Leyte (Cebuano: Habagatang Leyte, Filipino: Timog Leyte) is a
province in the
Philippines located in the
Eastern Visayas region. Its
capital is the city of Maasin. Southern
Leyte was a sub-province of
Leyte until it was made into an independent province. Southern Leyte
includes Limasawa, an island to the south where the first Roman
Catholic Mass in Philippine soil is believed to have taken place and
thus considered to be the birthplace of Roman Catholicism in the
The province ranks as the second least populated in the region.
According to the 2015 census, the province has a population of
Southern Leyte's geological features created several issues in the
province after the flooding of the
Subangdaku River and the 2006
mudslide in Guinsaugon. Organizations warned the province it was
susceptible to natural occurrences like landslides and floods.[not
in citation given]
Leyte forms an important part of the inter-island
transportation system of the country, with ferries transporting people
and goods between Liloan and
Surigao del Norte
Surigao del Norte in Mindanao. The
province is well known for its quality abaca products and is the
country's major producer of abaca fiber.
1.1 Precolonial history
1.2 Early settlement
1.3 Independent province
2.3 Vegetation and biodiversity
2.4 Administrative divisions
4.2 Religious events
6 Colleges and universities
8 External links
The province, being part of
Leyte island, is believed to be influenced
by Datu Ete, ruler of the historic community of Mairete, meaning Land
of Ete, which was centered in Tacloban. The area which is to be
Leyte is believed to have been occupied by animist Visayan
ethnic groups from Bohol. There is no proof that the indigenous
Warays of Samar, who at the time occupied northeast Leyte,
ever occupied Southern Leyte.
As early as 1898 during the Spanish and American periods, there had
already existed a "sub-province" consisting of the municipalities from
Palompon to Hinunangan, with
Maasin as the center. Some government
offices had already been established in
Maasin on the southwestern
Leyte to govern the area.
Historically, the governing city was the depository of cedula tax
collections from Palompon to Hinunangan. This was administered by the
office of the Administrado de Hacienda, equivalent to the Provincial
Treasurer, a position under the Secretario de Hacienda.
There was also established in
Maasin a Court of First Instance, then
known as the Promoter Fiscal, where all minor administrative and other
cases from Palompon to
Hinunangan were heard.
A detail of Carlos V. Francisco's painting First Mass in the
During the Spanish colonization, the province was sparsely populated.
The continued raiding of Moro slaves discouraged the province from
growing and developing. However, in the 19th century immigrants from
adjacent provinces like
Cebu populated the area.
Ruperto Kangleon held a conference in the town of Sogod, when
the first meeting attempt in Malitbog, a town to the east, failed due
to many leaders staying away. He was trying to unify all guerrillas
helping the Philippine Commonwealth troops during World War II.
From 1944 to 1945, the Allied Philippine Commonwealth Army soldiers
and Filipino guerrillas attacked the Japanese Imperial forces in an
effort to liberate Southern Leyte, and American troops landed on Leyte
on October 20, 1944.
Due to a change of sovereign powers, all the offices in
the Fiscal’s Office were abolished and reverted to Tacloban, the
capital of Leyte. This created a major problem because of the dearth
of transportation, the difficulty in managing the affairs of
Tacloban and the language barrier between the
Cebuano-speaking South-westerners and the Waray Easterners. The
difficulty of managing the entire island from the main city suggested
a need to separate the island into two provinces.
At first there was a general movement for a Western
Leyte and soon
after, many prominent men and leaders rallied behind the movement. Six
attempts to pass a law for the division of
Leyte were made. On the
sixth attempt, then Congressman Nicanor Yñiguez introduced into the
House a division law similar in substance to that of the Kangleon
Bill, but recognizing the impossibility of creating an East-West
Division, he instead opted to make his own district a province.
