from the Roman period on it. Londinium
Londinium
was abandoned at the end of the Roman occupation in the early fifth century and both the city and its bridge collapsed in decay. Archaeologically, evidence of settlement is replaced by a largely featureless soil called the Dark Earth which probably (although this is contested) represents an urban area abandoned.

Southwark
Southwark
appears to recover only during the time of King Alfred and his successors. Sometime about 886 AD, the 'burh' of Southwark
Southwark
was created and the Roman City area reoccupied. It was probably fortified to defend the bridge and hence the re-emerging City of London
City of London
to the north. This defensive role is highlighted by the use of the bridge in 1016 as a defence against King Sweyn and his son King Cnut by Ethelred the Unready and again, in 1066, against King William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
. He failed to force the bridge during the Norman conquest of England
England
, but Southwark
Southwark
was devastated.

Southwark
Southwark
appears in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
of 1086 as held by several Surrey
Surrey
manors . Its assets were: Bishop Odo of Bayeux
Odo of Bayeux
held the monastery (the site of the Cathedral), the 'tide-way' - which still exists as St Mary Overie dock; the King owned the 'church' (probably St Olave\'s ) and its 'tidal stream' (St Olave's Dock); the dues of the 'waterway' or mooring place were shared between the 'King' and Earl Godwin ; the King also had the 'toll' of the strand; and the 'men of Southwark' had the right to a 'haw and its toll'. Southwark's value to the King was £16. Much of Southwark
Southwark
was originally owned by the church—the greatest reminder of monastic London
London
is Southwark Cathedral , originally the priory of St Mary Overie.

During the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, Southwark
Southwark
developed and was one of the four Surrey
Surrey
towns which returned Members of Parliament for the first commons assembly in 1295. An important market occupied the High Street from some time in the 13th century, which was controlled by the City's officers—it was later removed in order to improve traffic to the Bridge, under a separate Trust by Act of Parliament of 1756 as the Borough Market
Borough Market
on the present site. The area was renowned for its inns, especially The Tabard , from which Chaucer 's pilgrims set off on their journey in The Canterbury Tales .

Just west of the Bridge was the 'Clink Liberty ' manor, which was never controlled by the City, technically held under the Bishopric of Winchester 's nominal authority. This area therefore became the entertainment district for London, and it was also the red-light area . In 1587, Southwark
Southwark
was given its first playhouse theatre, The Rose. The Rose was set up by Philip Henslowe , and soon became a popular place of entertainment for all classes of Londoners. Both Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
, two of the finest writers of the Elizabethan age, worked at the Rose.

In 1599 the Globe Theatre
Globe Theatre
, in which Shakespeare was a shareholder, was erected on the Bankside in the Liberty of the Clink . It burned down in 1613, and was rebuilt in 1614, only to be closed by the Puritans in 1642 and subsequently pulled down not long thereafter. A modern replica called Shakespeare\'s Globe , has been built near the original site. Southwark
Southwark
was also a favourite area for entertainment such as bull and bear-baiting . The impresario in the later Elizabethan period for these entertainments was Shakespeare's colleague Edward Alleyn , who left many local charitable endowments, most notably Dulwich College
Dulwich College
.

On 26 May 1676, ten years after the Great Fire of London
Great Fire of London
, a great fire broke out, which continued for 17 hours before houses were blown up to create fire breaks. King Charles II and his brother, James , Duke of York
Duke of York
, were involved in the effort.

There was also a famous fair in Southwark
Southwark
which took place near the Church of St George
St George
the Martyr. William Hogarth
William Hogarth
depicted this fair in his engraving of Southwark
Southwark
Fair (1733).

Southwark
Southwark
was also the location of several prisons , including those of the Crown or 'Prerogative Courts', the Marshalsea and King\'s Bench prisons, that of the local manors courts e.g. Borough Compter , The Clink , and the Surrey
Surrey
county gaol originally housed at the 'White Lion Inn' (also called informally the 'Borough Gaol') and eventually at Horsemonger Lane Gaol .

