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Southwark
Southwark
(/ˈsʌðərk/ SUDH-ərk)[1] is a district of Central London and part of the London Borough of Southwark. Situated 1 1⁄2 miles (2.4 km) east of Charing Cross, it forms one of the oldest parts of London and fronts the River Thames
River Thames
to the north. It historically formed an ancient borough in the county of Surrey, made up of a number of parishes, which increasingly came under the influence and jurisdiction of the City of London. As an inner district of London, Southwark
Southwark
experienced rapid depopulation during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is now at an advanced stage of regeneration and is the location of the City Hall offices of the Greater London
Greater London
Authority.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Toponymy 1.2 Early history 1.3 Urbanisation 1.4 Local governance 1.5 Relationship with the City of London

2 Governance 3 Geography 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

History[edit] Toponymy[edit] The name Suthriganaweorc[2] or Suthringa geweorche[3] is recorded for the area in the 10th-century Anglo-Saxon document known as the Burghal Hidage[3] and means "fort of the men of Surrey"[2] or "the defensive work of the men of Surrey".[3] Southwark
Southwark
is recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book
Domesday Book
as Sudweca. The name means "southern defensive work" and is formed from the Old English
Old English
sūþ (south) and weorc (work). The southern location is in reference to the City of London
City of London
to the north, Southwark
Southwark
being at the southern end of London Bridge. Until 1889, the county of Surrey
Surrey
included the present-day London Borough of Southwark, yet the name has been used for various areas of civil administration, including the ancient Borough of Southwark, the Metropolitan Borough of Southwark
Southwark
and the current London Borough of Southwark. The ancient borough of Southwark
Southwark
was also known simply as The Borough—or Borough—and this name, in distinction from 'The City', has persisted as an alternative name for the area. Southwark
Southwark
was also simultaneously referred to as the ward of Bridge Without
Bridge Without
when administered by the City (from 1550 to 1900) and as an aldermanry until 1978.[2] For the toponymy of the area's street names see Street names of Southwark Early history[edit]

Museum of London, inscription on a stele that mentions 'Londoners' for the first time

