Southern Rhodesia
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The Colony of Southern Rhodesia was a landlocked
self-governing __NOTOC__ Self-governance, self-government, or self-rule is the ability of a person or group to exercise all necessary functions of regulation Regulation is the management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends. In systems ...
British
Crown colony A Crown colony or royal colony was a colony administered by The Crown within the British Empire. There was usually a Governor#United Kingdom overseas territories, Governor, appointed by the monarch of the UK on the advice of the ''Home'' (UK) Gov ...
in southern Africa, established in 1923 and consisting of
British South Africa Company The British South Africa Company (BSAC or BSACo) was Chartered company, chartered in 1889 following the amalgamation of Cecil Rhodes' Central Search Association and the London-based Exploring Company Ltd, which had originally competed to capitali ...
(BSAC) territories lying south of the Zambezi River. The region was informally known as south Zambesia until annexed by Britain at the behest of
Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British mining business magnate, magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896. An ardent believer in British imperialism, Rho ...
's British South Africa Company, for whom the colony was named. The bounding territories were Bechuanaland (
Botswana Botswana (, also ), officially the Republic of Botswana ( tn, Lefatshe la Botswana, label= Setswana; Kalanga: ''Hango yeBotswana''), is a landlocked country in Southern Africa Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African ...
), Northern Rhodesia (
Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia (Bemba language, Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe), Tonga: ''Cisi ca Zambia''; Lozi language, Lozi: ''Naha ya Zambia''; Chewa language, Nyanja: ''Dziko la Zambia''), ...

Zambia
), Moçambique (
Mozambique Mozambique (), officially the Republic of Mozambique ( pt, Moçambique or , ; ny, Mozambiki; sw, Msumbiji; ts, Muzambhiki), is a country located in Southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi ...

Mozambique
), Transvaal Republic (including today's
Limpopo Limpopo is the northernmost Provinces of South Africa, province of South Africa. It is named after the Limpopo River, which forms the province's western and northern borders. The capital and largest city in the province is Polokwane (formerly P ...

Limpopo
, province of
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 million people, it is the world's List of countries by population, 23rd-most populous nation a ...

South Africa
). This southern region, known for its extensive gold reserves, was first purchased by the BSAC's
Pioneer Column The Pioneer Column was a force raised by Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British mining business magnate, magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 189 ...
on the strength of a Mineral Concession extracted from its Matabele overlord,
Lobengula Lobengula Khumalo (1845–1894) was the second king of the Northern Ndebele people (historically called Matabele in English language, English). Both names in the Zimbabwean Ndebele language, Ndebele language mean "the men of the long shields", ...
, and various majority Mashona vassal chiefs in 1890. Though parts of the territory were laid claim to by the Bechuana and Portugal; its first people, the Bushmen or 'Khoisan' had possessed it from the very beginning of prehistory and had continued to inhabit some parts. Following the colony's unilateral dissolution in 1970 by the Republic of Rhodesia government, Republic of Southern Rhodesia was re-established in 1979 as the predecessor state to the Republic of
Zimbabwe Rhodesia Zimbabwe Rhodesia () was an unrecognised state that existed from 1 June 1979 to 11 December 1979. Zimbabwe Rhodesia was preceded by an unrecognised republic named Rhodesia Rhodesia (, ), officially from 1970 the Republic of Rhodesia, was a ...
which in turn was the
predecessor state Predecessor may refer to: * A holy person announcing the approaching appearance of a prophet, see precursor Precursor or Precursors may refer to: *Precursor (religion), a forerunner, predecessor ** The Precursor, John the Baptist Science and tech ...
of The Republic of
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the south-west, Zambia to the north, and Mozambi ...

Zimbabwe
. Its only true geographical borders are the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, its other boundaries being more or less arbitrary and merging imperceptibly with the peoples and domains of earlier chiefdoms from pre-colonial times. The British colony was established ''
de jure In law and government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, ...
'' in 1923, having earlier been occupied, constructed and administered by the British South Africa Company and its sub-concessionaires who were mostly British subjects. In 1953, it was merged into the
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (also known as the Central African Federation, CAF) was a colonial federation that consisted of three southern African territories—the Self-governing colony, self-governing British colony of Southe ...

Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
, which lasted until 1963. Southern Rhodesia then remained a ''
de jure In law and government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, ...
'' British colony until 1980. However, the Southern Rhodesia government issued a
Unilateral Declaration of Independence A unilateral declaration of independence (UDI) is a formal process leading to the establishment of a new state by a subnational entity which declares itself independent and sovereign without a formal agreement with the state from which it is sece ...
(UDI) in 1965 and established
Rhodesia Rhodesia (, ), officially from 1970 the Republic of Rhodesia, was an unrecognised state in Southern Africa Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Gene ...

Rhodesia
, an unrecognised state. In 1979, it reconstituted itself under majority rule as
Zimbabwe Rhodesia Zimbabwe Rhodesia () was an unrecognised state that existed from 1 June 1979 to 11 December 1979. Zimbabwe Rhodesia was preceded by an unrecognised republic named Rhodesia Rhodesia (, ), officially from 1970 the Republic of Rhodesia, was a ...
, which also failed to win it international recognition. After a period of interim British control following the
Lancaster House Agreement The Lancaster House Agreement, signed on 21 December 1979, declared a ceasefire, ending the Rhodesian Bush War; and directly led to Rhodesia achieving internationally recognised independence as Zimbabwe. It required the imposition of direct Br ...
in December 1979, the country achieved internationally recognised independence as Zimbabwe in April 1980.


History


Origin as "Rhodesia"

Initially, the territory was referred to as "South Zambezia", a reference to the River
Zambezi The Zambezi River (also spelled Zambeze and Zambesi) is the List of rivers by length, fourth-longest river in Africa, the longest east-flowing river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa. The area of its drainage ba ...

Zambezi
, until the name "Rhodesia" came into use in 1895. This was in honour of
Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British mining business magnate, magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896. An ardent believer in British imperialism, Rho ...
, the British empire-builder and key figure during the British expansion into
southern Africa Southern Africa is the south South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Pro ...
. In 1888 Rhodes obtained
mineral rights Mineral rights are property rights to exploit an area for the minerals it harbors. Mineral rights can be separate from property ownership (see Split estate). Mineral rights can refer to sedentary minerals that do not move below the Earth's surface ...
from the most powerful local traditional leaders through
treaties A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relati ...

treaties
such as the
Rudd Concession The Rudd Concession, a written concession for exclusive mining rights in Matabeleland Matabeleland is a region located in southwestern Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in Sout ...

Rudd Concession
and the Moffat Treaty, which was signed by
King Lobengula Lobengula Khumalo (1845–1894) was the second king of the Northern Ndebele people (historically called Matabele in English language, English). Both names in the Zimbabwean Ndebele language, Ndebele language mean "the men of the long shields", ...
of the Ndebele people. "Southern" was first used in 1898 and dropped from normal usage in 1964, on the break-up of the
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (also known as the Central African Federation, CAF) was a colonial federation that consisted of three southern African territories—the Self-governing colony, self-governing British colony of Southe ...

Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
. "
Rhodesia Rhodesia (, ), officially from 1970 the Republic of Rhodesia, was an unrecognised state in Southern Africa Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Gene ...

Rhodesia
" then remained the name of the country until the creation of
Zimbabwe Rhodesia Zimbabwe Rhodesia () was an unrecognised state that existed from 1 June 1979 to 11 December 1979. Zimbabwe Rhodesia was preceded by an unrecognised republic named Rhodesia Rhodesia (, ), officially from 1970 the Republic of Rhodesia, was a ...
in 1979. Legally, from the British perspective, the name Southern Rhodesia continued to be used until 18 April 1980, when the
Republic of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the south-west, Zambia to the north, and Mozambi ...
was promulgated. The British government agreed that Rhodes' company, the
British South Africa Company The British South Africa Company (BSAC or BSACo) was Chartered company, chartered in 1889 following the amalgamation of Cecil Rhodes' Central Search Association and the London-based Exploring Company Ltd, which had originally competed to capitali ...
(BSAC), would administer the territory stretching from the
Limpopo Limpopo is the northernmost Provinces of South Africa, province of South Africa. It is named after the Limpopo River, which forms the province's western and northern borders. The capital and largest city in the province is Polokwane (formerly P ...

