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The SOUTHERN UNITED STATES, commonly referred to as the AMERICAN SOUTH, DIXIE , or simply THE SOUTH, is a region of the United States of America . The South does not fully match the geographic south of the United States, but the Deep South is fully located in the southeastern corner. Arizona
Arizona
and New Mexico
New Mexico
, which are geographically in the southern part of the country, are rarely considered part, while West Virginia
West Virginia
, which separated from Virginia
Virginia
in 1863, commonly is. Some scholars have proposed definitions of the South that do not coincide neatly with state boundaries. While the states of Delaware and Maryland
Maryland
, as well as the District of Columbia
District of Columbia
permitted slavery prior to the start of the Civil War, they remained with the Union . Since the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, they became more culturally, economically, and politically aligned with the industrial Northern states , and are often identified as part of the Mid-Atlantic or Northeast by many residents, businesses, public institutions, and private organizations. However, the United States
United States
Census Bureau puts them in the South. HISTORIC SOUTHERN UNITED STATES. The states in stripes were considered "border states ", and gave varying degrees of support to the Southern cause although they remained in the Union. (This illustration depicts the original, trans-Allegheny borders of Virginia, thus does not show West Virginia
West Virginia
separately. See the images above for post-1863 Virginia
Virginia
and West Virginia
West Virginia
borders.) Although members of the Five Tribes in Indian Territory (today part of Oklahoma) aligned themselves with the Confederacy, the region is not shaded because at the time it was a territory, not a state. The area roughly considered to constitute the Bible Belt
Bible Belt

Usually, the South is defined as including the southeastern and south-central United States. The region is known for its culture and history, having developed its own customs, musical styles, and cuisines , which have distinguished it in some ways from the rest of the United States. The Southern ethnic heritage is diverse and includes strong European (mostly Spanish American
Spanish American
, Irish , Scotch-Irish , Scottish , English , German and French ), African , and some Native American components.

Some other aspects of the historical and cultural development of the South have been influenced by the institution of slave labor on plantations in the Deep South to an extent seen nowhere else in the United States; the presence of a large proportion of African Americans in the population; support for the doctrine of states\' rights , and the legacy of racial tension magnified by the Civil War and Reconstruction Era , as seen in thousands of lynchings (mostly from 1880 to 1930), the segregated system of separate schools and public facilities known as " Jim Crow laws ", that lasted until the 1960s, and the widespread use of poll taxes and other methods to frequently deny black people of the right to vote or hold office until the 1960s. Since the late 1960s, black people have held many offices in Southern states, especially in the coastal states of Virginia
Virginia
and South Carolina . Many black people have also been elected or appointed as mayors and police chiefs in the metropolises of Memphis , Houston
Houston
, Atlanta
Atlanta
, and New Orleans
New Orleans
, and serve in both the U.S. Congress and state legislatures.

Historically, the South relied heavily on agriculture , and was highly rural until after 1945. It has since become more industrialized and urban and has attracted national and international migrants. The American South is now among the fastest-growing areas in the United States. Houston
Houston
is the largest city in the Southern United States. Sociological research indicates that Southern collective identity stems from political, demographic, and cultural distinctiveness from the rest of the United States. The region contains almost all of the Bible Belt
Bible Belt
, an area of high Protestant
Protestant
church attendance (especially evangelical churches such as the Southern Baptist Convention ) and predominantly conservative , religion-influenced politics. Indeed, studies have shown that Southerners are more conservative than non-Southerners in several areas, including religion, morality, international relations and race relations. This is evident in both the region's religious attendance figures and in the region's usually strong support for the Republican Party in political elections since the 1960s, and especially since the 1990s.

Apart from its climate, the living experience in the South increasingly resembles the rest of the nation. The arrival of millions of Northerners (especially in major metropolitan areas and coastal areas) and millions of Hispanics has meant the introduction of cultural values and social norms not rooted in Southern traditions. Observers conclude that collective identity and Southern distinctiveness are thus declining, particularly when defined against "an earlier South that was somehow more authentic, real, more unified and distinct". The process has worked both ways, however, with aspects of Southern culture spreading throughout a greater portion of the rest of the United States
United States
in a process termed " Southernization ".

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 2 History

* 2.1 Native American culture * 2.2 European colonization * 2.3 American Revolution
American Revolution
* 2.4 Antebellum years * 2.5 Civil War * 2.6 Reconstruction and Jim Crow * 2.7 Late 19th and 20th century—industrialization and Great Migration

* 3 Modern economy * 4 Education

* 5 Culture

* 5.1 Religion

* 6 Sports

* 6.1 American football
American football
* 6.2 Baseball * 6.3 Auto racing * 6.4 Basketball
Basketball
* 6.5 Golf
Golf
* 6.6 Soccer

* 7 Health

* 8 Politics

* 8.1 Presidents from the South * 8.2 Other politicians and political movements

* 9 Race relations

* 9.1 Native Americans
Americans
* 9.2 Civil rights

* 10 Symbolism * 11 Major cities * 12 Major metropolitan areas * 13 Major combined statistical areas * 14 See also * 15 References * 16 Further reading * 17 External links

GEOGRAPHY

Texas Hill Country

The question of how to define the subregions in the South has been the focus of research for nearly a century. Bluegrass region in Kentucky
Kentucky
Glass Mountains at Glass Mountains State Park, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
A field of yellow wildflowers in Saint Bernard Parish, Louisiana
Louisiana
North Carolina's Appalachian Mountains Pearl River backwater in Mississippi
Mississippi
Misty Bluff along the Buffalo River, Ozark Mountains , Arkansas
Arkansas
Tidal wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland
Maryland
Cherry River in West Virginia
West Virginia

As defined by the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
, the Southern region of the United States
United States
includes sixteen states. As of 2010, an estimated 114,555,744 people, or thirty-seven percent of all U.S. residents, lived in the South, the nation's most populous region. The Census Bureau defined three smaller divisions:

* THE SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES : Delaware
Delaware
, Florida
Florida
, Georgia , Maryland
Maryland
, North Carolina
North Carolina
, South Carolina
South Carolina
, Virginia
Virginia
and West Virginia
Virginia
* THE EAST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES : Alabama
Alabama
, Kentucky
Kentucky
, Mississippi and Tennessee
Tennessee
* THE WEST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES : Arkansas
Arkansas
, Louisiana
Louisiana
, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
, and Texas
Texas
.

The Council of State Governments , an organization for communication and coordination between states, includes in its South regional office the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia.

Other terms related to the South include:

* THE OLD SOUTH : can mean either the slave states that existed in 1776 (Virginia, Delaware, Maryland, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina) or all the slave states before 1860 (which included the newer states of Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas). * THE NEW SOUTH : usually including the South Atlantic States . * THE SOLID SOUTH : region largely controlled by the Democratic Party from 1877 to 1964, especially after disfranchisement of most blacks at the turn of the 20th century. Before that, blacks were elected to national office and many to local office through the 1880s; Populist-Republican coalitions gained victories for Fusionist candidates for governors in the 1890s. Includes at least all the 11 former Confederate States. * SOUTHERN APPALACHIA : mainly refers to areas situated in the Southern Appalachian Mountains , namely Eastern Kentucky
Kentucky
, East Tennessee
Tennessee
, Western North Carolina
North Carolina
, Western Maryland
Maryland
, West Virginia , Southwest Virginia
Virginia
, North Georgia , and Northwestern South Carolina . * SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES : usually including the Carolinas , the Virginias , Tennessee
Tennessee
, Kentucky
Kentucky
, Georgia , Alabama
Alabama
, Mississippi
Mississippi
, and Florida
Florida
. * THE DEEP SOUTH : various definitions, usually including Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and South Carolina. Occasionally, parts of adjoining states are included (sections of East Texas, the Mississippi
Mississippi
embayment areas of Arkansas
Arkansas
and Tennessee, and northern and central Florida). * THE GULF SOUTH : various definitions, usually including Gulf coasts of Florida
Florida
, Louisiana
Louisiana
, Mississippi
Mississippi
, Texas
Texas
and Alabama
Alabama
. * THE UPPER SOUTH : Kentucky
Kentucky
, Virginia
Virginia
, West Virginia
West Virginia
, Tennessee , North Carolina
North Carolina
, and occasionally Missouri
Missouri
, Maryland
Maryland
, and Delaware . * DIXIE : various definitions, but most commonly associated with the 11 states of the Old Confederacy. * THE MID-SOUTH: Various definitions, including that of the Census Bureau of the East and West South Central United States; in another informal definition, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and sometimes adjoining areas of other states. * BORDER SOUTH : Missouri
Missouri
, Kentucky
Kentucky
, Maryland
Maryland
, and Delaware
Delaware
were states on the outer rim of the Confederacy that did not secede from the United States
United States
in the 1860s, but did have significant numbers of residents who joined the Confederate armed forces. Kentucky
Kentucky
and Missouri
Missouri
had Confederate governments-in-exile and were represented in the Confederate Congress and by stars on the Confederate battle flag. West Virginia
West Virginia
formed in 1863 after the western region of Virginia broke away to protest the Old Dominion's joining of the Confederacy, but residents of the new state were about evenly divided on supporting the Union or the Confederacy.

