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Southern hip hop, also known as Southern rap, South Coast hip hop, or Dirty South, is a blanket term for a subgenre of American hip hop music that emerged in the Southern United States, especially in Atlanta, New Orleans, Houston, Memphis, and Miami
Miami
— the five of which constitute the "Southern Network" in rap music.[2][3][4] The music was a reaction to the 1980s flow of hip hop culture from New York City and the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
area and can be considered a third major American hip hop genre, after East Coast hip hop
East Coast hip hop
and West Coast hip hop.[5] Many early Southern rap artists released their music independently or on mixtapes after encountering difficulty securing record-label contracts in the 1990s.[6] By the early 2000s, many Southern artists had attained national success, and as the decade went on, both mainstream and underground varieties of Southern hip-hop became among the most popular and influential of the entire genre.

Contents

1 History 2 Georgia 3 New Mexico 4 Texas 5 Louisiana 6 Tennessee 7 Florida 8 North Carolina 9 Virginia 10 Mississippi 11 Arkansas 12 Alabama 13 Crunk 14 References 15 External links

History[edit] Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the American hip hop music market was primarily dominated by artists from the East Coast and West Coast. Los Angeles and New York City
New York City
were the two main cities where hip hop was receiving widespread attention.[7] In the 1980s, cities throughout the Southern United States
Southern United States
began to catch on to the hip hop music movement.[7] The Geto Boys, a hip hop group from Houston, were among the first hip hop artists from the Southern United States
Southern United States
to gain widespread popularity. Southern hip hop's roots can be traced to the success of Geto Boys' Grip It! On That Other Level
Grip It! On That Other Level
in 1989, the Rick Rubin produced The Geto Boys
Geto Boys
in 1990, and We Can't Be Stopped
We Can't Be Stopped
in 1991.[8] After the Geto Boys
Geto Boys
rose to stardom, Houston
Houston
became the center for Southern hip hop. Miami
Miami
also played a major role in the rise of Southern Hip-hop
Hip-hop
during this time frame with successful acts like 2 Live Crew
2 Live Crew
and other artists who relied heavily on the Miami bass sound. In the late 1980s, other rising rap groups such as UGK from Port Arthur, Texas, and 8Ball & MJG from Memphis, moved to Houston
Houston
to further their musical careers. By the 1990s, Atlanta
Atlanta
had become a controlling city in southern hip hop music. LaFace Records
LaFace Records
had given Atlanta
Atlanta
a reputation as "the Motown of the South" with acts like TLC and Kriss Kross, and local production crews such as Organized Noize that represented hip hop groups such as OutKast
OutKast
and Goodie Mob played a huge part in helping the South become a center for hip hop music.[9][10][11] OutKast
OutKast
became the first Southern artists to generate album sales like the powerhouse rappers on the East and West coasts. The most successful Southern independent labels during the mid-to-late 90s came out of the cities of Memphis
Memphis
and New Orleans. Both scenes borrowed heavily from a production style first introduced by way of the obscure late-1980s New York rap group The Showboys, heavily sampling the beats from their song "Drag Rap (Trigger Man)."[12] By the turn of the century these scenes found mainstream success through Cash Money Records
Cash Money Records
and No Limit Records
No Limit Records
out of New Orleans
New Orleans
and Hypnotize Minds out of Memphis, revolutionizing financial structures and strategies for independent Southern rap labels. By the early to mid-2000s, artists from all over the South had begun to develop mainstream popularity with artists like T.I., Ludacris, Lil Jon, Young Jeezy