Abandoning the first bill, Congressman Nicanor Yñiguez presented
House Bill No. 1318 proposing a new province of Southern Leyte
comprising Third Congressional District of
Leyte to include sixteen
Silago in the mainland, and in the
The bill became Republic Act 2227 otherwise known as an "Act Creating
the Province of Southern Leyte" and was signed into
Law by President
Carlos P. Garcia
Carlos P. Garcia on May 22, 1959. On July 1, 1960, Southern Leyte
was inaugurated as a province with sixteen municipalities and Maasin
as the capital town. Thus, the third District of
Leyte became the
Province of Southern
Leyte and the Lone District of Southern
In December 2003, a landslide in San Francisco, Southern Leyte
destroyed most of the town, killing 200 people.
Main article: 2006 Southern
On February 17, 2006, several mudslides caused by heavy rains,
amounting over 200 cm (79 in), and a minor earthquake
destroyed at least one town and many commercial and residential
infrastructures, leaving hundreds dead. The municipality of Saint
Bernard was one of the worst hit areas with 23 confirmed deaths, up to
200 estimated deaths and another 1,500 missing.
Barangay Guinsaugon, a
mountain village on the said municipality with 2,500 people, was
almost completely destroyed, killing 1,800 of its 1,857 residents.
Many rescuers from national and international responded to the
incident. However, rescue efforts were greatly hampered by poor road
conditions and lack of heavy equipment. Survivors reported also lack
of coordination of rescue efforts. The Philippine Government again
stated their inability to cope with disasters. The few handful of
Guinsaugon citizens which escaped the mudslide were put up in
emergency shelters without adequate nutrition and care despite the
National Government collecting millions of dollars worth of donations.
Leyte occupies the southern quarter of the island of Leyte.
It is bounded by the province of
Leyte to the north, by Surigao Strait
to the east,
Bohol Sea to the south, and Canigao Channel, across from
Bohol, to the west. Its total land area is 1,798.61 square kilometres
(694.45 sq mi). The central portion of the province is
dominated by the Sogod Bay, a long bay that cuts deep into the island.
A view of
Sogod Bay and the town of Sogod
Leyte is characterized by relatively flat lands along the
coastal areas where population centers lie, but rugged mountains
towards the interior.
The province has inland water features. Based on national data, the
province has altogether 93 rivers including 18 major ones, namely the
Amparo River in Macrohon, the Canturing River in
Maasin City, the
Das-ay and Pondol Rivers in Hinunangan, the Divisoria River in Bontoc,
the Hitungao and Lawigan Rivers in San Juan, the Maag River in Silago,
Subangdaku River in Sogod which is the biggest of all. The
province has an inland lake called
Lake Danao located in the mountains
of San Juan and Anahawan, towns in the eastern region.
Green grass covering mountains in
Subangdaku, the province's largest river, created an issue over the
area. It can be considered a braided river composed of several
channels from near areas that divide and reunite forming an alluvial
fan with a very wide floodplain. As such, the river usually became
hazardous during typhoons after heavy rains. The river has
overflowed, spilling its waters on the low-lying towns of Liloan and
San Vicente and destroyed an ongoing flood control project worth
millions of pesos. The river meanders along its course, ever
changing its way over time. During the time it floods, it destroys
every side of its course. In 2001, portions of the road and banks in
Barangay San Miguel along the river were destroyed, including part
of the Philippine National Road. Local officials blamed the
rechannelization and uncontrolled quarrying of gravel and sand at the
side of river as the cause of the flood. At a meeting on March 18,
2002, one of the representatives of a government agency alleged that
the reason of the incidents of flood and other environmental problems
in the river was due to the "Philippine Fault" which caused rocks to
rumble down. However, the reason was contended because the fault is a
geological feature and environmental problems in the province just
occurred that time.