The popular definition of the "South" is more informal and generally associated with the 11 states that seceded before or during the Civil War to form the Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
. In order of their secession, these were: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina. These states share commonalities of history and culture that carry on to the present day. Oklahoma
Oklahoma
was not a state during the Civil War, but all its major Native American tribes signed formal treaties of alliance with the Confederacy.

The South is a diverse meteorological region with numerous climatic zones, including temperate , sub-tropical , tropical , and arid —though the South generally has a reputation as hot and humid, with long summers and short, mild winters. Most of the south—except for the higher elevations and areas near the western, southern and some northern fringes—fall in the humid subtropical climate zone. Crops grow readily in the South; its climate consistently provides growing seasons of at least six months before the first frost. Another common environment occurs in the bayous and swamplands of the Gulf Coast , especially in Louisiana
Louisiana
and in Texas.

HISTORY

Main article: History of the Southern United States
United States

NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURE

The first well-dated evidence of human occupation in the south United States occurs around 9500 BC with the appearance of the earliest documented Americans, who are now referred to as Paleo-Indians . Paleoindians were hunter-gathers that roamed in bands and frequently hunted megafauna . Several cultural stages, such as Archaic (ca. 8000–1000 BC) and the Woodland (ca. 1000 BC – AD 1000), preceded what the Europeans found at the end of the 15th century—the Mississippian culture .

The Mississippian culture was a complex, mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the southeastern United States
United States
from approximately 800 AD to 1500 AD. Natives had elaborate and lengthy trading routes connecting their main residential and ceremonial centers extending through the river valleys and from the East Coast to the Great Lakes. Some noted explorers who encountered and described the Mississippian culture, by then in decline, included Pánfilo de Narváez (1528), Hernando de Soto (1540), and Pierre Le Moyne d\'Iberville (1699).

Native American descendants of the mound-builders include Alabama
Alabama
, Apalachee , Caddo
Caddo
, Cherokee
Cherokee
, Chickasaw
Chickasaw
, Choctaw
Choctaw
, Creek , Guale , Hitchiti , Houma , and Seminole peoples, all of whom still reside in the South.

Other peoples whose ancestral links to the Mississippian culture are less clear but were clearly in the region before the European incursion include the Catawba and the Powhatan
Powhatan
.

EUROPEAN COLONIZATION

Benjamin Hawkins
Benjamin Hawkins
, seen here on his plantation, teaches Creek Native Americans
Americans
how to use European technology. Painted in 1805.

European immigration resulted in a corresponding die off of Native Americans
Americans
who had not been exposed to various diseases .

The predominant culture of the South was rooted in the settlement of the region by British colonists . In the 17th century, most voluntary immigrants were of English origins who settled chiefly along the coastal regions of the Eastern seaboard but had pushed as far inland as the Appalachian Mountains by the 18th century. The majority of early English settlers were indentured servants , who gained freedom after enough work to pay off their passage. The wealthier men who paid their way received land grants known as headrights, to encourage settlement.

The Spanish and French established colonies in Florida
Florida
, Texas
Texas
and Louisiana
Louisiana
. The Spanish colonized Florida
Florida
in the 16th century, with their communities reaching a peak in the late 17th century.

In the British colonies, immigration began in 1607 and continued until the outbreak of the Revolution in 1775. Settlers cleared land, built houses and outbuildings, and on their own farms. The rich owned large plantations that dominated export agriculture and used slaves. Many were involved in the labor-intensive cultivation of tobacco, the first cash crop of Virginia. Tobacco exhausted the soil quickly, requiring that farmers regularly clear new fields. They used old fields as pasture, and for crops such as corn and wheat, or allowed them to grow into woodlots.

In the mid-to-late-18th century, large groups of Ulster Scots (later called the Scotch-Irish ) and people from the Anglo-Scottish border region immigrated and settled in the back country of Appalachia and the Piedmont . They were the largest group of non-English immigrants from the British Isles
British Isles
before the American Revolution
American Revolution
. In the 1980 Census, 34% of Southerners reported that they were of English ancestry; English was the largest reported European ancestry in every Southern state by a large margin.

The early colonists engaged in warfare , trade , and cultural exchanges. Those living in the backcountry were more likely to encounter Creek Indians , Cherokee
Cherokee
, and Choctaws and other regional native groups.

The oldest university in the South, the College of William it pioneered in the teaching of political economy and educated future U.S. Presidents Jefferson , Monroe and Tyler , all from Virginia. Indeed, the entire region dominated politics in the First Party System era: for example, four of the first five presidents —Washington , Jefferson , Madison , and Monroe —were from Virginia. The two oldest public universities are also in the South: the University of North Carolina (1789) and the University of Georgia (1785).

AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Main article: Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War 1st Maryland
Maryland
Regiment holding the line at the Battle of Guilford in North Carolina.

With Virginia
Virginia
in the lead, the Southern colonies embraced the American Revolution
American Revolution
, providing such leaders as commander in chief George Washington
George Washington
, and the author of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
.

In 1780–81, the British largely halted reconquest of the northern states, and concentrated on the south, where they were told there was a large Loyalist population ready to leap to arms once the royal forces arrived. The British took control of Savannah and Charleston, capturing a large American army in the process, and set up a network of bases inland. There were many more Loyalists in the South than in the North, but they were concentrated in larger coastal cities and were not great enough in number to overcome the revolutionaries. Large numbers of loyalists from South Carolina
South Carolina
fought for the British in the Battle of Camden . The British forces at the Battle of Monck\'s Corner and the Battle of Lenud\'s Ferry consisted entirely of Loyalists with the exception of the commanding officer ( Banastre Tarleton
Banastre Tarleton
). Both white and black Loyalists fought for the British at the Battle of Kemp\'s Landing in Virginia. Led by Nathanael Greene and other generals, the Americans
Americans
engaged in Fabian tactics designed to wear down the British invasion force, and to neutralize its strong points one by one. There were numerous battles large and small, with each side claiming some victories. By 1781, however, British General Cornwallis moved north to Virginia, where an approaching army forced him to fortify and await rescue by the British Navy. The British Navy did arrive, but so did a stronger French fleet, and Cornwallis was trapped. American and French armies, led by Washington, forced Cornwallis to surrender his entire army in Yorktown, Virginia
Virginia
in October 1781, effectively winning the North American part of the war.

The Revolution provided a shock to slavery in the South. Thousands of slaves took advantage of wartime disruption to find their own freedom, catalyzed by the British Governor Dunmore of Virginia's promise of freedom for service. Many others were removed by Loyalist owners and became slaves elsewhere in the Empire. Between 1770 and 1790, there was a sharp decline in the percentage of blacks – from 61% percent to 44% in South Carolina
South Carolina
and from 45% to 36% in Georgia.

In addition, some slaveholders were inspired to free their slaves after the Revolution. They were moved by the principles of the Revolution, and Quaker and Methodist preachers worked to encourage slaveholders to free their slaves. Planters such as George Washington often freed slaves by their wills. In the upper South, more than 10 percent of all blacks were free by 1810, a significant expansion from pre-war proportions of less than 1 percent free.

ANTEBELLUM YEARS

_ Slaves on a South Carolina
South Carolina
plantation ( The Old Plantation _, c. 1790)

Cotton
Cotton
became dominant in the lower South after 1800. After the invention of the cotton gin, short staple cotton could be grown more widely. This led to an explosion of cotton cultivation, especially in the frontier uplands of Georgia, Alabama
Alabama
and other parts of the Deep South, as well as riverfront areas of the Mississippi
Mississippi
Delta. Migrants poured into those areas in the early decades of the 19th century, when county population figures rose and fell as swells of people kept moving west. The expansion of cotton cultivation required more slave labor, and the institution became even more deeply an integral part of the South's economy.