One other local family is of note, the Harvards. John Harvard went to the local parish free school of St Saviour's and on to Cambridge University . He migrated to the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Colony and left his library and the residue of his will to the new college there, named after him as its first benefactor. Harvard University
Harvard University
maintains a link, having paid for a memorial chapel within Southwark
Southwark
Cathedral (his family's parish church), and where its UK-based alumni hold services. John Harvard's mother's house is in Stratford upon Avon.

URBANISATION

In 1836 the first railway for the London
London
area was created, the London and Greenwich
Greenwich
Railway originally terminating at Spa Road Station and later extended west to London Bridge
London Bridge
Station .

In 1861, another Great Fire of Southwark
Southwark
destroyed a large number of buildings between Tooley Street and the Thames, including those around Hays Wharf (later replaced by Hays Galleria ) and blocks to the west almost as far as St Olave\'s Church .

The first deep-level London
London
'tube' underground line was the City and South London
London
Railway , now the Bank branch of the Northern line , opened in 1890, running from King William Street south through Borough to Stockwell . Southwark, since 1999, is also now served by Southwark , Bermondsey
Bermondsey
and London Bridge
London Bridge
stations on the Jubilee line .

LOCAL GOVERNANCE

A map showing the wards of Southwark
Southwark
Metropolitan Borough as they appeared in 1916.

The ancient borough of Southwark
Southwark
initially consisted of the Surrey parishes of St George
St George
the Martyr , St Olave , St Margaret and St Mary . St Margaret and St Mary were abolished in 1541 and their former area combined to create Southwark St Saviour . Around 1555 Southwark St Thomas was split off from St Olave, and in 1733 Southwark
Southwark
St John Horsleydown was also split off.

In 1855 the parishes came into the area of responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works
Metropolitan Board of Works
. The St George
St George
the Martyr parish was large enough to be governed by a vestry. St John Horsleydown, St Olave and St Thomas were grouped to form the St Olave District . St Savour was combined with Southwark Christchurch (the former liberty of Paris Garden) to form the St Saviour\'s District . In 1889 the area became part of the County of London . St Olave and St Thomas were combined as a single parish in 1896.

The local government arrangements were reorganised in 1900 with a Metropolitan Borough of Southwark created comprising the parishes of Southwark
Southwark
Christchurch, Southwark
Southwark
St Saviours, Southwark
Southwark
St George
St George
the Martyr and Newington . The eastern parishes that had formed the St Olave District instead became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Bermondsey
Bermondsey
. In 1965 the two boroughs were combined with the Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell to form the current London
London
Borough of Southwark
Southwark
.

RELATIONSHIP WITH THE CITY OF LONDON

Southwark
Southwark
was outside of the control of the City of London
City of London
and was a haven for criminals and free traders, who would sell goods and conduct trades outside the regulation of the City Livery Companies . In 1327 the City obtained control from Edward III, of the manor next to the south-side of London Bridge
London Bridge
' the town of Southwark' (called latterly ' Guildable Manor '—i.e., the place of taxes and tolls). The Livery Companies also ensured that they had jurisdiction over the area.

From the Norman period manorial organisation obtained through major lay and ecclesiastic magnates. Southwark
Southwark
still has vestiges of this because of the connection with the City of London. In 1327 the City acquired from Edward III the original 'vill of Southwark' and this was also described as "the borough". In 1536 Henry VIII acquired the Bermondsey
Bermondsey
Priory properties and in 1538 that of the Archbishop. In 1550 these were sold to the City.