Along with other mountain forms in the province, Mount Nacolod in
Hinunangan town has the highest peak with an elevation of 948 metres
(3,110 ft) above sea level. Young volcanic rocks are discovered
in the terrain areas, which cover the top of the southern mountain
ranges of Mount Cabalian in the Pacific Area and Mount Nelangcapan in
The province lies within the Philippine Fault System. The major fault
lines traverse the municipalities of Sogod, Libagon, Saint Bernard and
San Juan to Panaon Island. Based on Mines and Geosciences Bureau
Region 8 data, these areas had experienced strong earthquakes in 1907
and 1948 with a magnitude of 6.9 and on July 5, 1984 with a 6.4
Mines and Geosciences Bureau
Mines and Geosciences Bureau warned that Southern
Leyte's natural and geological features make it susceptible to
landslides and floodings. The affiliated group stated that there
are four contributory reasons: unusually heavy rains; numerous faults
and badly broken rocks; steep slopes; and absence of effective
The province has numerous types of soil.
Soil types within the Maasin
Clay, Guimbalaon Clay, Himay-angan Clay, Bolinao Clay, Quingua Clay
and Malitbog Clay series serve as raw materials for ceramics and
pottery made by local residents.
Leyte has two types of climate according to the Coronas
Classification. These are Type II and Type IV.
Type II is characterized by the absence of dry season with a very
pronounced maximum rain period occurring from November to January.
This type prevails in the eastern half of the province that includes
the municipality of Sogod, Libagon, Liloan, San Francisco, Pintuyan,
San Ricardo, Saint Bernard, San Juan, Anahawan, Hinundayan, Hinunangan
and Silago. On the other hand, Type IV has a rainfall that is more or
less evenly distributed throughout the year. This type prevails in the
western part of the province that includes the City of
Maasin and the
municipalities of Macrohon, Padre Burgos, Limasawa, Malitbog, Tomas
Oppus, Bontoc and little part of Sogod.
The province is located within the area of less frequent tropical
In 2004, the province has recorded a maximum temperature of
30.95 °C (87.71 °F) and a minimum temperature of
24.09 °C (75.36 °F). In addition, mean minimum temperature
was 25.24 °C (77.43 °F). The province has 163 rainy days
per year and total rainfall of 1,729.20 millimetres (68.079 in).
Vegetation and biodiversity
A bluespotted stingray seen in the coasts of the province
Inhabitants of the province plant rice, white corn, bananas, root
crops, sugar cane, coconut and abacá. They also plant various
types of vegetables.
A three-year project was established in
Sogod Bay conducted by the
Leyte Coral Reef Conservation Project (SLCRCP) to surveyed
coral reefs in the area. The undertaking was to provide local
residents educational opportunities to have knowledge on protecting
the province's biodiversity as well as to have a long-term
Leyte is subdivided into 18 municipalities and 1 city, all
encompassed by a single legislative district and further subdivided
into 500 barangays.
The province originally comprised 16 municipalities and 349 barangays,
with four islands: Panaon Island,
Limasawa Island, San Pedro Island
and San Pablo Island. After the inauguration of the province, three
more municipalities were subsequently created: San Ricardo from
Tomas Oppus from Malitbog and
Limasawa from Padre Burgos.
Maasin was converted into a city as capital of Southern
Leyte. The remaining component municipality classes ranges from
2nd to 5th level in the province. From 2nd class belongs Sogod
municipality which is the center of trade, commerce and industry among
municipalities within the Sogod Bay. Hinunangan, which holds the
distinction as the "
Rice Granary of the Province" for its vast plain
land that is entirely planted with rice, Liloan, Malitbog, Saint
Bernard, and Macrohon, are in the 4th level. The remaining
municipalities—Anahawan, Hinundayan, Libagon, Padre Burgos,
Pintuyan, San Francisco, San Juan (formerly Cabalian), San Ricardo,
Tomas Oppus and Limasawa, a component island to the
south—are under 5th level.