With the opening up of frontier lands after the government forced most Native Americans
Americans
to move west of the Mississippi, there was a major migration of both whites and blacks to those territories. From the 1820s through the 1850s, more than one million enslaved Africans were transported to the Deep South in forced migration, two-thirds of them by slave traders and the others by masters who moved there. Planters in the Upper South sold slaves excess to their needs as they shifted from tobacco to mixed agriculture. Many enslaved families were broken up, as planters preferred mostly strong males for field work.

Two major political issues that festered in the first half of the 19th century caused political alignment along sectional lines, strengthened the identities of North and South as distinct regions with certain strongly opposed interests, and fed the arguments over states' rights that culminated in secession and the Civil War. One of these issues concerned the protective tariffs enacted to assist the growth of the manufacturing sector, primarily in the North. In 1832, in resistance to federal legislation increasing tariffs, South Carolina passed an ordinance of nullification , a procedure in which a state would, in effect, repeal a Federal law. Soon a naval flotilla was sent to Charleston harbor, and the threat of landing ground troops was used to compel the collection of tariffs. A compromise was reached by which the tariffs would be gradually reduced, but the underlying argument over states' rights continued to escalate in the following decades. Horse racing at Jacksonville, Alabama
Alabama
, 1841

The second issue concerned slavery, primarily the question of whether slavery would be permitted in newly admitted states. The issue was initially finessed by political compromises designed to balance the number of "free" and "slave" states. The issue resurfaced in more virulent form, however, around the time of the Mexican–American War , which raised the stakes by adding new territories primarily on the Southern side of the imaginary geographic divide. Congress opposed allowing slavery in these territories.

Before the Civil War, the number of immigrants arriving at Southern ports began to increase, although the North continued to receive the most immigrants. Hugenots were among the first settlers in Charleston, along with the largest number of Hasidic Jews outside of New York City . Numerous Irish immigrants settled in New Orleans, establishing a distinct ethnic enclave now known as the Irish Channel . Germans also went to New Orleans
New Orleans
and its environs, resulting in a large area north of the city (along the Mississippi) becoming known as the German Coast; however, still greater numbers immigrated to Texas
Texas
(especially after 1848), where many bought land and were farmers. Many more German immigrants arrived in Texas
Texas
after the Civil War, where they created the brewing industry in Houston
Houston
and elsewhere, became grocers in numerous cities, and also established wide areas of farming.

By 1840, New Orleans
New Orleans
was the wealthiest city in the country and the third largest in population. The success of the city was based on the growth of international trade associated with products being shipped to and from the interior of the country down the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. New Orleans
New Orleans
also had the largest slave market in the country, as traders brought slaves by ship and overland to sell to planters across the Deep South. The city was a cosmopolitan port with a variety of jobs that attracted more immigrants than other areas of the South. Because of lack of investment, however, construction of railroads to span the region lagged behind the North. People relied most heavily on river traffic for getting their crops to market and for transportation.

CIVIL WAR

Main articles: American Civil War and Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America

By 1856, the South had lost control of Congress, and was no longer able to silence calls for an end to slavery—which came mostly from the more populated, free states of the North. The Republican Party, founded in 1854, pledged to stop the spread of slavery beyond those states where it already existed. After Abraham Lincoln was elected the first Republican president in 1860, seven cotton states declared their secession and formed the Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
before Lincoln was inaugurated. The United States
United States
government, both outgoing and incoming, refused to recognize the Confederacy, and when the new Confederate President Jefferson Davis ordered his troops to open fire on Fort Sumter in April 1861, there was an overwhelming demand, North and South, for war. Only the state of Kentucky
Kentucky
attempted to remain neutral, and it could only do so briefly. When Lincoln called for troops to suppress what he referred to as "combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary" judicial or martial means, four more states decided to secede and join the Confederacy (which then moved its capital to Richmond, Virginia). Although the Confederacy had large supplies of captured munitions and many volunteers, it was slower than the Union in dealing with the border states. By March 1862, the Union largely controlled Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri, had shut down all commercial traffic from all Confederate ports, had prevented European recognition of the Confederate government, and was poised to seize New Orleans. Confederate dead of General Ewell's Corps who attacked the Union lines at the Battle of Spotsylvania, May 19, 1864.

In the four years of war 1861–65 the South was the primary battleground, with all but two of the major battles taking place on Southern soil. Union forces relentlessly squeezed the Confederacy, controlling the border states in 1861, the Tennessee
Tennessee
River, the Cumberland River and New Orleans
New Orleans
in 1862, and the Mississippi
Mississippi
River in 1863. In the East, however, the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee beat off attack after attack in its defense of their capital at Richmond. But when Lee tried to move north, he was repulsed (and nearly captured) at Sharpsburg (1862) and Gettysburg (1863).

The Confederacy had the resources for a short war, but was unable to finance or supply a longer war. It reversed the traditional low-tariff policy of the South by imposing a new 15% tax on all imports from the Union. The Union blockade stopped most commerce from entering the South, and smugglers avoided the tax, so the Confederate tariff produced too little revenue to finance the war. Inflated currency was the solution, but that created distrust of the Richmond government. Because of low investment in railroads, the Southern transportation system depended primarily on river and coastal traffic by boat; both were shut down by the Union Navy
Union Navy
. The small railroad system virtually collapsed, so that by 1864 internal travel was so difficult that the Confederate economy was crippled.

The Confederate cause was hopeless by the time Atlanta
Atlanta
fell and William T. Sherman marched through Georgia in late 1864, but the rebels fought on, refusing to give up their independence until Lee's army surrendered in April 1865. All the Confederate forces surrendered, and the region moved into the Reconstruction Era .

The South suffered much more than the North overall, as the Union strategy of attrition warfare meant that Lee could not replace his casualties, and the total war waged by Sherman, Sheridan and other Union armies devastated the infrastructure and caused widespread poverty and distress. The Confederacy suffered military losses of 95,000 men killed in action and 165,000 who died of disease, for a total of 260,000, out of a total white Southern population at the time of around 5.5 million. Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6% in the North and about 18% in the South. Northern military casualties exceeded Southern casualties in absolute numbers, but were two-thirds smaller in terms of proportion of the population affected.

RECONSTRUCTION AND JIM CROW

Main articles: Reconstruction Era , Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era , and Voting rights in the United States
United States
_ A Home on the Mississippi
Mississippi
_, Currier and Ives , 1871

After the Civil War, the South was devastated in terms of population, infrastructure and economy. Because of states' reluctance to grant voting rights to freedmen, Congress instituted Reconstruction governments. It established military districts and governors to rule over the South until new governments could be established. Many white Southerners who had actively supported the Confederacy were temporarily disenfranchised. Rebuilding was difficult as people grappled with the effects of a new labor economy of a free market in the midst of a widespread agricultural depression. In addition, what limited infrastructure the South had was mostly destroyed by the war. At the same time, the North was rapidly industrializing. To avoid the social effects of the war, most of the Southern states initially passed black codes . Eventually, these were mostly legally nullified by federal law and anti-Confederate legislatures, which existed for a short time during Reconstruction.

There were thousands of people on the move, as African Americans tried to reunite families separated by slaves sales, and sometimes migrated for better opportunities in towns or other states. Other freed people moved from plantation areas to cities or towns for a chance to get different jobs. At the same time, whites returned from refuges to reclaim plantations or town dwellings. In some areas, many whites returned to the land to farm for a while. Some freedpeople left the South altogether for states such as Ohio
Ohio
and Indiana, and later, Kansas. Thousands of others joined the migration to new opportunities in the Mississippi
Mississippi
and Arkansas
Arkansas
Delta bottomlands and Texas.

With passage of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States (which outlawed slavery), the 14th Amendment (which granted full U.S. citizenship to African Americans ) and the 15th amendment (which extended the right to vote to African American
African American
males), African Americans
Americans
in the South were made free citizens and were given the right to vote. Under Federal protection, white and black Republicans formed constitutional conventions and state governments. Among their accomplishments were creating the first public education systems in Southern states, and providing for welfare through orphanages, hospitals and similar institutions.

Northerners came south to participate in politics and business. Some were representatives of the Freedmen\'s Bureau and other agencies of Reconstruction; some were humanitarians with the intent to help black people. Some were adventurers who hoped to benefit themselves by questionable methods. They were all condemned with the pejorative term of carpetbagger . Some Southerners also took advantage of the disrupted environment and made money off various schemes, including bonds and financing for railroads.