Southwark
Southwark
is sited on a previously marshy area south of the River Thames. Recent excavation has revealed prehistoric activity including evidence of early ploughing, burial mounds and ritual activity. The area was originally a series of islands in the River Thames. This formed the best place to bridge the Thames and the area became an important part of Londinium, owing its importance to its position as the endpoint of the Roman London Bridge. Two Roman roads, Stane Street and Watling Street, met at Southwark
Southwark
in what is now Borough High Street. Archaeological work at Tabard Street in 2004 discovered a plaque with the earliest reference to 'Londoners' from the Roman period on it. Londinium
Londinium
was abandoned at the end of the Roman occupation in the early 5th century and both the city and its bridge collapsed in decay. Archaeologically, evidence of settlement is replaced by a largely featureless soil called the Dark Earth
Dark Earth
which probably (although this is contested) represents an urban area abandoned. Southwark
Southwark
appears to recover only during the time of King Alfred and his successors. Sometime about 886, the burh of Southwark
Southwark
was created and the Roman city area reoccupied. It was probably fortified to defend the bridge and hence the reemerging City of London
City of London
to the north. This defensive role is highlighted by the use of the bridge in 1016 as a defence against King Sweyn and his son King Cnut by Ethelred the Unready and again, in 1066, against Duke William the Conqueror. He failed to force the bridge during the Norman conquest of England, but Southwark
Southwark
was devastated. Southwark
Southwark
appears in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
of 1086 as held by several Surrey
Surrey
manors. Its assets were: Bishop Odo of Bayeux
Odo of Bayeux
held the monastery (the site of modern Southwark
Southwark
Cathedral) and the tideway – which still exists as St Mary Overie dock; the King owned the church (probably St Olave's) and its tidal stream (St Olave's Dock); the dues of the waterway or mooring place were shared between King William I and Earl Godwin; the King also had the toll of the strand; and 'men of Southwark' had the right to 'a haw and its toll'. Southwark's value to the King was £16. Much of Southwark
Southwark
was originally owned by the church—the greatest reminder of monastic London is Southwark Cathedral, originally the priory of St Mary Overie. During the early Middle Ages, Southwark
Southwark
developed and was one of the four Surrey
Surrey
towns which returned Members of Parliament for the first commons assembly in 1295. An important market occupied the High Street from some time in the 13th century, which was controlled by the City's officers—it was later removed in order to improve traffic to the Bridge, under a separate Trust by Act of Parliament of 1756 as the Borough Market
Borough Market
on the present site. The area was renowned for its inns, especially The Tabard, from which Geoffrey Chaucer's pilgrims set off on their journey in The Canterbury Tales. Just west of the Bridge was the Liberty of the Clink
Liberty of the Clink
manor, which was never controlled by the City, technically held under the Bishopric of Winchester's nominal authority. This area therefore became the entertainment district for London, and it was also a red-light area. In 1587, Southwark's first playhouse theatre, The Rose, opened. The Rose was set up by Philip Henslowe, and soon became a popular place of entertainment for all classes of Londoners. Both Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare, two of the finest writers of the Elizabethan age, worked at the Rose. In 1599 the Globe Theatre, in which Shakespeare was a shareholder, was erected on the Bankside
Bankside
in the Liberty of the Clink. It burned down in 1613, and was rebuilt in 1614, only to be closed by the Puritans
Puritans
in 1642 and subsequently pulled down not long thereafter. A modern replica called Shakespeare's Globe, has been built near the original site. Southwark
Southwark
was also a favourite area for entertainment such as bull and bear-baiting. The impresario in the later Elizabethan period for these entertainments was Shakespeare's colleague Edward Alleyn, who left many local charitable endowments, most notably Dulwich College. On 26 May 1676, ten years after the Great Fire of London, a great fire broke out, which continued for 17 hours before houses were blown up to create fire breaks. King Charles II and his brother, James, Duke of York, were involved in the effort. There was also a famous fair in Southwark
Southwark
which took place near the Church of St George
St George
the Martyr. William Hogarth
William Hogarth
depicted this fair in his engraving of Southwark
Southwark
Fair (1733). Southwark
Southwark
was also the location of several prisons, including those of the Crown or Prerogative Courts, the Marshalsea and King's Bench prisons, that of the local manors courts e.g. Borough Compter, The Clink, and the Surrey
Surrey
county gaol originally housed at the White Lion Inn (also called informally the Borough Gaol) and eventually at Horsemonger Lane Gaol. One other local family is of note, the Harvards. John Harvard went to the local parish free school of St Saviour's and on to Cambridge University. He migrated to the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Colony and left his library and the residue of his will to the new college there, named after him as its first benefactor. Harvard University
Harvard University
maintains a link, having paid for a memorial chapel within Southwark
Southwark
Cathedral (his family's parish church), and where its UK-based alumni hold services. John Harvard's mother's house is in Stratford upon Avon. Urbanisation[edit] In 1836 the first railway in the London area was created, the London and Greenwich
Greenwich
Railway, originally terminating at Spa Road and later extended west to London Bridge. In 1861, another great fire in Southwark
Southwark
destroyed a large number of buildings between Tooley Street
Tooley Street
and the Thames, including those around Hays Wharf (later replaced by Hays Galleria) and blocks to the west almost as far as St Olave's Church. The first deep-level underground tube line in London was the City and South London Railway, now the Bank branch of the Northern line, opened in 1890, running from King William Street south through Borough to Stockwell. Southwark, since 1999, is also now served by Southwark, Bermondsey
Bermondsey
and London Bridge
London Bridge
stations on the Jubilee line. Local governance[edit]

A map showing the wards of Southwark
Southwark
Metropolitan Borough as they appeared in 1916.

