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Southern Quechua
Southern Quechua
(Quechua: Urin qichwa, Spanish: quechua sureño), or simply Quechua (Qichwa or Qhichwa), is the most widely spoken of the major regional groupings of mutually intelligible dialects within the Quechua language
Quechua language
family, with about 6.9 million speakers. It is also the most widely spoken indigenous language in the entire New World. The term Southern Quechua
Southern Quechua
refers to the Quechuan varieties spoken in regions of the Andes
Andes
south of a line roughly east-west between the cities of Huancayo
Huancayo
and Huancavelica
Huancavelica
in central Peru. It includes the Quechua varieties spoken in the regions of Ayacucho, Cusco
Cusco
and Puno
Puno
in Peru, in much of Bolivia
Bolivia
and parts of north-west Argentina. The most widely spoken varieties are South Bolivian, Cusco, Ayacucho, and Puno (Collao). In the traditional classification of the Quechua language
Quechua language
family by Alfredo Torero, Southern Quechua
Southern Quechua
is equivalent to Torero's 'Quechua IIc' (or just 'QIIc'). It thus stands in contrast to its many sister varieties within the wider Quechuan family that are spoken in areas north of the Huancayo- Huancavelica
Huancavelica
line: Central Quechua (Torero's QI) spoken from Huancayo
Huancayo
northwards to the Ancash Region; North Peruvian Quechua around Cajamarca
Cajamarca
and Incahuasi (Torero's IIa); and Kichwa (part of Torero's Quechua IIb).

Contents

1 Dialects 2 Standard Quechua 3 See also 4 Bibliography 5 References 6 External links

Dialects[edit] Dialects are Ayacucho
Ayacucho
Quechua, Cusco
Cusco
Quechua, Puno Quechua (Collao Quechua), North Bolivian Quechua (Apolo Quechua), and South Bolivian Quechua. Santiagueño Quechua
Santiagueño Quechua
in Argentina
Argentina
is divergent, and appears to derive from a mix of dialects, including South Bolivian.[3] The most salient distinction between Ayacucho Quechua
Ayacucho Quechua
and the others is that it lacks the aspirated (tʃʰ, pʰ, tʰ, kʰ, qʰ) and ejective (tʃʼ, pʼ, tʼ, kʼ, qʼ) series of stop consonants. The other varieties of Bolivia
Bolivia
and Southern Peru
Peru
taken together have been called Cusco–Collao Quechua (or "Qusqu–Qullaw"); however, they are not monolithic. For instance, Bolivian Quechua is morphologically distinct from Cusco
Cusco
and Ayacucho
Ayacucho
Quechua, while North Bolivian is phonologically quite conservative compared to both South Bolivian and Cusco
Cusco
so there is no bifurcation between Ayacucho
Ayacucho
and Cusco–Collao. Santiagueño also lacks the aspirated and ejective series, but it was a distinct development in Argentina. It also maintains remnants of the Quechua s–š distinction, which has otherwise been lost from Southern Quechua, which suggests other varieties of Quechua in its background. Standard Quechua[edit] The Peruvian linguist Rodolfo Cerrón Palomino
Rodolfo Cerrón Palomino
has devised a standard orthography intended to be viable for all the different regional forms of Quechua that fall under the umbrella term Southern Quechua. It is a compromise of conservative features in the pronunciations of the various regions that speak forms of Southern Quechua. It has been accepted by many institutions in Peru
Peru
and Bolivia
Bolivia
and is also used on Quechua pages, and by Microsoft in its translations of software into Quechua. Here are some examples of regional spellings different from the standard orthography:

Ayacucho Cuzco Standard Translation

upyay uhay upyay "to drink"

llamkay llank'ay llamk'ay "to work"

ñuqanchik nuqanchis ñuqanchik "we (inclusive)"

-chka- -sha- -chka- (progressive suffix)

punchaw p'unchay p'unchaw "day"

In Bolivia, the same standard is used except for "j", which is used instead of "h" for the sound [h] (like in Spanish).

Sound examples for words pata, phata p'ata.

The following letters are used for the inherited Quechua vocabulary and for loanwords from Aymara: a, ch, chh, ch', h, i, k, kh, k', l, ll, m, n, ñ, p, ph, p', q, qh, q', r, s, t, th, t', u, w, y. Instead of "sh" (appearing in the northern and central Quechua varieties), "s" is used. Instead of "ĉ" (appearing in the Quechua varieties of Junín, Cajamarca, and Lambayeque), "ch" is used. The following letters are used in loanwords from Spanish and other languages (not from Aymara): b, d, e, f, g, o. The letters e and o are not used for native Quechua words because the corresponding sounds are simply allophones of i and u that appear predictably next to q, qh, and q'. This rule applies to the official Quechua orthography for all varieties. Thus, the spellings ⟨qu⟩ and ⟨qi⟩ are pronounced [qo] and [qe]. The letters appear, however, in proper names or words adopted directly from Spanish: c, v, x, z; j (in Peru; in Bolivia, it is used instead of h). See also[edit]