Secret vigilante organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan —an organization sworn to perpetuate white supremacy —had arisen quickly after the war's end and used lynching , physical attacks, house burnings and other forms of intimidation to keep African Americans from exercising their political rights. Although the first Klan was disrupted by prosecution by the Federal government in the early 1870s, other groups persisted. By the mid-to-late-1870s, elite Southerners created increasing resistance to the altered social structure. Paramilitary organizations such as the White League in Louisiana (1874), the Red Shirts in Mississippi
Mississippi
(1875) and rifle clubs, all "White Line" organizations, used organized violence against Republicans , both black and white, to remove Republicans from political office, repress and bar black voting, and restore the Democratic Party to power. In 1876 white Democrats regained power in most of the state legislatures. They began to pass laws designed to strip African Americans and poor whites from the voter registration rolls. The success of late-19th century interracial coalitions in several states inspired a reaction among some white Democrats, who worked harder to prevent both groups from voting.

Despite discrimination, many blacks became property owners in areas that were still developing. For instance, 90% of the Mississippi's bottomlands were still frontier and undeveloped after the war. By the end of the century, two-thirds of the farmers in Mississippi's Delta bottomlands were black. They had cleared the land themselves and often made money in early years by selling off timber. Tens of thousands of migrants went to the Delta, both to work as laborers to clear timber for lumber companies, and many to develop their own farms. By the end of the century, two-thirds of farm owners in the Delta bottomlands were black. However, the long agricultural depression, along with disenfranchisement and lack of access to credit, led to many blacks in the Delta losing their property by 1910 and becoming sharecroppers or landless workers over the following decade. More than two generations of free African Americans lost their stake in property. Child laborers, Bluffton, South Carolina
South Carolina
, 1913

Nearly all Southerners, black and white, suffered as a result of the Civil War. Within a few years cotton production and harvest was back to pre-war levels, but low prices through much of the 19th century hampered recovery. They encouraged immigration by Chinese and Italian laborers into the Mississippi
Mississippi
Delta. While the first Chinese entered as indentured laborers from Cuba
Cuba
, the majority came in the early 20th century. Neither group stayed long at rural farm labor. The Chinese became merchants and established stores in small towns throughout the Delta, establishing a place between white and black.

Migrations continued in the late 19th and early 20th centuries among both blacks and whites. In the last two decades of the 19th century about 141,000 blacks left the South, and more after 1900, totaling a loss of 537,000. After that the movement increased in what became known as the Great Migration from 1910 to 1940, and the Second Great Migration through 1970. Even more whites left the South, some going to California
California
for opportunities and others heading to Northern industrial cities after 1900. Between 1880 and 1910, the loss of whites totaled 1,243,000. Five million more left between 1940 and 1970.

From 1890 to 1908, ten of the eleven former Confederate states, along with Oklahoma
Oklahoma
upon statehood, passed disfranchising constitutions or amendments that introduced voter registration barriers—such as poll taxes , residency requirements and literacy tests —that were hard for many poor to meet. Most African Americans, most Mexican Americans, and tens of thousands of poor whites were disfranchised, losing the vote for decades. In some states, grandfather clauses temporarily exempted white illiterates from literacy tests. The numbers of voters dropped drastically throughout the former Confederacy as a result. This can be seen via the feature "Turnout in Presidential and Midterm Elections" at the University of Texas’ _Politics: Barriers to Voting_. Alabama, which had established universal white suffrage in 1819 when it became a state, also substantially reduced voting by poor whites. Democrat controlled legislatures passed Jim Crow laws to segregate public facilities and services, including transportation.

While African Americans, poor whites and civil rights groups started litigation against such provisions in the early 20th century, for decades Supreme Court decisions overturning such provisions were rapidly followed by new state laws with new devices to restrict voting. Most blacks in the former Confederacy and Oklahoma
Oklahoma
could not vote until 1965, after passage of the Voting Rights Act and Federal enforcement to ensure people could register. Despite increases in the eligible voting population with the inclusion of women, blacks, and those eighteen and over throughout this period, turnout in ex-Confederate states remained below the national average throughout the 20th century. Not until the late 1960s did all American citizens regain protected civil rights by passage of legislation following the leadership of the American Civil Rights Movement
American Civil Rights Movement
.

LATE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY—INDUSTRIALIZATION AND GREAT MIGRATION

Main article: Great Migration (African American) An illustrated depiction of black people picking cotton , 1913

At the end of the 19th century, white Democrats in the South had created state constitutions that were hostile to industry and business development, with anti-industrial laws extensive from the time new constitutions were adopted in the 1890s. Banking was limited, as was access to credit. States persisted in agricultural economies. Especially in Alabama
Alabama
and Florida, rural minorities held control in many state legislatures long after population had shifted to industrializing cities, and legislators resisted business and modernising interests: Alabama
Alabama
refused to redistrict between 1901 and 1972, long after major population and economic shifts to cities. For decades Birmingham generated the majority of revenue for the state, for instance, but received little back in services or infrastructure.

In the late 19th century, Texas
Texas
rapidly expanded its railroad network, creating a network of cities connected on a radial plan and linked to the port of Galveston. It was the first statein which urban and economic development proceeded independently of rivers, the primary transportation network of the past. A reflection of increasing industry were strikes and labor unrest: "in 1885 Texas
Texas
ranked ninth among forty states in number of workers involved in strikes (4,000); for the six-year period it ranked fifteenth. Seventy-five of the one hundred strikes, chiefly interstate strikes of telegraphers and railway workers, occurred in the year 1886."

By 1890 Dallas
Dallas
became the largest city in Texas, and by 1900 it had a population of more than 42,000, which more than doubled to over 92,000 a decade later. Dallas
Dallas
was the harnessmaking capital of the world and a center of other manufacturing. As an example of its ambitions, in 1907 Dallas
Dallas
built the Praetorian Building, fifteen storeys tall and the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi, soon to be followed by other skyscrapers. Texas
Texas
was transformed by a railroad network linking five important cities, among them Houston
Houston
with its nearby port at Galveston, Dallas, Fort Worth, San Antonio, and El Paso. Each exceeded fifty thousand in population by 1920, with the major cities having three times that population.

Business interests were ignored by the Southern Democrat ruling class. Nonetheless, major new industries started developing in cities such as Atlanta, GA; Birmingham, AL; and Dallas, Fort Worth and Houston
Houston
, Texas. Growth began occurring at a geometric rate. Birmingham became a major steel producer and mining town, with major population growth in the early decades of the 20th century.

The first major oil well in the South was drilled at Spindletop near Beaumont, Texas
Texas
, on the morning of January 10, 1901. Other oil fields were later discovered nearby in Arkansas, Oklahoma, and under the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
. The resulting "Oil Boom" permanently transformed the economy of the West South Central states and produced the most significant economic expansion after the Civil War.

In the early 20th century, invasion of the boll weevil devastated cotton crops in the South, producing an additional catalyst to African Americans' decisions to leave the South. From 1910 to 1940, and then from the 1940s to 1970, more than 6.5 million African Americans left the South in the Great Migration to northern and midwestern cities, defecting from persistent lynching , violence, segregation , poor education, and inability to vote. Black migration transformed many Northern cities, creating new cultures and music. Many African Americans, like other groups, became industrial workers; others started their own businesses within the communities. Southern whites also migrated to industrial cities, especially Chicago and Detroit, where they took jobs in the booming new auto industry. Photo of sharecropper family in Walker County, Alabama, ca. 1937

Later, the Southern economy was dealt additional blows by the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl
Dust Bowl
. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929
Wall Street Crash of 1929
, the economy suffered significant reversals and millions were left unemployed. Beginning in 1934 and lasting until 1939, an ecological disaster of severe wind and drought caused an exodus from Texas
Texas
and Arkansas, the Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Panhandle region, and the surrounding plains, in which over 500,000 Americans
Americans
were homeless, hungry and jobless. Thousands left the region forever to seek economic opportunities along the West Coast .

President Franklin D. Roosevelt noted the South as the "number one priority" in terms of need of assistance during the Great Depression. His administration created programs such as the Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley Authority in 1933 to provide rural electrification and stimulate development. Locked into low-productivity agriculture, the region's growth was slowed by limited industrial development, low levels of entrepreneurship, and the lack of capital investment.

World War II
World War II
marked a time of change in the South as new industries and military bases were developed by the Federal government, providing badly needed capital and infrastructure in many regions. People from all parts of the US came to the South for military training and work in the region's many bases and new industries. Farming shifted from cotton and tobacco to include soybeans , corn , and other foods.

Industrial growth increased in the 1960s and greatly accelerated into the 1980s and 1990s. Several large urban areas in Texas, Georgia, and Florida
Florida
grew to over four million people. Rapid expansion in industries such as autos, telecommunications, textiles, technology, banking, and aviation gave some states in the South an industrial strength to rival large states elsewhere in the country. By the 2000 census, the South (along with the West) was leading the nation in population growth. However, with this growth has come long commute times and air pollution problems in cities such as Dallas, Houston, Atlanta, Austin, Charlotte, and others that rely on sprawling development and highway networks.