Young Jeezy
from Atlanta, Trick Daddy and Rick Ross
Rick Ross
from Miami, Lil Wayne
Lil Wayne
and Juvenile from New Orleans, and Three 6 Mafia
Three 6 Mafia
from Memphis
Memphis
all becoming major label stars during this time.[13][14] In 2004, OutKast
OutKast
won six Grammy awards
Grammy awards
for their album Speakerboxxx/The Love Below, including Best Album, while in 2006 the members of Three 6 Mafia won the Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Original Song for "It's Hard Out Here For A Pimp" from Hustle and Flow, a Hollywood film about a fictional Southern rap artist. In 2005, the Houston
Houston
rap scene saw a revival in mainstream popularity, and many Houston
Houston
rappers started to get nationwide and worldwide audiences such as Paul Wall, Mike Jones, Chamillionaire, Lil' Flip, Slim Thug, Z-Ro, Trae, and many members of the Screwed Up Click. The height of Southern hip-hop was reached from 2002 through 2004. In 2002, Southern hip-hop artists accounted for 50 to 60 percent of the singles on hip-hop music charts. On the week of December 13, 2003, Southern urban artists, labels and producers accounted for six of the top 10 slots on the Billboard Hot 100: OutKast
OutKast
had two singles, Ludacris, Kelis
Kelis
(produced by The Neptunes), Beyoncé
Beyoncé
and Chingy
Chingy
(on Ludacris' Disturbing Tha Peace
Disturbing Tha Peace
label). In addition to this, from October 2003 through December 2004, the number one position on the Billboard Hot 100
Billboard Hot 100
pop chart was held by a Southern urban artist for 58 out of 62 weeks. This was capped by the week of December 11, 2004 when seven out of the top ten songs on the chart were held by or featured Southern urban artists. In 2004, Vibe magazine reported that Southern artists accounted for 43.6% of the airplay on urban radio stations (compared to 29.7% for the Midwest, 24.1% for the East Coast and 2.5% for the West coast).[15] Rich Boy from Mobile, Alabama
Mobile, Alabama
was successful in 2007 with his debut album. Since the early 2010s, many contemporary hip hop artists have become mainstream. The prevailing genre in contemporary hip hop is trap, which oriented from the South. Rappers from across the country have implemented trap into their music. Kendrick Lamar's 2017 album DAMN incorporated elements of trap. Unlike hip hop in other regions of the United States, numerous mainstream Southern rap artists did not come from larger cities and instead came from either suburban areas or areas with smaller hip hop scenes. Artists can implement both their rural and urban lifestyles into their art. Notable examples include Field Mob, natives of Albany, Georgia, Bubba Sparxxx, from LaGrange, Georgia, Absolute Da General, from Little Africa, South Carolina and Nappy Roots, from Bowling Green, Kentucky and the artists of Trill Entertainment out of Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Popular Southern artists to emerge in since the mid 2010s include Young Thug, Future, Travi$ Scott, 2 Chainz, Rae Sremmurd, Waka Flocka Flame, Gucci Mane, Rich Homie Quan, Post Malone, Migos, 21 Savage and Lil Yachty. In addition, many younger non-Southern artists such as French Montana, ASAP Rocky, Desiigner and Lil Uzi Vert
Lil Uzi Vert
have established themselves within the hip hop scene through southern flavored beats[16] and have acknowledged being heavily influenced by Southern styles of hip hop. Georgia[edit] See also: Atlanta
Atlanta
hip hop, Music of Atlanta, and Trap music (hip hop) In 2009, the New York Times
New York Times
called Atlanta
Atlanta
"hip-hop's center of gravity",[1] and the city is home to many famous hip-hop, R&B and neo soul[17] musicians. Local multi-platinum artists include OutKast, Ludacris, T.I., Usher, Ciara, B.o.B
B.o.B
and Young Jeezy. Others include:

Andre 3000 Audio (B5) Big Boi Bobby Creekwater Bobby V Boondox Bone Crusher Boyz N Da Hood Bubba Sparxxx Cherish Childish Gambino Crime Mob CunninLynguists D4L Diamond Dolla Drumma Boy EarthGang Future Goodie Mob Gorilla Zoe Gucci Mane Janelle Monáe Jarren Benton Jermaine Dupri J.I.D Kap G Keri Hilson Killer Mike Lecrae Lil Jon Lil Scrappy Lil Yachty Lloyd Migos Monica Nivea OG Maco Pastor Troy Peewee Longway Rich Homie Quan Rittz Rocko Stat Quo Shop Boyz The-Dream TLC Travis Porter Trillville 2 Chainz 21 Savage Unk Waka Flocka Flame Ying Yang Twins Young Dro Young Scooter Young Thug Yung Joc Yung Wun

In the 1980s and early 1990s, Atlanta's hip hop scene was characterized by a local variant of Miami's electro-driven bass music, with stars like Kilo Ali, MC Shy-D, Raheem the Dream and DJ Smurf (later Mr. Collipark).[1] MC Shy-D is credited with bringing authentic Bronx-style hip-hop to Atlanta
Atlanta
(and Miami), such as 1988's Shake it[18] produced by DJ Toomp; Jones was signed to controversial southern rap label Luke Records, run by Luther Campbell
Luther Campbell
aka "Uncle Luke". Arrested Development won the Grammy in 1992 with "Tennessee", while "Mr. Wendal" & "People Everyday" and Kris Kross
Kris Kross
won with their hit song "Jump". By the mid-1990s, the rise of OutKast, Goodie Mob and the production collective Organized Noize, let to the development of the Dirty South style of hip-hop and of Atlanta
Atlanta
gaining a reputation for "soul-minded hip-hop eccentrics", contrasting with other regional styles.[1] From the late 1990s to early 2000s, producer Lil Jon
Lil Jon
was a driving force behind the party-oriented style known as crunk. Record producers L.A. Reid and Babyface founded LaFace Records
LaFace Records
in Atlanta
Atlanta
in the late-1980s; the label eventually became the home to multi-platinum selling artists such as Toni Braxton, TLC, Ciara. It is also the home of So So Def Records, a label founded by Jermaine Dupri
Jermaine Dupri
in the mid-1990s, that signed acts such as Da Brat, Jagged Edge, Xscape and Dem Franchise Boyz. The success of LaFace and SoSo Def led to Atlanta as an established scene for record labels such as LaFace parent company Arista Records
Arista Records
to set up satellite offices. In 2009, the New York Times
New York Times
noted that after 2000, Atlanta
Atlanta
moved "from the margins to becoming hip-hop's center of gravity, part of a larger shift in hip-hop innovation to the South." This had a lot to due with the massive popularity of Waka Flocka Flame's 2009 debut mixtape. Producer Drumma Boy
Drumma Boy
called Atlanta
Atlanta
"the melting pot of the South". Producer Fatboi
Fatboi
called the Roland TR-808
Roland TR-808
("808") synthesizer "central" to Atlanta
Atlanta
music's versatility, used for snap, crunk, trap, and pop rap styles.[1] The same article named Drumma Boy, Fatboi, Shawty Redd, Lex Luger and Zaytoven the five "hottest producers driving the city".[1] New Mexico[edit] Throughout the history of southern hip-hop in New Mexico, three main young rappers have emerged and are continuing to do so. These three are Fhong, UziBrick & Cho. Fhong was born in Bahrain, however, his family moved to New Mexico when he was 2. His family made their millions in the oil industry in Algeria. Throughout his childhood, he made a name for himself after joining the Mayhem Gang, a rival gang of UZI Gang. Mayhem gang is based Albuquerque, New Mexico, and some of the main leaders are extremely violent. As he grew up, his reputation (street rep) grew with him, and he decided to seek protection from the gang violence around him with la Noire, another influential gang in this area, whilst he focused on his rap career. In early 2018, he signed a long-term