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Aidarus al-Zoubaidi Ali Salem al Beidh Hassan al-Ba'aum. Saleh Ali Bin-Ghaleb Ahmed Omar Bin Fareed Abd Al-Rahman Ali Al-Jifri Saleh Bin Fareed Aidroos Al Zubaidi Shalal Ali Shayih

Area of operations Yemen

Opponents General People's Congress Houthis Al-Qaeda (AQAP) National Army Daesh in Yemen

Website southernhirak.org

The Southern Movement
Southern Movement
(Arabic: الحراك الجنوبي‎ al-Ḥirāk al-Janūbiyy), sometimes known as the Southern Separatist Movement, or South Yemen
South Yemen
Movement, and colloquially known as al-Hirak,[1] is a political movement and paramilitary organization active in the south of Yemen
Yemen
since 2007, demanding secession from the Republic of Yemen
Yemen
and a return to the former independent state of South Yemen. At present, its political branch, the Southern Transitional Council led by Aidarus al-Zoubaidi, is the defacto leadership in all provinces of the south.[2]

Contents

1 History 2 The Movement today 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

History[edit]

Pre-Unity Yemen

After the union between South Yemen
South Yemen
and North Yemen
Yemen
on May 22, 1990, a civil war broke out in 1994. This came after leaders of the former independent southern state declared an end to the unity deal amidst an alleged power-grabbing usurp by their northern counterparts. The result was a swift defeat of the weakened southern forces and the expulsion of most of its leaders out of Yemen, including the former Secretary-General of the Yemeni Socialist party and the Vice-President of the unified Yemen, Ali Salim al-Beidh.[3] After the 1994 civil war, calls for southern independence were successfully put down and the national unity was maintained. Grievances however remained high amongst many residents of the south. Accusations of corruption, nepotism and electoral fraud were levelled against the new ruling party based in Sana'a, led by President Ali Abdullah Saleh, as well as a mishandling of the power-sharing arrangement agreed to by both parties in the 1990 unity deal. Many in the south also felt that their land, home to much of the country's oil reserves and wealth resources,[4] was being exploited after the unity deal. Privately owned land was seized and distributed amongst individuals affiliated with the Sana'a government. Several hundred thousand military and civil employees from the south were forced into early retirement, and compensated with pensions below the subsistence level. Although equally low living standards were prevalent throughout the whole of Yemen, many in the south felt that they were being intentionally targeted and dismissed from important posts,[5] and being replaced with northern officials affiliated with the new government. The city of Aden, the former capital city of South Yemen, was also seen to be neglected both socially and economically, whilst investments appeared to be focussed instead on Sana’a, the new capital. Beyond the economic grievances were also cultural and social ones too. Many in the south long believed they held a distinct historical path with their northern neighbours, which became more evident after the 1990 unity. After 128 years of British rule, South Yemen
South Yemen
was an independent state for 23 years. Despite economic difficulty in its later years with the collapse of its main backer the Soviet Union, the socialist state prided itself on its free healthcare, education and welfare system. Many in Aden
Aden
today speak foreign languages or have technical skills as a result of their state-sponsored education abroad enjoyed in the days of pre-unity South Yemen. Unlike the north, tribalism was looked upon with disdain and generally stamped out of everyday life in the south, which instead preferred the law and order of civil society passed onto them from British rule. Post-1994 unity saw a gradual return of tribalism into southern society. It is not uncommon for residents of the south to even refer to those from the north as being “mutikhalifeen” or backward.[6] In May 2007, grieving pensioners who had not been paid for years began to organise small demonstrations demanding better rights and an end to the economic and political marginalization of the south. As the protests spread throughout Aden
Aden
and grew more popular, so to did the demands of those protesting. Eventually, calls were being made once again for the secession of the south and the re-establishment of South Yemen
Yemen
as an independent state. The government's response to these peaceful protests was heavy-handed, labelling them as ‘apostates of the state’ and using live ammunition to disperse the crowds.[7] This eventually gave birth to the Southern Movement, which grew to consist of a loose coalition of groups seeking a complete secession from the north.[8] Their presence in the south was restricted, and their actions were limited to the organising of protests and marches across the south which were often met with deadly violence. To raise the former flag of South Yemen
South Yemen
was considered a crime in Aden, although a common practice outside of the city where government control was limited. The Movement today[edit] In 2015, the Southern Movement
Southern Movement
rose to prominence after entering into a loose alliance with the exiled President Hadi and proving to be a vital force in the pushback against Houthi forces from the southern city of Aden,[9] receiving both financial and military assistance from members of the Gulf coalition as a result. Today, the Southern Movement
Southern Movement
through its political branch the Southern Transitional Council has a significant presence in all areas of the former southern territories. Flags of the former southern republic are flown from Aden
Aden
to Hadramout, often alongside those of the Arab coalition as a gesture of gratitude for their ongoing support.

