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Southern Schleswig
Southern Schleswig
(German: Südschleswig or Landesteil Schleswig, Danish: Sydslesvig) is the southern half of the former Duchy of Schleswig [1] in Germany on the Jutland
Jutland
Peninsula. The geographical area today covers the large area between the Eider river in the south and the Flensburg Fjord
Flensburg Fjord
in the north,[2] where it borders Denmark. Northern Schleswig, congruent with the former South Jutland
Jutland
County, forms the southernmost part of Denmark. The area belonged to the Crown of Denmark
Denmark
until Prussia and Austria declared war on Denmark
Denmark
in 1864. Denmark
Denmark
wanted to give away the German speaking Holsten and set the new border at the small river Ejderen. Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck concluded that this justified a war, and even proclaimed it as a "holy war". The German chancellor also turned to the Emperor of Austria, Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I of Austria
for help. A similar war in 1848 had gone poorly for the Prussians. With help from both the Austrians and the Danish-born General Moltke, the Danish army was destroyed or forced to make a disorderly retreat. And the Prussian-Danish border was moved from the Elbe
Elbe
up in Jutland
Jutland
to the creek Kongeåen. After the First World War, two referendums decided a new border.[3][4] The northern part reverted to Denmark
Denmark
as Nordslesvig (North Slesvig). But the middle and southern part, including Schleswig's only city, Flensburg, remained in what, since the unification of Germany, had become German hands. In Denmark, the loss of Flensborg caused a political crisis, Påskekrisen or the Easter Crisis, as it happened during the Easter of 1920.[5][6] After the Second World War
Second World War
the area remained as German territory and, with Holstein, formed the new state of Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
as a part of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) in 1948.

Contents

1 History 2 Today 3 Bibliography 4 References

History[edit] The Schleswig lands north of the Eider river and the Bay of Kiel
Bay of Kiel
had been a fief of the Danish Crown since the Early Middle Ages. The southern Holstein
Holstein
region belonged to Francia
Francia
and later to the Holy Roman Empire, but it was held as an imperial fief by the Danish kings since the 1460 Treaty of Ribe.[7] The Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
Question was first brought to a head during the Revolutions of 1848, when, from 1848 to 1851, revolting German-speaking National liberals backed by Prussia fought for the separation of Schleswig and Holstein
Holstein
from Denmark
Denmark
in the First Schleswig War. Though the status quo ante bellum was restored, the conflict lingered on, and on 1 February 1864 Prussian and Austrian troops crossed the Eider, sparking off the Second Schleswig War, after which Denmark
Denmark
had to cede Schleswig and Holstein
Holstein
according to the Treaty of Vienna. After the Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
of 1866, victorious Prussia took control over all Schleswig and Holstein
Holstein
but was obliged by the Peace of Prague to hold a referendum in predominantly Danish-speaking Northern Schleswig, which it never did.[8] After the German defeat in World War I, the Schleswig Plebiscites
Schleswig Plebiscites
were decreed by the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, in which the present-day German-Danish border was drawn. The border took effect on 15 June 1920, dividing Schleswig into a southern and northern part and leaving a considerable Danish and German minority on both sides. [9][10] Today[edit] Southern Schleswig
Southern Schleswig
is part of the German state (Bundesland) of Schleswig-Holstein, thus its denotation as Landesteil Schleswig. It does not, however, form an administrative entity, but instead consists of the districts (Landkreise) of Schleswig-Flensburg, Nordfriesland, the urban district (Kreisfreie Stadt) of Flensburg
Flensburg
and the northern part of Rendsburg-Eckernförde.

Learn Danish banner in Flensburg, one of the major cities of Southern Schleswig

Besides Standard German, Low Saxon dialects (Schleswigsch) are spoken, as well as Danish (Standard Danish or South Schleswig Danish) and its South Jutlandic
South Jutlandic
variant, plus North Frisian in the west.[11] Danish and North Frisian are official minority languages. Many of the inhabitants who speak only German and not Danish do not consider the region any different from the rest of Schleswig-Holstein. This notion is disputed by those defining themselves as Danes, South Schleswigans or Schleswigans, particularly historians and people organised in the institutions of the Danish minority of Southern Schleswig, such as the South Schleswig Voter Federation. Many of the last names found in the region are very often of Scandinavian or Danish form, with the -sen endings like Petersen. The major cities of Southern Schleswig
Southern Schleswig
are Flensburg, Rendsburg, the city of Schleswig, and Husum. Bibliography[edit]

Lars Henningsen: Sydslesvigs danske historie, Flensborg 2013. Lars Henningsen: Zwischen Grenzkonflikt und Grenzfrieden, Flensburg 2011 (as pdf document) Karen Margrethe Pedersen: Dansk sprog i Sydslesvig: det danske sprogs status inden for det danske mindretal i Sydslesvig, Institut for grænseregionsforskning Aabenraa 2000

References[edit]

^ Kathrin Sinner: Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
- das nördliche Bundesland: Räumliche Verortung als kulturelles Identitäskonstruk, page 86 ^ Sønderjylland A-Å, Aabenraa 2011, page 364 ^ Danish ^ German, Troels Fink: "Geschichte des schleswigschen Grenzlandes" Publisher: Munksgaard, Copenhagen 1958, pages 178-192. ^ http://www.historiefaget.dk/emner/1920erne-1930erne/paaskekrisen-1920/ ^ http://denstoredanske.dk/Danmarks_geografi_og_historie/Danmarks_historie/Danmark_1849-1945/P%C3%A5skekrisen_1920 ^ Region Sønderjylland-Schleswig: Politische Entwicklungen im Mittelalter ^ Region Sønderjylland-Schleswig: Nationale Entwicklung im 19. Jahrhundert (in German) ^ vimu - Det Virtuelle Museum: Genforening (in Danish) ^ vimu - Das Virtuelle Museum: Volksabstimmung (in German) ^ Region Sønderjylland-Schleswig: Sprachen und Dialekte südlich der Grenze(in German)

Coordinates: 54°44′N 9°05′E / 54.733°N 9.083°E / 5

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