The ancient borough of Southwark
Southwark
initially consisted of the Surrey parishes of St George
St George
the Martyr, St Olave, St Margaret and St Mary.[4] St Margaret and St Mary were abolished in 1541 and their former area combined to create Southwark
Southwark
St Saviour. Around 1555 Southwark St Thomas
Southwark St Thomas
was split off from St Olave, and in 1733 Southwark St John Horsleydown was also split off.[4] In 1855 the parishes came into the area of responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works. The St George
St George
the Martyr parish was large enough to be governed by a vestry. St John Horsleydown, St Olave and St Thomas were grouped to form the St Olave District. St Saviour was combined with Southwark Christchurch
Southwark Christchurch
(the former liberty of Paris Garden) to form the St Saviour's District. In 1889 the area became part of the County of London.[4] St Olave and St Thomas were combined as a single parish in 1896. The local government arrangements were reorganised in 1900 with a Metropolitan Borough of Southwark
Metropolitan Borough of Southwark
created comprising the parishes of Southwark
Southwark
Christchurch, Southwark
Southwark
St Saviours, Southwark
Southwark
St George
St George
the Martyr and Newington. The eastern parishes that had formed the St Olave District instead became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Bermondsey. In 1965 the two boroughs were combined with the Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell to form the current London Borough of Southwark.[4] Relationship with the City of London[edit] Southwark
Southwark
was outside of the control of the City of London
City of London
and was a haven for criminals and free traders, who would sell goods and conduct trades outside the regulation of the City's Livery Companies. In 1327 the City obtained control from King Edward III of the manor next to the south side of London Bridge
London Bridge
known as the Town of Southwark
Southwark
(called latterly the Guildable Manor—i.e., the place of taxes and tolls). The Livery Companies also ensured that they had jurisdiction over the area. From the Norman period manorial organisation obtained through major lay and ecclesiastic magnates. Southwark
Southwark
still has vestiges of this because of the connection with the City of London. In 1327 the City acquired from Edward III the original vill of Southwark
Southwark
and this was also described as "the borough". In 1536 Henry VIII acquired the Bermondsey
Bermondsey
Priory properties and in 1538 that of the Archbishop. In 1550 these were sold to the City. After many decades of petitioning, in 1550 Southwark
Southwark
was incorporated into the City of London
City of London
as the ward of Bridge Without. However, the Alderman was appointed by the Court of Aldermen
Court of Aldermen
and no Common Councilmen were ever elected. This ward was constituted of the original Guildable Manor and the properties previously held by the church, under a charter of Edward VI, latterly called the King's Manor or Great Liberty. These manors are still constituted by the City under a Bailiff and Steward with their Courts Leet and View of Frankpledge Juries and Officers which still meet—their annual assembly being held in November under the present High Steward (the Recorder of London). The Ward and Aldermanry
Aldermanry
were effectively abolished in 1978, by merging it with the Ward of Bridge Within. These manorial courts were preserved under the Administration of Justice Act 1977. Therefore, between 1750 and 1978 Southwark
Southwark
had two persons (the Alderman and the Recorder) who were members of the City's Court of Aldermen and Common Council who were elected neither by the City freemen or by the Southwark
Southwark
electorate but appointed by the Court of Aldermen. Governance[edit] The Borough and Bankside
Bankside
Community Council corresponds to the Southwark
Southwark
electoral wards of Cathedrals and Chaucer.[5] They are part of the Bermondsey
Bermondsey
and Old Southwark
Southwark
Parliament constituency whose Member of Parliament is Neil Coyle. It is within the Lambeth
Lambeth
and Southwark
Southwark
London Assembly
London Assembly
constituency and the London European Parliament constituency. Southwark
Southwark
is the location of City Hall, the administrative headquarters of the Greater London
Greater London
Authority and the meeting place of the London Assembly
London Assembly
and Mayor of London. Since 2009, Southwark London Borough Council
Southwark London Borough Council
has its main offices at 160 Tooley Street, having moved administrative staff from the town hall in Camberwell. There are five business improvement districts (BIDs) in Southwark; Better Bankside, The Blue Bermondsey, South Bank
South Bank
BID, Team London Bridge, and We Are Waterloo. Geography[edit]

View from Tower Bridge
Tower Bridge
towards Southwark: City Hall and the rest of More London
More London
development in the foreground, and the Shard London Bridge skyscraper (under construction at the time of the photo) in the background.