City or municipality [i][ii]
10°16′26″N 125°15′28″E / 10.2740°N 125.2578°E /
10.2740; 125.2578 (Anahawan)
10°21′21″N 124°58′09″E / 10.3559°N 124.9693°E /
10.3559; 124.9693 (Bontoc)
10°23′41″N 125°11′55″E / 10.3946°N 125.1985°E /
10.3946; 125.1985 (Hinunangan)
10°21′04″N 125°15′04″E / 10.3511°N 125.2510°E /
10.3511; 125.2510 (Hinundayan)
10°17′48″N 125°03′02″E / 10.2968°N 125.0505°E /
10.2968; 125.0505 (Libagon)
10°09′29″N 125°07′31″E / 10.1581°N 125.1253°E /
10.1581; 125.1253 (Liloan)
9°55′27″N 125°04′28″E / 9.9243°N 125.0744°E /
9.9243; 125.0744 (Limasawa)
10°08′01″N 124°50′46″E / 10.1335°N 124.8460°E /
10.1335; 124.8460 (Maasin)
10°04′36″N 124°56′24″E / 10.0766°N 124.9401°E /
10.0766; 124.9401 (Macrohon)
10°09′29″N 125°00′04″E / 10.1581°N 125.0012°E /
10.1581; 125.0012 (Malitbog)
10°01′47″N 125°01′01″E / 10.0296°N 125.0170°E /
10.0296; 125.0170 (Padre Burgos)
9°56′41″N 125°14′57″E / 9.9446°N 125.2492°E /
9.9446; 125.2492 (Pintuyan)
10°16′48″N 125°08′18″E / 10.2801°N 125.1383°E /
10.2801; 125.1383 (Saint Bernard)
10°03′27″N 125°09′27″E / 10.0575°N 125.1576°E /
10.0575; 125.1576 (San Francisco)
10°15′51″N 125°10′25″E / 10.2641°N 125.1735°E /
10.2641; 125.1735 (San Juan)
San Juan (Cabalian)
9°54′47″N 125°16′35″E / 9.9130°N 125.2763°E /
9.9130; 125.2763 (San Ricardo)
10°31′42″N 125°09′46″E / 10.5284°N 125.1627°E /
10.5284; 125.1627 (Silago)
10°23′08″N 124°58′50″E / 10.3856°N 124.9806°E /
10.3856; 124.9806 (Sogod)
10°15′17″N 124°59′08″E / 10.2548°N 124.9856°E /
10.2548; 124.9856 (Tomas Oppus)
† Provincial capital and component city
^ Former names are italicized.
^ The globe icon marks the city/town center.
A graphical presentation of Southern Leyte's 1903-2000 population
depicting the negative growth rate in 1999‑2000 records
Population census of
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority
The population of Southern
Leyte in the 2015 census was 421,750
people, with a density of 230 inhabitants per square kilometre or
600 inhabitants per square mile.
The 1980 national census recorded the province of Southern
a population of 296,294 from the historic record in 1903 of 72,369. In
1990, the population of the province increased to 321,940 which was
caused by in-migration and increasing rate of birth over death. In
2000, population increased to 360,160 with a rate of 2.73 from the
negative growth rate recorded in 1995 period with 317,565. The
sudden decrease of the 1995 records was due to the late census in the
province. While regular censuses were done in May where most of the
students were at their respective places of residence, in 1995 the
census on population was done in September where the students were out
for schooling in nearby provinces. The decrease in population was
also, theoretically, attributed to out-migration of the rural
population to cities to seek better employment and livelihood
opportunities. A corresponding increase on the number of households
was also recorded at 72,894 households higher by 7,327 households over
the 1995 figure. Southern
Leyte ranked fifth in terms of population
among the six provinces in
Eastern Visayas with 9.98 percent of the
3.6 million persons of the region. On the contrary, it was the fastest
growing province in the region. At the national level, the province
contributed 0.47 percent to the total population of the Philippines
with 76.5 million.