Limpopo
to
Lake Tanganyika Lake Tanganyika is an African Great Lake. It is the second-oldest freshwater lake in the world, the second-largest by volume, and the second-deepest, in all cases after Lake Baikal in Siberia. It is the world's longest freshwater lake. The la ...

Lake Tanganyika
under
charter A charter is the grant of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social scien ...
as a
protectorate A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy over most internal affairs while still recognizing the suzerainty of a more powerful sovereign ...
.
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death in 1901. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was Lis ...

Queen Victoria
signed the charter in 1889. Rhodes used this document in 1890 to justify sending the
Pioneer Column The Pioneer Column was a force raised by Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British mining business magnate, magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 189 ...
, a group of white settlers protected by well-armed
British South Africa Police ''For King, For Law, For Country'' , colors = Blue & Old Gold , march = Kum-A-Kye , mascot = , battles = , notable_commanders = , anni ...

British South Africa Police
(BSAP) and guided by the big game hunter Frederick Selous, through Matabeleland and into Shona territory to establish Fort Salisbury (now
Harare Harare (; formerly Salisbury until 1982) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ' ...

Harare
). In 1893–1894, with the help of their new
Maxim gun The Maxim gun is a recoil-operated Recoil operation is an operating mechanism used to implement locked- breech, autoloading firearm A firearm is any type of gun designed to be readily carried and used by an individual. The term is legally d ...
s, the BSAP defeated the Ndebele in the
First Matabele War The First Matabele War was fought between 1893 and 1894 in modern-day Zimbabwe. It pitted the British South Africa Company against the Northern Ndebele people, Ndebele (Matabele) Kingdom. Lobengula, king of the Ndebele, had tried to avoid outrigh ...
, a war which also resulted in the death of King Lobengula and the death of most of the members of the
Shangani Patrol The Shangani Patrol (or Wilson's Patrol) was a 34-soldier unit of the British South Africa Company that in 1893 was ambushed and annihilated by more than 3,000 Northern Ndebele people, Matabele warriors in pre-Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), d ...
. Shortly after the disastrous BSAP
Jameson Raid The Jameson Raid (29 December 1895 – 2 January 1896) was a botched Raid (military), raid against the South African Republic (commonly known as the Transvaal) carried out by British colonial administrator Leander Starr Jameson and his company t ...
into the
Transvaal Republic The South African Republic ( nl, Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek; the ZAR; also known as the Transvaal Republic, af, Suid-Afrikaanse Republiek) was an independent republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the s ...
, the Ndebele were led by their spiritual leader Mlimo against the white colonials and thus began the
Second Matabele War The Second Matabele War, also known as the Matabeleland Rebellion or part of what is now known in Zimbabwe as the First ''Chimurenga'', was fought between 1896 and 1897 in the region later known as Southern Rhodesia, now modern-day Zimbabwe. It ...
(1896–97) which resulted in the extermination of nearly half the British settlers. After months of bloodshed, Mlimo was found and shot by the American scout
Frederick Russell Burnham Frederick Russell Burnham Distinguished Service Order, DSO (May 11, 1861 – September 1, 1947) was an American frontiersman, scout and world-traveling adventurer. He is known for his service to the British South Africa Company and to the Britis ...
and soon thereafter Rhodes walked unarmed into the Ndebele stronghold in
Matobo Hills The Matobo National Park forms the core of the Matobo or Matopos Hills, an area of granite kopjes and wooded valleys commencing some south of Bulawayo, southern Zimbabwe. The hills were formed over 2 billion years ago with granite being forced to ...
and persuaded the
impi Impi is a Zulu language, Zulu word meaning war or combat, and by association any body of men gathered for war, for example ''impi ya masosha'' is a term denoting 'an army'. Impi were formed from multiple regiments (amabutho in Zulu) from amakha ...
to lay down their arms, effectively ending the revolt. A
legislative council A legislative council is the legislature, or one of the legislative chambers, of a nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared terri ...
was created in 1899 to manage the company's civil affairs, with a minority of elected seats, through which the BSAC had to pass government measures. As the company was a British institution in which settlers and capitalists owned most shares, and local black African tribal chiefs the remainder, and the electorate to this council was limited to those shareholders, the electorate was almost exclusively white settlers. Over time as more settlers arrived and a growing number had less than the amount of land required to own a share in the company or where in trades supporting the company as workers, successive activism resulted in first increasing the proportion of elected seats, and eventually allowing non-share holders the right to vote in the election. Prior to about 1918, the opinion among the electorate supported continued BSAC rule but opinion changed because of the development of the country and increased settlement. In addition, a decision in the British courts that land not in private ownership belonged to the
British Crown The Crown is the state (polity), state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their subdivisions (such as the Crown Dependencies, British Overseas Territories, overseas territories, Provinces and territories ...