After many decades of petitioning, in 1550 Southwark
Southwark
was incorporated into the City of London
City of London
as 'The Ward of Bridge Without '. However, the Alderman was appointed by the Court of Aldermen and no Common Councilmen were ever elected. This 'Ward' was constituted of the original ' Guildable Manor ' and the properties previously held by the church, under a charter of Edward VI, latterly called the 'King's Manor' and 'Great Liberty' manor. These manors are still constituted by the City under a Bailiff and Steward with their Courts Leet and View of Frankpledge Juries and Officers which still meet—their annual assembly being held in November under the present High Steward (the Recorder of London ). The Ward and Aldermanry were effectively abolished in 1978, by merging it with the Ward of Bridge (Within). These manorial courts were preserved under the Administration of Justice Act 1977. Therefore, between 1750 and 1978 Southwark
Southwark
had two persons (the Alderman and the Recorder) who were members of the City's Court of Aldermen and Common Council who were elected neither by the City freemen or by the Southwark
Southwark
electorate but appointed by the Court of Aldermen.

GOVERNANCE

The Borough and Bankside Community Council corresponds to the Southwark
Southwark
electoral wards of Cathedrals and Chaucer . They are part of the Bermondsey
Bermondsey
and Old Southwark
Southwark
Parliament constituency and the Member of Parliament is Neil Coyle . It is within the Lambeth
Lambeth
and Southwark
Southwark
London Assembly
London Assembly
constituency and the London
London
European Parliament constituency. Southwark
Southwark
is the location of City Hall , the administrative headquarters of the Greater London
Greater London
Authority and the meeting place of the London Assembly
London Assembly
and Mayor of London . Since 2009, Southwark London Borough Council has its main offices at 160 Tooley Street, having moved administrative staff from the town hall in Camberwell. There are five Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) in Southwark; Better Bankside, The Blue Bermondsey, South Bank BID, Team London
London
Bridge, and We Are Waterloo.

GEOGRAPHY

View from Tower Bridge
Tower Bridge
towards Southwark
Southwark
district: City Hall and the rest of More London development in the foreground, Shard London Bridge skyscraper (under construction at time of photo) in the background.

In common with much of the south bank of the Thames, The Borough has seen extensive regeneration in the last decade. Declining wharfage trade, light industry and factories have given way to residential development, shops, restaurants, galleries, bars and most notably major office developments housing international headquarters of accountancy, legal and other professional services consultances, most notably along London Bridge
London Bridge
City and More London between Tooley Street and the riverside. The area is in easy walking distance of the City and the West End . As such it has become a major business centre with many national and international corporations, professional practices and publishers locating to the area. London's tallest skyscraper , the Shard , is located next to London Bridge
London Bridge
Station .

To the north is the River Thames
River Thames
, London Bridge
London Bridge
station and Southwark Cathedral
Southwark Cathedral
. Borough Market
Borough Market
is a well-developed visitor attraction and has grown in size. The adjacent units have been converted and form a gastronomic focus for London. Borough High Street runs roughly north to south from London Bridge
London Bridge
towards Elephant and Castle . The Borough runs further to the south than realised; both St George\'s Cathedral and the Imperial War Museum
Imperial War Museum
are within the ancient boundaries, which border nearby Lambeth
Lambeth
.

The Borough is generally an area of mixed development, with council estates, major office developments, social housing and high value residential gated communities side by side with each other.

REFERENCES

* ^ "Southwark", in The Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World (1952), New York: Columbia University Press. * ^ A B C Mills, D. (2000). Oxford Dictionary of London
London
Place Names. Oxford. * ^ A B C David J. Johnson. Southwark
Southwark
and the City. Oxford University Press, 1969. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-19-711630-2 * ^ A B C D Youngs, Frederic (1979). Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England. I: Southern England. London: Royal Historical Society . ISBN 0-901050-67-9 . * ^ "Where\'s your community council". Southwark
Southwark
London
London
Borough Council. Retrieved 4 September 2010.

FURTHER READING

* John Timbs
John Timbs
(1867), "Southwark", Curiosities of London
London
(2nd ed.), London: J.C. Hotten, OCLC
OCLC
12878129 * Findlay Muirhead, ed. (1922), "Southwark", London
London
and its Environs (2nd ed.), London: Macmillan & Co., OCLC
OCLC
365061

EXTERNAL LINKS

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