deal with OldTimerz, a record label made up of up-and-coming and influential rappers based in the New Mexico area. UziBrick was born in Oman, however, grew up in the state of New Mexico. He grew up rich, as his parents worked in the oil industry, too. Nonetheless, he did not want to inherit or be guided by his parents' fortune and, although managing to keep close ties with his parents, he founded the gang UZI Gang in late 2017. UZI Gang controls most of the drug trade which comes in through Mexico and Columbia. He is known better for his gang affiliations than his music, nevertheless, he still manages to pump out absolute 'headbangers'. Cho was born and raised in the USA, with his family being of Europe heritage. He was very proud of his white heritage and the fact that he was local and he often bragged about this to the media, claiming he supported Hell's Angels. Although he founded the record label OldTimerz in late 2015, Cho was very strict when it came to the gangster lifestyle, as he rejected any alcohol, drugs and violence without hesitation. Unfortunately, he died in early 2018, due to an overdose on chicken nuggets. He weighed 400 lbs at the time of his death, and was suffering many chronic heart and liver diseases. Texas[edit] See also: Chopped and screwed Before the early 1990s, most Southern hip hop was upbeat and fast, like Miami bass and crunk. In Texas, a different approach of slowing music down, rather than speeding it up, developed. It is unknown when DJ Screw
DJ Screw
definitively created "screwed and chopped" music. Although people associated with Screw have indicated any time between 1984 and 1991, Screw said he started slowing music down in 1990. In Tulsa, Oklahoma Dj Dinero And Dj Z-Nasty helped popularize Chopped And Screwed music in the Mid South.[19] There is no debate, however, that DJ Screw
DJ Screw
invented the music style.[20] He discovered that dramatically reducing the pitch of a record gave a mellow, heavy sound that emphasized lyrics to the point of almost storytelling. After experimenting with the sound for a while Screw started making full length "Screw Tapes". Between 1991 and 1992, there was a large increase in use of purple drank in Texas. Purple drank
Purple drank
has been considered to be a major influence in the making of and listening to chopped and screwed music due to its perceived effect of slowing the brain down, giving slow, mellow music its appeal. DJ Screw, however, repeatedly denounced the claim that one has to use purple drank to enjoy screwed and chopped music. Screw, a known user of purple drank, said he came up with chopped and screwed music when high on marijuana.[19] As the spread of Southern Rap continued, its mainstream breakthrough occurred in 2000. Rap duo UGK
UGK
made a high-profile guest appearance on Jay-Z's smash hit "Big Pimpin'" and also appeared on Three 6 Mafia's hit "Sippin' on Some Syrup." Both of these collaborations greatly increased their reputation and helped fuel anticipation for their next project .[citation needed] A song that originally appeared on the compilation album The Day Hell Broke Loose 2, Mike Jones' "Still Tippin'", achieved mainstream success in 2004 leading to local Houston rap label Swishahouse signing a national distribution deal with Asylum Records. Jones released his major label debut, Who Is Mike Jones?, on Swishahouse/Warner Bros. in April 2005; the album was certified platinum that June.[21] Paul Wall's major label debut, The Peoples Champ, on Swishahouse/Atlantic, was released in September 2005, eventually topping the Billboard 200.[22] Before embarking on his rap career and while still at school, Wall had worked in the Swishahouse office.[23] Some notable Texas
Texas
artists include:

3-2 ABN Baby Bash Big Hawk Big Mello Big Moe Big Pokey Big Tuck Botany Boyz Bun B Chamillionaire Chingo Bling C-Note Devin the Dude DJ Screw Dorrough E.S.G. Fat Pat Fat Tony Flatline Geto Boys Juan Gotti Killa Kyleon Kirko Bangz Lecrae Lil' Flip Lil' Keke Lil' O Lil' Troy Lucky Luciano Maxo Kream Mike Jones Paul Wall Pimp C Post Malone Riff Raff Scarface Screwed Up Click Slim Thug South Park Mexican Trae tha Truth Travis $cott UGK Viper Willie D Z-Ro

Louisiana[edit] See also: Bounce music

August Alsina B.G. Big Mike Big Tymers Birdman C-Murder Choppa Curren$y Dee-1 Fiend Full Blooded Gambino Family Jay Electronica Juvenile Kane & Abel The Knux Krazy Lil' Boosie Lil Wayne Mac Mack Maine Magic Magnolia Shorty Mannie Fresh Master P Mia X Mike Bleed Da BlockStarr Mystikal Mr. Marcelo Prime Suspects Romeo Miller Silkk the Shocker Soulja Slim Turk Young Bleed Kevin Gates Lil Snupe Hurricane Chris Webbie Foxx Trill Fam Lil Phat Youngboy Never Broke Again

Tennessee[edit]

Cities Aviv Crunchy Black DJ Paul Drumma Boy 8Ball & MJG Frayser Boy Gangsta Blac Gangsta Boo Gangsta Pat Indo G Jazze Pha JellyRoll Juicy J Kia Shine Koopsta Knicca La Chat Lil Wyte Lord Infamous MC Mack Mr. Mack OG Boo Dirty Playa Fly Project Pat Prophet Posse Isaiah Rashad Seed of 6ix Snootie Wild Starlito Tela Tha City Paper Three 6 Mafia Young Buck Yo Gotti Young Dolph

Florida[edit]

Ace Hood Anquette Brianna Perry Brisco Denzel Curry DJ Khaled DJ Laz Flo Rida Gunplay Jacki-O JT Money Kat Dahlia Khia Kodak Black Lil Pump ¡Mayday! MC ADE Pitbull Plies Rick Ross Smitty Smokepurpp SpaceGhostPurrp Stitches Torch T-Pain Trick Daddy Trina Uncle Luke XXXTENTACION

North Carolina[edit]

Deniro Farrar J. Cole Little Brother Lute Petey Pablo Rapsody

Virginia[edit] See also: Category:Rappers from Virginia The Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
area in the Southeastern part of the state has become a hotbed of rap talent in the state, particularly in Virginia Beach or Hampton. Known colloquially as the "757", notable rappers from the area include:

Big Pooh Chris Brown Clipse DRAM Missy Elliott No Malice Pharrell Williams Pusha T Skillz Timbaland

Mississippi[edit]

Big K.R.I.T. David Banner Rae Sremmurd

Arkansas[edit]

Hunter Beard Mr. Endo G SL Jones Tony Tillman

Alabama[edit] The first major rap artists out of Alabama was southern rap duo Dirty from Montgomery, Alabama. They sold well regionally before signing with Universal Records. Their major label debut, Keep It Pimp & Gangsta, is their best-selling album. Rich Boy, from Mobile, Alabama released his self-titled debut album in 2007. The album topped the Billboard Rap Albums chart and rose to third on the Billboard 200. His debut single, Throw Some D's
Throw Some D's
charted sixth on the Billboard Hot 100. Yelawolf, from Gadsden, Alabama
Gadsden, Alabama
was the next successful rap artist to gain mainstream and popularity in the media and his music from Alabama. His debut album, Radioactive, was released in 2011 and met with positive reviews, debuting fourth on the Billboard Rap Albums chart.

Dirty Doe B Rich Boy YBN Nahmir Yelawolf

Crunk[edit] Main article: Crunk The term crunk is used as a blanket term to denote any style of southern hip hop,[24] but it is mainly used to denote a musical style that originated by Three Six Mafia in Memphis, Tennessee, in the mid-to-late 1990s. It was popularized by Atlanta
Atlanta
rapper Lil Jon,[25] and gained mainstream popularity in the period 2003–04.[26] A typical crunk track uses a drum machine rhythm, heavy bassline, and shouting vocals, often in call and response manner.[26]