Population by ethnicity (2000)
Other foreign ethnicity
According to the 2000 census survey, Bisaya comprised
7001807409999900000♠80.74% (290,460) of the total provincial
population of 359,738. 7001126400000000000♠12.64% (45,458) were
Boholano, 7000515000000000000♠5.15% (18,543) Cebuano,
6999200000000000000♠0.2% (711) Tagalogs, and
6999150000000000000♠0.15% (536) Waray.
In Panaon, an island situated in the southernmost part of the
province, a certain aboriginal folk are found locally known as
kongking or variously called mamanwa which means "mountain
people". They were believed to be migrants from Mindanao,
inhabiting the portions of Agusan, after their migration from the
island to evade militarization and the logging/mining corporations’
intrusion to their ancestral domains in the early 1980s. They
have a dark complexion and curly hair, and they are short in stature.
Hunting and gathering, mat weaving and rattan craft are among the main
economic activities of the Mamanwas, so they prefer to inhabit the
forested areas in the newfound Southern
Leyte mountain. However, they
were again displaced by the recent landslides in the province.
The native language is a
Boholano dialect variant of Cebuano. Natives
also speak Waray, Filipino (Tagalog), English and, to a much lesser
Our Lady of Assumption Cathedral in
Limasawa, an island municipality to the south, is believed to be the
site of the first Christian mass in Philippine soil and the birthplace
of Christianity in the Philippines, when Ferdinand Magellan, a
Portuguese navigator and explorer landed on March 28, 1521. The first
Holy Sacrifice of the Mass was held on March 31, 1521 led by Friar
Pedro de Valderrama, the chaplain of
Ferdinand Magellan during the
expedition. The mass marked the start of Christian propagation.
People in the province are generally Roman Catholics. Generally, 89
percent of them adhere to the
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church but traditions
still influence the people in the province. Aglipayan ranks second
with 4.51 percent affiliates and Evangelicals with 2.03. Other
religious affiliations include Iglesia ni Cristo, Jehovah's Witnesses,
Seventh-day Adventist Church
Seventh-day Adventist Church among others.
Although most people are Christians, a very few who live in remote
villages of the province hold on to pre-Hispanic influences and make
offerings and sacrifices before planting their crops. Farmers ritually
sacrifice chickens and pigs to ensure that the spirits or elementals
which they believe to be the cause of good harvest will grant them
Fiesta, a Spanish term meaning "festivity", is celebrated in the
province with prayer, food, drinking, dance and music. Every barangay
of every town in the province has its own celebration date. For
Hinunangan celebrates a town fiesta on the 29 June with the
Saint Peter and Saint Paul Fluvial boat parade the day before. The
kuratsa — a courtship dance-drama — highlights every occasion.
The province also holds its own festivals. "
Sinulog sa malitbog" is an
annual religious street pageant in Malitbog to pay homage to the Holy
Child Jesus (Santo Niño), the town's patron saint. Its reception has
grown steadily, with devotees from other places flocking to the town.
Similarly, the historic and religious coming of the Spaniards is
commemorated every 31 March in
Limasawa with a cultural presentation
and anniversary program dubbed "Sinugdan", meaning "beginning."
Other festivals held in the province to highlight events are the
Pagkamugna Festival and Pabulhon Festival in
Maasin City, Karomata
Festival in Beunavista, Pintuyan, Tangka-tangka Festival in Tangkaan,
Padre Burgos and Manha‑on Festival in Macrohon.
Most of the people in Southern
Leyte go into coconut planting, a
widely distributed industry, especially in mountainous and even plain
regions. The GIZ of the German Development Cooperation has embarked on
a value chain study on one of the most important products in Region 8
— the coconut, particularly in
Leyte and Southern Leyte.
In the year 2004, a beetle pest threatened the Philippine coconut
industry including Visayas.
Brontispa longissima causes great damage
to seedlings and mature coconut trees and ornamental palms, killing
the young spears and eventually the entire trees.