MODERN ECONOMY

In the late 20th century, the South changed dramatically. It saw a boom in its service economy , manufacturing base, high technology industries, and the financial sector. Texas
Texas
in particular witnessed dramatic growth and population change with the dominance of the energy industry. Tourism in Florida
Florida
and along the Gulf Coast grew steadily throughout the last decades of the 20th century.

Numerous new automobile production plants have opened in the region, or are soon to open, such as Mercedes-Benz in Tuscaloosa, Alabama
Alabama
; Hyundai in Montgomery, Alabama
Alabama
; the BMW
BMW
production plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina
South Carolina
; Toyota
Toyota
plants in Georgetown, Kentucky
Kentucky
, Blue Springs, Mississippi
Mississippi
and San Antonio ; the GM manufacturing plant in Spring Hill, Tennessee
Tennessee
; a Honda
Honda
factory in Lincoln, Alabama
Alabama
; the Nissan
Nissan
North American headquarters in Franklin, Tennessee
Tennessee
and factories in Smyrna, Tennessee
Tennessee
and Canton, Mississippi
Mississippi
; a Kia factory in West Point, Georgia ; and the Volkswagen Chattanooga Assembly Plant in Tennessee.

The two largest research parks in the country are located in the South: Research Triangle Park in North Carolina
North Carolina
(the world's largest) and the Cummings Research Park in Huntsville, Alabama
Alabama
(the world's fourth largest).

In medicine, the Texas
Texas
Medical Center in Houston
Houston
has achieved international recognition in education, research, and patient care, especially in the fields of heart disease, cancer, and rehabilitation. In 1994 the Texas
Texas
Medical Center was the largest medical center in the world including fourteen hospitals, two medical schools, four colleges of nursing, and six university systems. The University of Texas
Texas
M.D. Anderson Cancer Center is consistently ranked the #1 cancer research and treatment center in the United States.

Many major banking corporations have headquarters in the region. Bank of America is in Charlotte, North Carolina
North Carolina
. Wachovia was headquartered there before its purchase by Wells Fargo
Wells Fargo
. Regions Financial Corporation is in Birmingham , as is AmSouth Bancorporation , and BBVA Compass . SunTrust Banks is located in Atlanta
Atlanta
as is the district headquarters of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta
Atlanta
. BB closely mirroring the economic and population resources of those states.

This economic expansion has enabled parts of the South to report some of the lowest unemployment rates in the United States. But in the U.S. top ten of poorest big cities, the South is represented in the rankings by two cities: Miami
Miami
, Florida
Florida
and Memphis, Tennessee
Memphis, Tennessee
. In 2011, nine out of ten poorest states were in the South.

EDUCATION

Southern public schools in the past ranked in the lower half of some national surveys. When allowance for race is considered, a 2007 US Government list of test scores often shows white fourth and eighth graders performing better than average for reading and math; while black fourth and eighth graders also performed better than average. This comparison does not hold across the board. Mississippi
Mississippi
scores lower than average no matter how the statistics are compared. However, newer data suggests that education in the south is on par with the nation, with 72% of high schoolers graduating compared to 73% nationwide. Southern education is also unique in that it is the only region in the West where school corporal punishment is legal and commonly practiced in public schools; virtually all paddling in the United States
United States
occurs at Southern schools.

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of the Southern United States
United States
Street musicians in Maynardville, Tennessee
Tennessee
, photographed in 1935

Several Southern states (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia) were British colonies that sent delegates to sign the Declaration of Independence and then fought against the government along with the Northern colonies during the Revolutionary War . The basis for much Southern culture derives from the pride in these states being among the 13 original colonies, and from the fact that much of the population of the South has strong ancestral links to Colonists who emigrated west. Southern manners and customs reflect the relationship with England and Africa
Africa
that was held by the early population, with some influences being provided by the Native American populations of the area.

Overall, the South has had lower percentages of high school graduates, lower housing values, lower household incomes, and lower cost of living than the rest of the United States. These factors, combined with the fact that Southerners have continued to maintain strong loyalty to family ties, has led some sociologists to label white Southerners an ethnic or quasi-ethnic group, though this interpretation has been subject to criticism on the grounds that proponents of the view do not satisfactorily indicate how Southerners meet the criteria of ethnicity.

The predominant culture of the South has its origins with the settlement of the region by large groups of Northern English , Scots lowlanders and Ulster-Scots (later called the Scotch-Irish ) who settled in Appalachia and the Piedmont in the 18th century, and from parts of southern England such as East Anglia
East Anglia
, Kent
Kent
and the West Country in the 17th century, and the many African slaves who were part of the Southern economy. African-American descendants of the slaves brought into the South compose the United States' second-largest racial minority, accounting for 12.1 percent of the total population according to the 2000 census. Despite Jim Crow era outflow to the North , the majority of the black population remains concentrated in the Southern states, and has heavily contributed to the cultural blend (Christianity, foods, art, music (see spiritual , blues , jazz and rock and roll )) that characterize Southern culture today.

In previous censuses, the largest ancestry group identified by Southerners was English or mostly English, with 19,618,370 self-reporting "English" as an ancestry on the 1980 census, followed by 12,709,872 listing "Irish " and 11,054,127 "Afro-American ". Almost a third of all Americans
Americans
who claim English ancestry can be found in the American South, and over a quarter of all Southerners claim English descent as well. The South also continues to have the highest percentage of African Americans in the country, due to the history of slavery.

RELIGION

The South has been a stronghold of evangelical Protestantism Although the upper class In Virginia
Virginia
and South Carolina
South Carolina
was Anglican , The First Great Awakening and the Second Great Awakening
Second Great Awakening
from about 1742 about 1850 generated large numbers of Methodists and Baptists. By 1900, the Southern Baptist Convention had become numerically largest group, especially in rural areas and remain so. followed by Methodists , with other denominations found throughout the region. Roman Catholics historically were concentrated in Maryland, Louisiana, and Hispanic areas such as South Texas
Texas
and South Florida
Florida
and along the Gulf Coast. The great majority of black Southerners are Baptist or Methodist. Statistics show that Southern states have the highest religious attendance figures of any region in the United States.

Pentecostalism has been strong across the South since the late 19th century.

SPORTS

AMERICAN FOOTBALL

American football, especially at the college and high school level, is by far the most popular team sport in most areas of the Southern United States.

The region is home to numerous decorated and historic college football programs, particularly in the Southeastern Conference (known as the "SEC"), Atlantic Coast Conference (known as the "ACC"), and the Big 12 Conference . The SEC, consisting entirely of teams based in Southern states, is widely considered to be the strongest league in contemporary college football and includes the Alabama
Alabama
Crimson Tide , the program with the most national championships in the sport's history. The sport is also highly competitive and has a spectator following at the high school level , particularly in rural areas where high school football games often serve as prominent community gatherings.

Though not as popular on a wider basis as the collegiate game, professional football also has a growing tradition in the Southern United States. Before league expansion began in the 1960s, the only established professional team based in the South was the Washington Redskins , who still retain a large following in many pockets of the region. Later on, the merger-era National Football League began to expand into the football-crazed Deep South in the 1960s with franchises like the Atlanta
Atlanta
Falcons , New Orleans
New Orleans
Saints , Houston Oilers , Miami
Miami
Dolphins , and most prominently the Dallas
Dallas
Cowboys , who overtook Washington as the region's most popular team and eventually became widely considered the most popular team in the United States. In later decades, NFL expansion into Southern states continued, with the Tampa Bay Buccaneers , Jacksonville Jaguars , and Carolina Panthers added to the league, while the Houston
Houston
Oilers were replaced by the Houston
Houston
Texans after the Oilers relocated to Nashville to become the Tennessee
Tennessee
Titans . Alabama
Alabama
plays Texas
Texas
in American football for the 2010 BCS National Championship Game

RANK TEAM SPORT LEAGUE Attendance (avg/game)

1 Texas
Texas
A"> Houston
Houston
vs Texas
Texas
face-off during the Lone Star Series in the American League West division of Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball

RANK TEAM LEAGUE 2014 overall annual attendance

1 Texas
Texas
Rangers American League 2,718,733

2 Baltimore Orioles American League 2,464,473

3 Atlanta
Atlanta
Braves National League
National League
2,354,305

4 Houston
Houston
Astros American League 1,751,829

5 Miami
Miami
Marlins National League 1,732,283

AUTO RACING

The Southern states are commonly associated with stock car racing and its most prominent competition NASCAR
NASCAR
, which is based in Charlotte, North Carolina
North Carolina
. The sport was developed in the Deep South in the early 20th century, with stock car racing's historic mecca being Daytona Beach, Florida
Florida
, where cars initially raced on the wide, flat beachfront before the construction of Daytona International Speedway
Daytona International Speedway
. Though the sport has attained a following throughout the United States, a majority of NASCAR
NASCAR
races continue to take place at Southern tracks.