In common with much of the south bank of the Thames, the Borough has seen extensive regeneration in the last decade. Declining wharfage trade, light industry and factories have given way to residential development, shops, restaurants, galleries, bars and most notably major office developments housing international headquarters of accountancy, legal and other professional services consultancies, most notably along London Bridge
London Bridge
City and More London
More London
between Tooley Street and the riverside. The area is in easy walking distance of the City and the West End. As such it has become a major business centre with many national and international corporations, professional practices and publishers locating to the area. London's tallest skyscraper, the Shard, is located next to London Bridge
London Bridge
Station. To the north is the River Thames, London Bridge
London Bridge
station and Southwark Cathedral. Borough Market
Borough Market
is a well-developed visitor attraction and has grown in size. The adjacent units have been converted and form a gastronomic focus for London. Borough High Street
Borough High Street
runs roughly north to south from London Bridge
London Bridge
towards Elephant and Castle. The Borough runs further to the south than realised; both St George's Cathedral and the Imperial War Museum
Imperial War Museum
are within the ancient boundaries, which border nearby Lambeth. The Borough is generally an area of mixed development, with council estates, major office developments, social housing and high value residential gated communities side by side with each other. References[edit]

^ "Southwark". The Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. 1952.  ^ a b c Mills, D. (2000). Oxford Dictionary of London Place Names. Oxford University Press.  ^ a b c Johnson, David J. (1969). Southwark
Southwark
and the City. Oxford University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-19-711630-2.  ^ a b c d Youngs, Frederic (1979). Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England. I: Southern England. London: Royal Historical Society. ISBN 0-901050-67-9.  ^ "Where's your community council". Southwark
Southwark
London Borough Council. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

John, Timbs (1867). "Southwark". Curiosities of London (2nd ed.). London: J.C. Hotten. OCLC 12878129.  Findlay Muirhead, ed. (1922). "Southwark". London and its Environs (2nd ed.). London: Macmillan & Co. OCLC 365061. 

External links[edit]

Southwark
Southwark
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Digital Public Library of America. Works related to Southwark, various dates

v t e

London Borough of Southwark

Districts

Bankside Bermondsey Borough/Southwark Camberwell Crystal Palace Denmark Hill Dulwich Dulwich
Dulwich
Village East Dulwich Elephant and Castle Herne Hill Honor Oak Newington Nunhead Peckham Peckham
Peckham
Rye Rotherhithe South Bank South Bermondsey Surrey
Surrey
Quays Sydenham
Sydenham
Hill Upper Norwood Walworth West Dulwich

Attractions

Bankside
Bankside
Gallery Bramah Tea and Coffee Museum Brunel Museum City Hall The Clink Cuming Museum Dulwich
Dulwich
Picture Gallery Fire Brigade Museum Globe Theatre Greenwood Theatre Hay's Galleria Herne Hill
Herne Hill
Stadium House of Dreams Museum HMS Belfast Imperial War Museum Livesey Museum for Children London Dungeon Mandela Way T-34 Tank Old Operating Theatre Museum and Herb Garret The Old Vic OXO Tower Pumphouse Educational Museum Purdy Hicks Gallery Rose Theatre Sam Wanamaker Playhouse The Shard South Bank South London Gallery Southwark
Southwark
Cathedral Tate Modern Unicorn Theatre Winchester Palace

Markets

Borough East Street

Bridges and tunnels

Blackfriars Bridge Blackfriars Railway Bridge Cannon Street Railway Bridge London Bridge Millennium Bridge Rotherhithe
Rotherhithe
Tunnel Southwark
Southwark
Bridge Tower Bridge Waterloo Bridge

Parks and open spaces

Belair Park Bermondsey
Bermondsey
Spa Gardens Brimmington Park Burgess Park Dickens Square Park Dulwich
Dulwich
Park Faraday Gardens Geraldine Mary Harmsworth Park Little Dorrit Park Newington Gardens Southwark
Southwark
Park Tabard Park