British Crown
rather than the BSAC gave great impetus to the campaign for self-government. In the resulting treaty government self-government, Crown lands which were sold to settlers allowed those settlers the right to vote in the self-governing colony.


Century up to independence

The territory north of the Zambezi was the subject of separate treaties with African chiefs: today, it forms the country of
Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia (Bemba language, Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe), Tonga: ''Cisi ca Zambia''; Lozi language, Lozi: ''Naha ya Zambia''; Chewa language, Nyanja: ''Dziko la Zambia''), ...

Zambia
. The first BSAC Administrator for the western part was appointed for
Barotseland Barotseland (Lozi language, Lozi: Mubuso Bulozi) is a Kingdom between Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Zambia and Angola. It is the homeland of the Lozi people or ''Barotse'', or Malozi, who are a unified group of over 20 individual formerly dive ...

Barotseland
in 1897 and for the whole of
North-Western Rhodesia North-Western Rhodesia, in south central Africa, was a territory administered from 1891 until 1899 under charter by the British South Africa Company The British South Africa Company (BSAC or BSACo) was Chartered company, chartered in 1889 foll ...
in 1900. The first BSAC Administrator for the eastern part,
North-Eastern Rhodesia North-Eastern Rhodesia was a British protectorate A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy over most internal affairs while still rec ...
, was appointed in 1895. The whites in the territory south of the river paid it scant regard though, and generally used the name "Rhodesia" in a narrow sense to mean their part. The designation "Southern Rhodesia" was first used officially in 1898 in the Southern Rhodesia Order in Council of 20 October 1898, which applied to the area south of the Zambezi, and was more common after the BSAC merged the administration of the two northern territories as
Northern Rhodesia Northern Rhodesia was a protectorate A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy over most internal affairs while still recognizing th ...
in 1911. As a result of the various treaties between the BSAC and the black tribes, Acts of Parliament delineating BSAC and Crown Lands, overlapping British colonial commission authority of both areas, the rights of the increasing number of British settlers and their descendants were given secondary review by authorities. This resulted in the formation of new movements for expanding the self-government of the Rhodesian people which saw BSAC rule as an impediment to further expansion. The
Southern Rhodesian Legislative Council The Southern Rhodesian Legislative Council was the inaugural governing body for the British South Africa Company The British South Africa Company (BSAC or BSACo) was Chartered company, chartered in 1889 following the amalgamation of Cecil Rhodes' ...
election of 1920 returned a large majority of candidates of the
Responsible Government Association The Responsible Government Association (RGA), called the Rhodesia Party from 1923, was a political party in Southern Rhodesia. Founded in 1917, it initially advocated responsible government for Southern Rhodesia within the British Empire, as oppo ...
and it became clear that BSAC rule was no longer practical. Opinion in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...

United Kingdom
and
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 million people, it is the world's List of countries by population, 23rd-most populous nation a ...

South Africa
favoured incorporation of Southern Rhodesia in the
Union of South Africa The Union of South Africa ( nl, Unie van Zuid-Afrika; af, Unie van Suid-Afrika ) was the historical predecessor to the present-day South Africa, Republic of South Africa. It came into existence on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the British ...
, but, by forcing the pace of negotiation, the Southern Rhodesians obtained unfavourable terms and the electorate backed Responsible Government in a 1922 referendum. In view of the outcome of the referendum, the territory was annexed by the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...