B.G. Bone Crusher Brooke Valentine Cassie Ventura Chamillionaire Ciara Crime Mob D4L David Banner Dem Franchize Boyz E-40 Eightball & MJG Jacki-O Jermaine Dupri Killer Mike Lil Flip Lil Jon
Lil Jon
& The East Side Boyz Lil Scrappy Lil Wyte Ludacris Oobie P$C Pastor Troy Petey Pablo Playa Fly Playaz Circle Rasheeda Three 6 Mafia Trillville White Dawg Ying Yang Twins Yo Gotti Young Buck YoungBloodz

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f "John Caramanica, "Gucci Mane, No Holds Barred ", ''New York Times'', December 11, 2009". Nytimes.com. December 13, 2009. Retrieved August 9, 2012.  ^ "index magazine interview". Indexmagazine.com. Retrieved August 9, 2012.  ^ Burks, Maggie (September 3, 2008). "Southern Hip-Hop". Jackson Free Press. Retrieved September 11, 2008.  ^ Wilson, Jocelyn (2007). "Outkast'd and Claimin' True: The Language of Schooling and Education in the Southern Hip-Hop Community of Practice" (PDF).  ^ SANNEH, KELEFA (April 17, 2005). "The Strangest Sound in Hip-Hop Goes National". The New York Times. Retrieved September 11, 2008.  ^ allmusic ^ a b "Rap & Hiphop History". Archived from the original on March 1, 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Westhoff, Ben (March 18, 2011). "Dirty South". Village Voice. Retrieved March 18, 2011.  ^ Grem, DE. "The South Got Something To Say: Atlanta's Dirty South and the Southernization of Hip-Hop America" (PDF) – via Project MUSE.  ^ Lamont Hill, Marc (2013). Schooling Hip-Hop: Expanding Hip-Hop Based Education Across the Curriculum. Teacher's College Press. ISBN 978-0807754313.  ^ "OutKast". The Guardian. July 21, 2008.  ^ Hebblewaith, Phil. "808 State Of Mind: Proto- Crunk
Crunk
Originator DJ Spanish Fly". The Quietus. Retrieved 26 January 2013.  ^ Grem, Darren E. "The South Got Something to Say": Atlanta's Dirty South and the Southernization of Hip-Hop America." Southern Cultures 12.4 (2006): 55-73. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. Sep 14, 2011. ^ Westhoff, Ben. "Finger-Lickin' Rap." Utne Reader 166 (2011): 80-83. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. Sep 14, 2011 ^ Roni Sarig "Third Coast: OutKast, Timbaland, & How Hip-Hop Became A Southern Thing." pg xiv-xv ^ Chou, Kimberly (January 11, 2013). "Rapper Marks Rise of Eclectic Sound". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 January 2013.  ^ Rose, Joel (July 4, 2008). "NPR: " Atlanta
Atlanta
soul scene reborn"". M.npr.org. Retrieved August 9, 2012.  ^ Mickey Hess, ''Hip Hop in America: A Regional Guide: Volume 1: East Coast and West Coast''. Books.google.com. Retrieved August 9, 2012.  ^ a b "Givin It To Ya Slow: DJ Screw
DJ Screw
interview from RapPages (1995)", Press Rewind If I Haven't. ^ "Music Archived March 15, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.", Freize magazine, Archive, Issue 135 November–December 2010. ^ RIAA certification database (search "mike jones") ^ The People's Champ ( Billboard 200
Billboard 200
chart), Billboard, June 24, 2006. ^ "Interview With T Farris". HitQuarters. Dec 5, 2005. Retrieved Jun 21, 2010.  ^ Art, Charlie. "The History Of Southern USA Hip Hop (1998-2007)". Retrieved 9 July 2015.  ^ " Lil Jon
Lil Jon
crunks up the volume", NY Times, November 28, 2004 ^ a b "Southern Lights", Vibe Dec 2003

External links[edit]

Film New Flavors: The Emergence of Southern Hip Hop (2008) News about Southern hip hop artists Matt Miller, "Dirty Decade: Rap Music and the U.S. South, 1997-2007", Southern Spaces, June 10, 2008.

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