Constituencies

Camberwell
Camberwell
and Peckham North Southwark
Southwark
and Bermondsey Dulwich
Dulwich
and West Norwood

Tube and rail stations

Bermondsey Borough Canada Water Denmark Hill Elephant and Castle Kennington London Bridge Nunhead Queens Road Peckham Peckham
Peckham
Rye Rotherhithe South Bermondsey Southwark Surrey
Surrey
Quays Sydenham
Sydenham
Hill West Dulwich

Other topics

Council Grade I and II* listed buildings People Public art Schools

v t e

Areas of London

Central activities zone

Bloomsbury City of London
City of London
wards Holborn Marylebone Mayfair Paddington Pimlico Soho Southwark Vauxhall Waterloo Westminster

Town centre network

International

Belgravia Knightsbridge West End

Metropolitan

Bromley Croydon Ealing Harrow Hounslow Ilford Kingston Romford Shepherd's Bush Stratford Sutton Uxbridge Wood Green

Major

Angel Barking Bexleyheath Brixton Camden Town Canary Wharf Catford Chiswick Clapham
Clapham
Junction Dalston East Ham Edgware Eltham Enfield Town Fulham Hammersmith Holloway Nags Head Kensington High Street Kilburn King's Road
King's Road
East Lewisham Orpington Peckham Putney Queensway/Westbourne Grove Richmond Southall Streatham Tooting Walthamstow Wandsworth Wembley Whitechapel Wimbledon Woolwich

Districts (principal)

Acton Beckenham Bethnal Green Brentford Camberwell Canada Water Carshalton Chadwell Heath Chingford Clapham Crystal Palace Coulsdon Cricklewood Dagenham Deptford Dulwich Edmonton Elephant and Castle Erith Feltham Finchley Forest Gate Forest Hill Golders Green Greenwich Harlesden Hampstead Harringay Hayes (Hillingdon) Hendon Hornchurch Kentish Town Leyton Mill Hill Mitcham Morden Muswell Hill New Cross New Malden Northwood Notting Hill Penge Pinner Purley Ruislip Sidcup Southgate South Norwood Stanmore Stoke Newington Surbiton Sydenham Teddington Thamesmead Tolworth Tulse Hill Twickenham Upminster Upper Norwood Wanstead Wealdstone Welling West Ham West Hampstead West Norwood Willesden
Willesden
Green Woodford

Neighbourhoods (principal)

Abbey Wood Alperton Anerley Barnes Barnsbury Battersea Beckton Bedford Park Bermondsey Bow Brent Cross Brockley Canonbury Charlton Chelsea Chessington Chipping Barnet Chislehurst Clerkenwell Elmers End Gidea Park Greenford Gunnersbury Hackbridge Hackney Ham Hampton Hanwell Hanworth Harold Wood Highams Park Highbury Highgate Hillingdon Hook Holloway Hoxton Ickenham Isle of Dogs Isleworth Islington Kensal Green Kew Lambeth Manor Park Mortlake Neasden Northolt Nunhead Plaistow (Newham) Poplar Roehampton Rotherhithe Seven Kings Seven Sisters Shoreditch Stamford Hill Stepney St Helier Surrey
Surrey
Quays Tottenham Upper Clapton Walworth Wapping West Drayton Worcester Park Yiewsley

Lists of areas by borough

Barking
Barking
and Dagenham Barnet Bexley Brent Bromley Camden Croydon Ealing Enfield Greenwich Hackney Hammersmith
Hammersmith
and Fulham Haringey Harrow Havering Hillingdon Hounslow Islington Kensington and Chelsea Kingston upon Thames Lambeth Lewisham Merton Newham Redbridge Richmond upon Thames Southwark Sutton Tower Hamlets Waltham Forest Wandsworth Westminster

Fictional

Canley (borough) (The Bill: TV soap) Charnham (suburb) (Family Affairs: TV soap) Gasforth (town) (The Thin Blue Line: TV series) London Below (magical realm) (Neverwhere: TV series, novel) Walford
Walford
(borough) (EastEnders: TV soap)

The London Plan 2011, Annex Two: London's Town Centre Network – Greate

.