Logo of the STC

In January 2018, the STC broke away from Hadi after clashes in the city of Aden
Aden
saw their forces overrun all governmental buildings aligned to the president in exile. At present, the STC, led by Aidarus al-Zoubaidi, is the defacto leadership in all provinces of the south. See also[edit]

Southern Transitional Council Yemeni Socialist Party South Yemen
South Yemen
insurgency

References[edit]

^ "Is South Yemen
South Yemen
Preparing to Declare Independence?". Time. 2011-07-08.  ^ "Advancing separatists could restore South Yemen". Al-Monitor. 1 February 2018.  ^ al-Suwaidi, Jamal S., ed. (1995). The Yemeni War of 1994: Causes and Consequences. Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research. ISBN 0863563007.  ^ "North Yemeni Troops Seize Oil Field Center; Region Controls Country's Chief Resource". 1994-05-25.  ^ Kambeck, Jens (2016). "Returning to Transitional Justice in Yemen". Bonn: Center for Applied Research in Partnership with the Orient. ^ "In Yemen's Aden, anger mixes with nostalgia". 2010-01-21. Retrieved 2018-02-09.  ^ "In the Name of Unity". 2009-12-15. Retrieved 2016-08-03.  ^ "Yemen: End Harsh Repression in South". 2009-12-15. Retrieved 2016-08-03.  ^ "Saudi-Backed Forces Said to Wrest Aden, Yemen, From Houthis". 2015-07-17. 

External links[edit]

The Southern Movement
Southern Movement
in Yemen, Gulf Research Center, April 2010 Yemen's Southern Challenge, Critical Threats (American Enterprise Institute), November 2009 Website

v t e

Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)

Timeline of the Yemeni Civil War Part of the Yemeni Crisis (2011–present)

Background

Houthi insurgency in Yemen Houthi takeover in Yemen Aftermath of the Houthi takeover in Yemen Battle of Sana'a (2014)

Battles and attacks

Shabwah Governorate offensive (2014–present) Battle of Aden
Aden
Airport 2015 Sana'a mosque bombings Ma'rib Campaign Battle of Dhale Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen Battle of Aden
Aden
(2015) Abyan campaign (March–August 2015) Lahij insurgency Saudi–Yemeni border conflict (2015–present) Shabwah campaign (March–August 2015) Battle of Mukalla (2015) Battle of Taiz (2015–present) September 2015 Ma'rib Toshka missile attack Aden
Aden
unrest (2015–present)

October 2015 Aden
Aden
missile attack 2015 Aden
Aden
car bombing Aden
Aden
Christian attack 2016 Aden
Aden
car bombing 23 May 2016 Aden
Aden
bombings August 2016 Aden
Aden
bombing December 2016 Aden
Aden
suicide bombings

Zinjibar and Jaar December 2015 Taiz missile attack Nihm Offensive Battle of Port Midi Hadramaut Insurgency Southern Abyan Offensive (2016) Abyan conflict (2016-2017) Battle of Mukalla (2016) May 2016 Yemen
Yemen
police bombings June 2016 Mukalla attacks 2016 Sana'a funeral air raid Raid on Yakla Raid on Al Hathla Battle of Sana'a (2017) Battle of Aden
Aden
(2018)

Reactions

Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen Blockade of Yemen Yemeni peace process

Impacts

Famine in Yemen 2016–17 Yemen
Yemen
cholera outbreak Airstrikes on hospitals in Yemen

Belligerents

Mansur Hadi government

Pro-Hadi security forces Saleh loyalist defectors Al-Islah Popular Resistance Popular Committees Southern Movement Southern Transitional Council Republican Guard

Houthis
Houthis
government

Supreme Political Council Houthis Pro-Saleh forces Supreme Revolutionary Committee

People

Mansur Hadi government

Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi Mahmoud al-Subaihi Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar Khaled Bahah Hussein Arab Ahmed Saleh Tareq Saleh

Houthis
Houthis
government

Saleh Ali al-Sammad Mohamed al-Atifi Mohammed Ali al-Houthi Hussein Khairan Abdul-Malik Badreddin al-Houthi Ali Abdullah Saleh

.