Quechuan and Aymaran spelling shift

Bibliography[edit]

Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino (1994). Quechua sureño, diccionario unificado quechua–castellano, castellano–quechua [Southern Quechua, Quechua–Spanish, Spanish–Quechua Unified Dictionary]. Lima, Biblioteca Nacional del Perú. Óscar Chávez Gonzales (2017). Urin Qichwa. Siminchik allin qillqanapaq: chankakunapaq qullawkunapaqwan. Lima, Editorial Textos. 72 pp., ISBN 9786124686832 César Itier (2017). Diccionario Quechua Sureño - Castellano. Lima, Editorial Commentarios. 303 pp., 3900 entries, ISBN 9789972947094

References[edit]

^ Classical Quechua at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Ayacucho Quechua
Ayacucho Quechua
at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Arequipa-La Unión Quechua at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Cusco Quechua at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Eastern Apurímac Quechua at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Puno Quechua (Collao) at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) (Additional references under 'Language codes' in the information box) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Quechua IIC". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Adelaar (2004)

External links[edit]

Quechua edition of, the free encyclopedia

South America portal Languages portal

Qayna Kunan Paqarin: Una introducción al quechua chanca. 2011 (Archive) Electronic book of the complete course of the grammar of quechua, R. Zariquiey, G. Córdova. (in Spanish) Vocabulario de la lengva general de todo el Perv llamada lengva Qquichua o del Inca (in Spanish) The Quechua language
Quechua language
spoken by the Inca nobility in Cusco, 1608 Diego González Holguín Iskay Simipi yuyayk'ancha (in Spanish) Standardized Southern Quechua of Bolivia, 2007. The only difference in orthography is that Bolivians use a J instead of a H. Official Quechua Alphabet for Cusco Quechua Orthography Quechua Spelling and Pronunciation Explanation of some of the key issues in unified Southern Quechua
Southern Quechua
spelling

v t e

Quechuan language(s)

Quechua I

Central Quechua

Ancash

Huaylay

Huánuco

Huallaga

Wanka Yauyos–Chincha Yaru

Pacaraos

Other Quechua I

Pacaraos

Quechua II

Northern Peruvian

Cajamarca–Cañaris

Cajamarca Lambayeque

Northern Quechua

Chachapoyas Kichwa

Inga

Lamas

Southern Quechua

Ayacucho Cusco North Bolivian Puno Santiagueño South Bolivian

v t e

Languages of Argentina

Official languages

Spanish

Regional languages

Guarani Mapuche Quechua

Indigenous languages

Chonan

Puelche Tehuelche Teushen

Mataco– Guaicuru

Charruan

Balomar

Guaicuruan

Abipón Guachi Mocoví Payaguá Pilagá Toba Qom

Matacoan

Iyo'wujwa Chorote Iyojwa'ja Chorote Nivaclé Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay Wichí Lhamtés Nocten Wichí Lhamtés Vejoz

Quechuan

Southern Quechua

Santiagueño South Bolivian

Tupi–Guarani

Ava Guarani Eastern Bolivian Guaraní Kaiwá Mbyá Guaraní

Others

Aymara Chané Vilela

Minority languages

Belgranodeutsch Cocoliche German

Argentinien-schwyzertütsch German

Ligurian Lunfardo Welsh

Patagonian Welsh

Dialects of Spanish

Cordobés Cuyo Rioplatense

Vesre

Sign languages

Argentine Sign Language

Italics indicate extinct languages

v t e

Languages of Peru

Spanish varieties

Amazonic Andean Coastal Equatorial (Tumbes)

Indigenous languages

Arawakan

Campa

Asháninka Ashéninga Axininca Caquinte Machiguenga Nanti Nomatsiguenga

Piro

Iñapari Mashco Piro Yine

Upper Amazon

Resígaro

Western

Chamicuro Yanesha'

Aymaran

Aymara Jaqaru

Bora–Witoto

Bora Minica Huitoto Murui Huitoto Nüpode Huitoto Ocaina

Cahuapanan

Chayahuita Jebero

Harákmbut

Amarakaeri Huachipaeri

Jivaroan

Aguaruna Huambisa Shiwiar

Pano–Tacanan

Amawaka Ese Ejja Iskonawa Kashibo Kashinawa Matsés/Pisabo Shipibo Yaminawa

Quechuan

Cajamarca–Cañaris

Cajamarca Lambayeque

Central

Ancash Huánuco (Huallaga) Pacaraos Wanka Yaru Yauyos–Chincha

Lowland

Chachapoyas Lamas Kichwa

Southern

Ayacucho Cusco Puno

Tucanoan

Orejón Secoya

Tupian

Cocama Omagua

Zaparoan

Arabela Iquito

Other

Candoshi-Shapra Kulina Taushiro Ticuna Urarina Yagua

Sign languages

Peruvian Sign Language

v t e

Languages of South America

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