United Kingdom
on 12 September 1923.''Collective Responses to Illegal Acts in International Law: United Nations Action in the Question of Southern Rhodesia'' by Vera Gowlland-Debbas Shortly after annexation, on 1 October 1923, the first constitution for the new Colony of Southern Rhodesia came into force. Under this constitution Sir Charles Coghlan became the first Premier of Southern Rhodesia and upon his death in 1927 he was succeeded by Howard Unwin Moffat. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great ...
, Southern Rhodesian military units participated on the side of the United Kingdom. Southern Rhodesian forces were involved on many fronts including the
East East or Orient is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are perpendicular (at rig ...
and
North African campaign#REDIRECT North African campaign {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
s,
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peninsula and List of islands of Italy, se ...
,
Madagascar Madagascar (; mg, Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar ( mg, Repoblikan'i Madagasikara, links=no, ; french: République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, a ...
and
Burma Myanmar (; my, မြန်မာ ) or Burma ( my, ဗမာ ), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by Bangladesh and India to its northwest, China to its northeast, Laos a ...
. Southern Rhodesian forces had the highest loss ratio of any constituent element, colony, dependency or dominion of the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
forces during World War II. Additionally, the Rhodesian pilots earned the highest number of decorations and ace appellations of any group within the Empire. This resulted in the Royal Family paying an unusual state visit to the colony at the end of the war to thank the Rhodesian people. Economically, Southern Rhodesia developed an economy that was narrowly based on production of a few primary products, notably, chrome and tobacco. It was therefore vulnerable to the economic cycle. The deep recession of the 1930s gave way to a post-war boom. This boom prompted the immigration of about 200,000 white settlers between 1945 and 1970, taking the white population up to 307,000. A large number of these immigrants were of British working-class origin. More settlers from the
Belgian Congo The Belgian Congo (french: link=no, Congo belge, ; nl, Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colonial empire, Belgian colony in Central Africa from 1908 until independence in 1960. The former colony adopted its present name, the Democratic Republic of ...

Belgian Congo
, Kenya, Tanzania, and later Angola and Mozambique as well as increased birth rate, raised the Rhodesian white population to 600,000 by 1976. The black population was about 6 million. In the 1940s, the founding of a university to serve central African countries was proposed. Such a university was eventually established in
Salisbury Salisbury ( ) is a city status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city in Wiltshire, England, with a population of 40,302, at the confluence of the rivers River Avon, Hampshire, Avon, River Nadder, Nadder and River Bourne, Wiltshire, Bourne. The ...
, with funding provided by the British and Southern Rhodesian governments and some private sources. One condition of British funding was that student admission should be based on "academic achievement and good character" with no racial distinction. University College of Rhodesia (UCR) received its first intake of students in 1952. Until 1971 it awarded degrees of the Universities of London and Birmingham. In 1971 UCR became the University of Rhodesia and began awarding its own degrees. In 1980 it was renamed the University of Zimbabwe.


1953–1965

In 1953, with calls for independence mounting in many of its African possessions, the United Kingdom created the
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (also known as the Central African Federation, CAF) was a colonial federation that consisted of three southern African territories—the Self-governing colony, self-governing British colony of Southe ...

Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
(or the Central African Federation, CAF), which consisted of Southern Rhodesia,
Northern Rhodesia Northern Rhodesia was a protectorate A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy over most internal affairs while still recognizing th ...
and Nyasaland (now
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the south-west, Zambia to the north, and Mozambi ...

Zimbabwe
,
Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia (Bemba language, Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe), Tonga: ''Cisi ca Zambia''; Lozi language, Lozi: ''Naha ya Zambia''; Chewa language, Nyanja: ''Dziko la Zambia''), ...

Zambia
, and Malawi, respectively). The idea was to try to steer a middle road between the differing aspirations of the black nationalists, the colonial administration and the white settler population. The CAF sought to emulate the experience of Australia, Canada and South Africa – wherein groups of colonies had been federated together to form viable independent nations. Originally designed to be "an indissoluble federation", the CAF quickly started to unravel due to the low proportion of British and other white citizens in relation to the larger black populations. Additionally, by incorporating the tribes within the Federation as potential citizens, the Federation created the paradoxical situation of having a white elite owning most of the land and capital, whilst using cheap black labour. The
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (also known as the Central African Federation, CAF) was a colonial federation that consisted of three southern African territories—the Self-governing colony, self-governing British colony of Southe ...

Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
was dissolved on 1 January 1964. However, it was expected that only Nyasaland would be let go, whilst the remainder of Rhodesia both north and south would be united. Although Northern Rhodesia had a white population of over 100,000, as well as additional British military and civil units and their dependents, most of these were relatively new to the region, were primarily in the extraction business, had little landed interests, and were more amenable to allowing black nationalism than the Southern Rhodesians. Accordingly, Britain granted independence to Northern Rhodesia on 24 October 1964. However, when the new nationalists changed its name to ''
Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia (Bemba language, Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe), Tonga: ''Cisi ca Zambia''; Lozi language, Lozi: ''Naha ya Zambia''; Chewa language, Nyanja: ''Dziko la Zambia''), ...

Zambia
'' and began tentatively at first and later in rapid march an Africanisation campaign, Southern Rhodesia remained a British colony, resisting attempts to bring in majority rule. The colony attempted to change its name to ''Rhodesia'' although this was not recognised by the United Kingdom. The majority of the Federation's military and financial assets went to Southern Rhodesia, since the British Government did not wish to see them fall into the hands of the nationalist leaders, and since Southern Rhodesia had borne the major expenses of running the Federation. With regard to the latter, however, Northern Rhodesia was the wealthiest of the three member states (due to its vast copper mines) and had contributed more to the overall building of infrastructure than the other two members did. Southern Rhodesia, recognising an inevitable dissolution of the Federation, was quick to use federal funds in building its infrastructure ahead of the others. A key component of this was the building of the Kariba Dam and its hydroelectric facility (shafts, control centre, etc.), which was situated on the Southern Rhodesian side of the
Zambezi The Zambezi River (also spelled Zambeze and Zambesi) is the List of rivers by length, fourth-longest river in Africa, the longest east-flowing river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa. The area of its drainage ba ...

Zambezi
Gorge. This situation caused some embarrassment for the Zambian government later when it was a "front line state" in support of insurgents into Rhodesia in that its major source of electric power was controlled by the Rhodesian state.


Return to "Rhodesia"

With the protectorate of Northern Rhodesia no longer in existence, in 1964 Southern Rhodesia reverted to the name ''Rhodesia'' (see next section). In 1965, Rhodesia Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence, unilaterally declared itself independent under a white-dominated government led by Ian Smith. After Second Chimurenga, a long civil war ensued between the white (until 1979) government and two African majority, Soviet Bloc-aligned 'liberation movements' (Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army and Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army). The Salisbury government, realizing the situation was untenable, and facing strong international pressure, concluded the Internal Settlement with black nationalist leaders in March 1978. A 1979 Zimbabwe Rhodesia general election, general election a year later resulted in the creation of a unity government, which in December 1979 concluded the
Lancaster House Agreement The Lancaster House Agreement, signed on 21 December 1979, declared a ceasefire, ending the Rhodesian Bush War; and directly led to Rhodesia achieving internationally recognised independence as Zimbabwe. It required the imposition of direct Br ...
, whereby Britain resumed control of the country for a brief period before granting independence to the renamed
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the south-west, Zambia to the north, and Mozambi ...

Zimbabwe
on 18 April 1980.