BASKETBALL

Basketball
Basketball
is very popular throughout the Southern United States
United States
as both a recreational and spectator sport, particularly in the states of North Carolina
North Carolina
and Kentucky
Kentucky
which are home to several historically prominent college basketball programs. Prominent NBA teams based in the South include the Houston
Houston
Rockets , San Antonio Spurs , Oklahoma City Thunder , Dallas
Dallas
Mavericks , Washington Wizards
Washington Wizards
, Charlotte Hornets , Atlanta
Atlanta
Hawks , Orlando Magic , Memphis Grizzlies , New Orleans Pelicans , and the Miami
Miami
Heat .

GOLF

Golf
Golf
is a popular recreational sport in most areas of the South, with the region's warm climate allowing it to host many professional tournaments and numerous destination golf resorts, particularly in the state of Florida
Florida
. The region is home to The Masters , an elite invitational competition played at Augusta National Golf
Golf
Club in Augusta, Georgia , which has become one of the professional game's most important tournaments.

SOCCER

In recent decades association football , known in the South as in the rest of the United States
United States
as "soccer", has become a popular sport at youth and collegiate levels throughout the region. The game has been historically widespread at the college level in the Atlantic coast states of Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas, which contain many of the nation's most successful college soccer programs.

The establishment of Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer
has led to professional soccer clubs in the Southern cities including FC Dallas
Dallas
, Houston Dynamo , Orlando City , and Atlanta
Atlanta
United . The current United States third division soccer league, the United Soccer League , was initially geographically based in the coastal Southeast around clubs in Charleston, Richmond, Charlotte, Wilmington, Raleigh, Virginia
Virginia
Beach, and Atlanta.

HEALTH

Nine Southern states have obesity rates exceeding thirty percent of the population, the highest in the country: Mississippi, Louisiana, West Virginia, Alabama, Oklahoma, Arkansas, South Carolina, Kentucky, and Texas. Rates for hypertension and diabetes for these states are also the highest in the nation. A study reported that six Southern states have the worst incidence of sleep disturbances in the nation, attributing the disturbances to high rates of obesity and smoking. The South has a higher percentage of obese people and diabetics. It has the largest number of people dying from stroke. The South has the highest rates of cognitive decline . Life expectancy is lower and death rates higher in the South than in the other regions of the country for all racial groups. This disparity reflects substantial divergence between the South and other regions since the middle of the 20th century.

The East South Central Census Division of the United States
United States
(made up of Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama) had the highest rate of inpatient hospital stays in 2012. The other divisions, West South Central (Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana) and South Atlantic (West Virginia, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida) ranked seventh and fifth, respectively. The South had a significantly higher rate of hospital discharges in 2005 than other regions of the United States, but the rate had declined to be closer to the overall national rate by 2011.

For cancer in a region, the South, particularly an axis from West Virginia
Virginia
through Texas, leads the nation in adult obesity, adult smoking, low exercise, low fruit consumption, low vegetable consumption, all known cancer risk factors, which matches a similar high risk axis in "All Cancers Combined, Death Rates by State, 2011" from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .

POLITICS

Main article: Politics of the Southern United States
United States
While this Confederate Flag pattern is the one most often thought of as the Confederate Flag today, it was actually just one of many used by the Confederate armed forces. Variations of this design served as the Battle Flag of the Armies of Northern Virginia
Virginia
and Tennessee, and as the Confederate Naval Jack, albeit with different shades. A rally against school integration in 1959.

In the first decades after Reconstruction, when white Democrats regained power in the state legislatures, they began to make voter registration more complicated, to reduce black voting. With a combination of intimidation, fraud and violence by paramilitary groups, they suppressed black voting and turned Republicans out of office. From 1890 to 1908, ten of eleven states ratified new constitutions or amendments that effectively disenfranchised most black voters and many poor white voters. This disfranchisement persisted for six decades into the 20th century, depriving blacks and poor whites of all political representation. Because they could not vote, they could not sit on juries. They had no one to represent their interests, resulting in state legislatures consistently underfunding programs and services, such as schools, for blacks and poor whites.

With the collapse of the Republican Party in nearly all parts of the South, the region became known as the “ Solid South ”, and the Democratic Party after 1900 moved to a system of primaries to select their candidates. Victory in a primary was tantamount to election . From the late 1870s to the 1960s, only rarely was a state or national Southern politician a Republican, apart from a few Appalachian mountain districts. Republicans, however, continued to control parts of the Appalachian Mountains and compete for power in the Border States. Apart from a few states (such as the Byrd Machine in Virginia, the Crump Machine in Memphis), and a few other local organizations, the Democratic Party itself was very lightly organized. It managed primaries but party officials had little other role. To be successful a politician built his own network of friends, neighbors and allies. Reelection was the norm, and the result from 1910 to the late 20th century was that Southern Democrats in Congress had accumulated seniority, and automatically took the chairmanships of all committees. By the 1940s the Supreme Court began to find disfranchisement measures like the “grandfather clause” and the white primary unconstitutional. Southern legislatures quickly passed other measures to keep blacks disfranchised, even after suffrage was extended more widely to poor whites. Because white Democrats controlled all the Southern seats in Congress they had outsize power in Congress and could sidetrack or filibuster efforts by Northerners to pass legislation against lynching, for example.

Increasing support for civil rights legislation by the national Democratic Party beginning in 1948 caused segregationist Southern Democrats to nominate Strom Thurmond on a third-party “Dixiecrat” ticket in 1948. These Dixiecrats returned to the party by 1950, but Southern Democrats held off Republican inroads in the suburbs by arguing that only they could defend the region from the onslaught of northern liberals and the civil rights movement . In response to the _ Brown v. Board of Education _ ruling of 1954, 101 Southern congressmen (19 senators, 82 House members of which 99 were Southern Democrats and 2 were Republicans) in 1956 denounced the Brown decisions as a "clear abuse of judicial power climaxes a trend in the federal judiciary undertaking to legislate in derogation of the authority of Congress and to encroach upon the reserved rights of the states and the people." The manifesto lauded, “...those states which have declared the intention to resist enforced integration by any lawful means”. It was signed by all Southern senators except Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson , and Tennessee
Tennessee
senators Albert Gore, Sr. and Estes Kefauver . Virginia
Virginia
closed schools in Warren County , Prince Edward County , Charlottesville , and Norfolk rather than integrate, but no other state followed suit. Democratic governors Orval Faubus of Arkansas, Ross Barnett of Mississippi, John Connally of Texas, Lester Maddox of Georgia, and, especially, George Wallace of Alabama
Alabama
resisted integration and appealed to a rural and blue-collar electorate. US president Lyndon B. Johnson signs the historic Civil Rights Act of 1964 .

The northern Democrats’ support of civil rights issues culminated when Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 , which ended legal segregation and provided federal enforcement of voting rights for blacks. In the presidential election of 1964 , Barry Goldwater ’s only electoral victories outside his home state of Arizona
Arizona
were in the states of the Deep South where few blacks could vote before the 1965 Voting Rights Act.

Pockets of resistance to integration in public places broke out in violence during the 1960s by the shadowy Ku Klux Klan , which caused a backlash among moderates. Major resistance to school busing extending into the 1970s.

National Republicans such as Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
began to develop their Southern strategy to attract conservative white Southerners, especially the middle class and suburban voters, in addition to migrants from the North and traditional GOP pockets in Appalachia. The transition to a Republican stronghold in the South took decades. First, the states started voting Republican in presidential elections, except for native sons Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
in 1976 and Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
in 1992 and 1996. Then the states began electing Republican senators and finally governors. Georgia was the last state to do so, with Sonny Perdue taking the governorship in 2002. In addition to its middle class and business base, Republicans cultivated the religious right and attracted strong majorities from the evangelical or Fundamentalist vote, mostly Southern Baptists, which had not been a distinct political force prior to 1980.

After the 2012 elections, the eleven states of the former Confederacy were represented by 98 Republicans, 40 Democrats.

PRESIDENTS FROM THE SOUTH

The South produced nine of the first twelve Presidents prior to the Civil War. For more than a century after the Civil War, no politician from an antebellum slave state became President unless he either moved North (like Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
) or was vice president when the president died in office (like Andrew Johnson , Harry Truman
Harry Truman
and Lyndon B. Johnson ). In 1976, Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
defied this trend and became the first Southerner to break the pattern since Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
in 1848. The South has produced five of the last nine American Presidents: Lyndon B. Johnson (1963–69), Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1977–81), George H. W. Bush (1989–93), Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1993–2001) and George W. Bush (2001–2009). Johnson was a native of Texas, while Carter is from Georgia, and Clinton from Arkansas. While George H.W. and George W. Bush began their political careers in Texas, they were both born in New England
New England
and have their ancestral roots in the region.

OTHER POLITICIANS AND POLITICAL MOVEMENTS

Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
, newly elected Governor of Arkansas
Arkansas
speaks with Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
in 1978. Carter and Clinton were both Southern Democrats and elected to the presidencies in 1976 and 1992 .

The South has produced various nationally known politicians and political movements. In 1948, a group of Democratic congressmen, led by Governor Strom Thurmond of South Carolina, split from the Democrats in reaction to an anti-segregation speech given by Minneapolis
Minneapolis
mayor and future senator Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota
Minnesota
. They founded the States Rights Democratic or Dixiecrat Party. During that year’s Presidential election, the party ran Thurmond as its candidate and he carried four Deep South states.

In the 1968 Presidential election , Alabama
Alabama
Governor George C. Wallace ran for President on the American Independent Party ticket. Wallace ran a “law and order” campaign similar to that of Republican candidate, Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
. Nixon’s Southern Strategy of gaining electoral votes downplayed race issues and focused on culturally conservative values, such as family issues, patriotism, and cultural issues that appealed to Southern Baptists .

In the 1994 mid-term elections , another Southern politician, Newt Gingrich , led the Republican Revolution
Republican Revolution
, ushering in twelve years of GOP control of the House. Gingrich became Speaker of the United States House of Representatives in 1995 and served until his resignation in 1999. Tom DeLay
Tom DeLay
was the most powerful Republican leader in Congress until he was indicted under criminal charges in 2005 and was forced to step aside by Republican rules. Apart from Bob Dole of Kansas (1985–96), the recent Republican Senate leaders have been Southerners: Howard Baker (1981–85) of Tennessee, Trent Lott (1996–2003) of Mississippi, Bill Frist (2003–2006) of Tennessee, and Mitch McConnell (2007–present) of Kentucky.

The Republicans candidates for President have won the South in elections since 1972 , except for 1976 . However, the region is not entirely monolithic, and every successful Democratic candidate since 1976 has claimed at least three Southern states. Barack Obama
Barack Obama
won Florida, Maryland, Delaware, North Carolina, and Virginia
Virginia
in 2008 but did not repeat his victory in North Carolina
North Carolina
during his 2012 reelection campaign.

RACE RELATIONS

Main article: Racism in the United States
United States

NATIVE AMERICANS

Native Americans
Americans
had lived in the south for nearly 12,000 years. They were defeated by settlers in a series of wars ending in the War of 1812 and the Seminole Wars , and most were removed west to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and Kansas). However large numbers of Native Americans
Americans
managed to stay behind by blending into the surrounding society. This was especially true of the wives of Euro-American merchants and miners.

CIVIL RIGHTS

Racial segregation was commonplace in the South until the 1960s.

The South witnessed two major events in the lives of 20th century African Americans: the Great Migration and the American Civil Rights Movement .

The Great Migration began during World War I, hitting its high point during World War II. During this migration, blacks left the South to find work in Northern factories and other sectors of the economy.

The migration also empowered the growing Civil Rights Movement. While the movement existed in all parts of the United States, its focus was against disfranchisement and the Jim Crow laws in the South. Most of the major events in the movement occurred in the South, including the Montgomery Bus Boycott , the Mississippi
Mississippi
Freedom Summer
Freedom Summer
, the March on Selma, Alabama
Alabama
, and the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. . In addition, some of the most important writings to come out of the movement were written in the South, such as King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail ". Most of the civil rights landmarks can be found around the South. The Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site in Atlanta
Atlanta
includes a museum that chronicles the American Civil Rights Movement as well as Martin Luther King, Jr.'s boyhood home on Auburn Avenue. Additionally, Ebenezer Baptist Church is located in the Sweet Auburn district as is the King Center, location of Martin Luther and Coretta Scott King's gravesites.

The Civil Rights Movement ended Jim Crow laws across the South. A second migration appears to be underway, with African Americans from the North moving to the South in record numbers. While race relations are still a contentious issue in the South, the region surpasses the rest of the country in many areas of integration and racial equality. According to 2003 report by researchers at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee , Virginia
Virginia
Beach , Charlotte , Nashville-Davidson , and Jacksonville were the four most integrated of the nation's fifty largest cities, with Memphis at number six. Southern states tend to have a low disparity in incarceration rates between blacks and whites relative to the rest of the country.

SYMBOLISM

Some Southerners use the Confederate flag to identify themselves with the South, states' rights and Southern tradition. Groups, such as the League of the South , have a high regard for the secession movement of 1860, citing a desire to protect and defend Southern heritage. Numerous political battles have erupted over flying the Confederate flag over state capitols, and the naming of public buildings or highways after Confederate leaders, the prominence of certain statues, and the everyday display of Confederate insignia.

Other symbols of the South include the Bonnie Blue Flag , magnolia trees, and the song " Dixie
Dixie
".

MAJOR CITIES

The South was heavily rural as late as the 1940s, but now the population is increasingly concentrated in metropolitan areas. The following tables show the twenty largest cities, metropolitan, and combined statistical areas in the South. Houston
Houston
is the largest city in the South. Houston
Houston
San Antonio Dallas
Dallas
Austin Jacksonville Fort Worth Charlotte El Paso Washington D.C. Nashville
Nashville

RANK CITY STATE(S) Population (2016 est.)

1 Houston
Houston
TX 2,303,482

2 San Antonio TX 1,492,510

3 Dallas
Dallas
TX 1,317,929

4 Austin TX 947,890

5 Jacksonville FL 880,619

6 Fort Worth TX 854,113

7 Charlotte NC 842,051

8 El Paso TX 683,080

9 Washington DC 681,170

10 Nashville
Nashville
TN 660,388

11 Memphis TN 652,717

12 Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City OK 638,367

13 Louisville KY 616,261

14 Baltimore MD 614,664

15 Atlanta
Atlanta
GA 472,522

16 Raleigh
Raleigh
NC 458,880

17 Miami
Miami
FL 453,579

18 Virginia
Virginia
Beach VA 452,602

19 Tulsa OK 403,090

20 Arlington TX 392,772

MAJOR METROPOLITAN AREAS

RANK METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA STATE(S) Population (2016 est.)

1 Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington TX 7,233,323

2 Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land TX 6,772,470

3 Washington metropolitan area VA –MD -WV -DC 6,131,977

4 Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach FL 6,066,387

5 Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta GA 5,789,700

6 Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater FL 3,032,171

7 Baltimore–Towson MD 2,798,886

8 Charlotte–Gastonia–Rock Hill-Concord NC –SC 2,474,314

9 Orlando–Kissimmee–Sanford FL 2,441,257

10 San Antonio-New Braunfels TX 2,429,609

11 Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky
Kentucky
* OH -IN -KY 2,165,139

12 Austin–Round Rock-San Marcos TX 2,056,405

13 Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Franklin TN 1,865,298

14 Virginia
Virginia
Beach–Norfolk–Newport News VA –NC 1,726,907

15 Jacksonville FL 1,478,212

16 Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City OK 1,373,211

17 Memphis-Forrest City TN –MS –AR 1,342,842

18 Raleigh
Raleigh
NC 1,302,946

19 Louisville–Jefferson County * KY –IN 1,283,430

20 Richmond VA 1,281,708

* Asterisk indicates part of the metropolitan area is outside the states classified as Southern.