Legal aspects of the name since 1964

On 7 October 1964 the Southern Rhodesian government announced that when
Northern Rhodesia Northern Rhodesia was a protectorate A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy over most internal affairs while still recognizing th ...
achieved independence as Zambia, the Southern Rhodesian government would officially become known as the Rhodesian Government and the colony would become known as Rhodesia.Southern Rhodesia Information Service Press Statement 980/64 A.G.C. On 23 October of that year, the Minister of Internal Affairs notified the press that the Constitution would be amended to make this official. The Legislative Assembly then passed an Interpretation Bill to declare that the colony could be referred to as Rhodesia. The Bill received its third reading on 9 December 1964, and passed to the Governor for royal assent. However, no royal assent was granted to the Bill. Section 3 of the Southern Rhodesia (Annexation) Order 1923 provided that Southern Rhodesia "shall be known as the Colony of Southern Rhodesia" and the Southern Rhodesia (Constitution) Act 1961 and the Order-in-Council which followed it both referred to it as such. The country's name had been agreed previously by both Southern Rhodesia and the United Kingdom, and it was therefore ultra vires, outside the powers of Southern Rhodesian institutions to amend them unilaterally.See Notwithstanding the Governor's lack of assent to the Interpretation Bill the United Kingdom's Colonial Office was, by 1965, officially using the name "Rhodesia" in British Government-issued Gazettes of the period (for instance see: The Queen's Birthday Honours of 12 June 1965). The Rhodesian government, which had begun using the new name anyway, did not press the issue. The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (Rhodesia), Unilateral Declaration of Independence, adopted on 11 November 1965, was in the name of "Rhodesia", which remained unchanged by the declaration of a republic in 1970, the title of the republican constitution of 1969, like the constitution before it, being "Constitution of Rhodesia".''International Enclopedia of Comparative Law''
, J C B Möhr, 1976, page xx
While the new name was widely used, 'Southern Rhodesia' remained the colony's formal name in United Kingdom constitutional theory: for example, the Act passed by the United Kingdom Parliament declaring the independence a legal nullity was entitled the Southern Rhodesia Act 1965. Following the signing of the
Lancaster House Agreement The Lancaster House Agreement, signed on 21 December 1979, declared a ceasefire, ending the Rhodesian Bush War; and directly led to Rhodesia achieving internationally recognised independence as Zimbabwe. It required the imposition of direct Br ...
, the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the Southern Rhodesia Constitution (Interim Provisions) Order 1979, establishing the offices of Governor and Deputy Governor of Southern Rhodesia, filled by Christopher Soames, Lord Soames and Antony Duff, Sir Antony Duff respectively. The new Governor arrived in Salisbury on 12 December 1979, and on that day the Parliament of
Zimbabwe Rhodesia Zimbabwe Rhodesia () was an unrecognised state that existed from 1 June 1979 to 11 December 1979. Zimbabwe Rhodesia was preceded by an unrecognised republic named Rhodesia Rhodesia (, ), officially from 1970 the Republic of Rhodesia, was a ...
handed power over to him by passing the Constitution of Zimbabwe Rhodesia (Amendment) (No. 4) Act, declaring that "Zimbabwe Rhodesia shall cease to be an independent State and become part of Her Majesty's dominions". After elections in February 1980, the colony ceased to exist when the new country of Zimbabwe became independent at midnight on 17 April 1980.''Collective Responses to Illegal Acts in International Law: United Nations Action in the Question of Southern Rhodesia''
Vera Gowlland-Debbas Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1990, page 91


Judiciary

List of Chief Justices:


See also

*Administrative posts of the British South Africa Company in Southern Rhodesia *Albert Lutuli, Albert John Lutuli, a famous South African born in Southern Rhodesia *Governor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland *History of Zimbabwe *List of Presidents of Zimbabwe *President of Rhodesia *Southern Rhodesia in World War I *Tati Concessions Land, a region detached from Matebeleland and annexed to the Bechuanaland Protectorate


References


Bibliography

* *


External links

* {{Authority control Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia, . History of the Commonwealth of Nations History of Zimbabwe Former British colonies and protectorates in Africa, Southern Rhodesia Former colonies in Africa Former countries in Africa Former polities of the Cold War 20th century in Rhodesia 20th century in Zimbabwe States and territories established in 1923 States and territories disestablished in 1953 States and territories established in 1963 States and territories disestablished in 1965 States and territories established in 1979 States and territories disestablished in 1980 1923 establishments in Africa 1953 disestablishments in Africa 1923 establishments in the British Empire 1953 disestablishments in the British Empire 1965 establishments in Africa 1960s establishments in Rhodesia 1960s disestablishments in Rhodesia 1979 establishments in Africa 1970s establishments in Rhodesia 1980 disestablishments in Zimbabwe English-speaking countries and territories British Empire Zimbabwe and the Commonwealth of Nations Rhodesian Bush War