MAJOR COMBINED STATISTICAL AREAS

RANK COMBINED STATISTICAL AREA STATE(S) Population (2015 estimates)

1 Washington-Baltimore-Arlington DC -MD -VA -WV -PA 9,625,360

2 Dallas-Fort Worth TX 7,504,362

3 Houston
Houston
TX 6,855,069

4 Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Port St. Lucie FL 6,654,565

5 Atlanta-Athens-Clarke County-Sandy Springs GA 6,365,108

6 Orlando-Deltona-Daytona Beach FL 3,129,308

7 Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater FL 3,030,953

8 Charlotte-Concord NC -SC 2,583,956

9 Cincinnati-Wilmington-Maysville OH -KY -IN 2,216,735

10 Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill NC 2,117,103

11 Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro TN 1,951,644

12 Virginia
Virginia
Beach-Norfolk VA -NC 1,828,187

13 Greensboro–Winston-Salem–High Point NC 1,642,506

14 Jacksonville-St. Marys-Palatka FL –GA 1,573,606

15 Louisville/Jefferson County–Elizabethtown–Madison KY -IN 1,504,559

16 New Orleans-Metairie-Hammond LA -MS 1,493,205

17 Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City-Shawnee OK 1,430,327

18 Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson SC 1,426,625

19 Memphis-Forrest City TN –MS -AR 1,370,716

20 Birmingham-Hoover-Talladega AL 1,319,238

SEE ALSO

* Black Belt (U.S. region) * Cuisine of the Southern United States
United States
* Culture of honor (Southern United States) * King Cotton * List of plantations in the United States
United States
* Rice Belt * Southern American English * Southern art * Southern hospitality * Southern literature * Territories of the United States
United States
on stamps * White Southerner Admixture

* United States
United States
portal

REFERENCES

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_. 2000. Archived from the original on May 22, 2010. * ^ Samuel S. Hill, Charles H. Lippy, and Charles Reagan Wilson, eds. _Encyclopedia of Religion in the South_ (2005) * ^ "The most and least religious states in the US – Mississippi comes out top, Vermont is bottom – Christian News on Christian Today". _christiantoday.com_. * ^ Blanton, Anderson, _Hittin' the Prayer Bones: Materiality of Spirit in the Pentecostal South._ (University of North Carolina
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(1942). _Houston: A History and Guide_. American Guide Series. The Anson Jones Press. p. 215. LCCN 87890145 . OL 2507140M . * ^ "Base Ball Club". _The Weekly Telegraph_. April 16, 1861. Retrieved December 10, 2012. * ^ Cutler, Tami (March 31, 2014). "2014 Division I Baseball Attendance" (PDF). National Collegiate Baseball Writers Association . Retrieved January 20, 2015. * ^ "MLB Attendance". ESPN
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Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-9724-9 * ^ The classic study is V.O. Key, _Southern politics in State and Nation_ (1949) * ^ Numan V. Bartley, _The New South, 1945–1980_ (1995) pp 455–70 * ^ Bernard Cosman, _Five States for Goldwater Continuity and Change in Southern Presidential Voting Patterns_ (1966) * ^ David M. Chalmers, _Backfire: how the Ku Klux Klan helped the civil rights movement_ (2003) * ^ Bartley, _The New South_ pp 408–11 * ^ Earl Black and Merle Black, _The Rise of Southern Republicans_ (2003) * ^ William C. Martin, _With God On Our Side: The Rise of the Religious Right in America_ (2005) * ^ Michael Barone, “Republicans Find Refuge in the House,” _The Wall Street
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Journal_ (Nov. 9, 2012) p. A13. * ^ “Romney Bus Tour Charts Course for Battlegrounds Obama Won”. Businessweek. August 10, 2012. * ^ Katzman, 1996 * ^ "Tracking New Trends in Race Migration". _ News & Notes _. National Public Radio . March 14, 2006. Retrieved April 4, 2008. * ^ "Study shows Memphis among most integrated cities". _Memphis Business Journal _. January 13, 2003. * ^ Mauer, Marc; Ryan S. King (July 2007). "Uneven Justice: State Rates of Incarceration By Race and Ethnicity" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: The Sentencing Project . p. 16. Retrieved April 20, 2010. (Report.) * ^ " League of the South Core Beliefs Statement". League of the South . June 1994. Retrieved June 12, 2008. * ^ Tony Horowitz, _Confederates in the Attic_ (1998) * ^ Martinez, James Michael; Richardson, William Donald; McNinch-Su, Ron, eds. (2000). _Confederate Symbols_. University Press of Florida. ISBN 9780813017587 . * ^ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2014 to July 1, 2015 (CBSA-EST2012-01)". _March 2016 United States
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Census_. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. Retrieved May 28, 2017. * ^ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2015 to July 1, 2016 (CBSA-EST2012-01)". _March 2015 United States
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Census_. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. Retrieved February 19, 2017. * ^ The 2012 Census population estimate for the part within the South (Kentucky) is 431,997. * ^ The 2010 Census population for the part within the South (Kentucky) is 973,271.

* Ayers, Edward L. _What Caused the Civil War? Reflections on the South and Southern History_ (2005) * Cash, Wilbur J. _The Mind of the South_ (1941), * Cooper, Christopher A. and H. Gibbs Knotts, eds. _The New Politics of North Carolina_ (U. of North Carolina
North Carolina
Press, 2008) ISBN 978-0-8078-5876-9 * Flynt, J. Wayne _Dixie's Forgotten People: The South's Poor Whites_ (1979). deals with 20th century. * David M. Katzman. "Black Migration". _The Reader's Companion to American History_. Houghton Mifflin Company. * James Grossman (1996). "Chicago and the \'Great Migration\'". _Illinois History Teacher_. 3 (2). Archived from the original on September 3, 2006. * McWhiney, Grady. _In Cracker Culture: Celtic Ways in the Old South_ (1988) * John O. Allen and Clayton E. Jewett (2004). _ Slavery
Slavery
in the South: A State-by-State History_. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-32019-5 . * Rayford Logan (1997). _The Betrayal of the Negro from Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson_. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80758-0 . * William B. Hesseltine (1936). _A History of the South, 1607–1936_. Prentice-Hall. * Mark, Rebecca, and Rob Vaughan. _The South: The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures_ (2004) * Robert W. Twyman. and David C. Roller, ed., ed. (1979). _Encyclopedia of Southern History_. LSU Press. ISBN 0-8071-0575-9 . CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) * Charles Reagan Wilson and William Ferris, ed., ed. (1989). _Encyclopedia of Southern Culture_. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-1823-2 . CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link )

FURTHER READING

* Edward L. Ayers (1993). _The Promise of the New South: Life after Reconstruction_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508548-5 . * Monroe Lee Billington (1975). _The Political South in the 20th Century_. Scribner. ISBN 0-684-13983-9 . * Earl Black and Merle Black (2002). _The Rise of Southern Republicans_. Belknap press. ISBN 0-674-01248-8 . * W. J. Cash (1935). _The Mind of the South_. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-679-73647-6 . * Pete Daniel (2000). _Lost Revolutions: The South in the 1950s_. University of North Carolina
North Carolina
Press. ISBN 0-8078-4848-4 . * Davis, Donald, and Mark R. Stoll. _Southern United States: An Environmental History_ (2006) * Edwards, Laura F. "Southern History as U.S. History," _Journal of Southern History_, 75 (Aug. 2009), 533–64. * Frederickson, Kari. (2013). _ Cold War Dixie: Militarization and Modernization in the American South._ Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press. * Michael Kreyling (1998). _Inventing Southern Literature_. University Press of Mississippi. p. 66. ISBN 1-57806-045-1 . * Heather A. Haveman (2004). "Antebellum literary culture and the evolution of American magazines". _Poetics_. 32: 5–28. doi :10.1016/j.poetic.2003.12.002 . * Eugene D. Genovese (1976). _Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made_. New York: Vintage Books. p. 41. ISBN 0-394-71652-3 . * Morris, Christopher (2009). "A More Southern Environmental History". _Journal of Southern History_. 75 (3): 581–598. * Howard N. Rabinowitz (September 1976). "From Exclusion to Segregation: Southern Race Relations, 1865–1890". _Journal of American History_. 43: 325–50. * Nicol C. Rae (1994). _Southern Democrats_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508709-7 . * Jeffrey A. Raffel (1998). _Historical Dictionary of School Segregation and Desegregation: The American Experience_. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-29502-6 . * Virts, Nancy (2006). "Change in the Plantation System: American South, 1910–1945". _Explorations in Economic History_. 43 (1): 153–176. doi :10.1016/j.eeh.2005.04.003 . * Wells, Jonathan Daniel (2009). "The Southern Middle Class". _Journal of Southern History_. 75 (3): 651–. * C. Vann Woodward (1955). _The Strange Career of Jim Crow_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514690-5 . * Gavin Wright (1996). _Old South, New South: Revolutions in the Southern Economy Since the Civil War_. LSU Press. ISBN 0-8071-2098-7 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to SOUTHERN UNITED STATES _.

* _ Southern United States
United States
travel guide from Wikivoyage * DocSouth: Documenting the American South – multimedia collections from the University of North

.