People in Southern
Leyte also go into abaca planting. The province is
one of the major producer of abaca fiber in the country along with
Catanduanes, Leyte, Davao Oriental, Northern Samar, Sorsogon, Sulu,
Davao del Sur, and Surigao del Sur. The fibers from
Leyte and the
province are recognized as having the best quality. On the year
1990 to 1999, Southern
Leyte produced abaca with a rate of 17
A project, Study on the
Industry Profile of Southern Leyte, was
funded by DOST 8 GIA and implemented by the Southern
University (SLSU), one of the college universities in the province,
and the Provincial Government of Southern Leyte. It was aimed to
conduct a thorough assessment on the status of the abaca industry of
the province being its major crop.
Abaca bunchy top virus threatened the abaca industry in the
province. Almost all of the abaca-producing municipalities in the area
Maasin City, Padre Burgos, Malitbog, Tomas Oppus, Bontoc,
Sogod, St. Bernard, San Juan,
Silago were greatly
affected by the deadly virus except from the municipalities at Panaon
Island. Eighty percent of the province's abaca, particularly in Sogod
town, was greatly affected while
Maasin City was estimated to suffer
about 30 percent in damages.
Some 200,000 tourists visit Southern
Leyte each year.
Domestic tourism is mostly those wishing to enjoy the sandy beaches,
hotels and resorts along the coastline. Significant numbers also visit
for religious festivals such as
Sinulog and Limasawa
Most international travellers visit Southern
Leyte for the pristine
reef diving and snorkeling, from just outside
Maasin City, all the way
Sogod Bay via Padre Burgos. There are also an increasing number
of non-divers who come to see the Whale Sharks between October and
In recent years there has been a drive to promote tourism in the
region. There is a new Zoo and Wildlife Park in Brgy. Danao in Maasin
City. Not far from Sogod is a zip line over the tallest bridge[vague]
in the Philippines.
With this increase in numbers, there are a selection of new hotels
along the coast.
Abaca fiber helps livelihood in the province. Women in the selected
areas go into abaca-based handicrafts, which is widely known in the
area as tagak or spooled abaca fiber. Natives usually called it as
tinagak or continuous spooled abaca fiber. The half-finished product
is then made into sinamay or hand woven clothe out of tinagak ready to
be made into other sinamay‑based products. Products are being
Leyte to Japan. Because of a wide distribution of an
industry called tagak, provincial sectors taught farmers on how to
cultivate a suitable variety locally called laylay.
In Bontoc, a project was successfully established with a mudcrab
hatchery with eleven hatchery tanks at the RKKMAFTI Compound.
Initially, 25 spawners are being worked-on by the project.
Aside from abaca-based products, ceramics and handicraft items made
from coconut and bamboo are also the province's industry. Among the
province’s economic activity includes fishing, livestock and poultry
Generally, rice is the staple food of the province and also includes
corn. Mountain‑living folks, however, prefer root crops which are
abundant. Native delicacies of the province includes tres marias,
bocarillo, 'salvaro, bibingka, and starhoy. They also have their own
Postal communication is the main mode of communication in the
province. There are five telephone exchange companies operating in the
province and two radio stations. These two radio stations (Radio Natin
and DYSL) are located in Sogod. Other types of communication include
SSB radios for government offices, VHF transceiver used by an amateur
radio group with main HQ also located in
Sogod, Southern Leyte
Sogod, Southern Leyte and
cellular phones for government and private entities.
The existing road network crisscrossing Southern
Leyte consists of
major arterial highways that link the province to Leyte, passing
through two major outlets. On the western part is the
Baybay and the central part by the Mahaplag‑Sogod
road via the Maharlika Highway. On the eastern part of the province,
the opening of the new Abuyog‑
Silago Roads provides fast and
convenient travel to the eastern towns of Southern Leyte. Maharlika
road contributes to the development of the province.
There are six designated bus terminals in Southern Leyte: Maasin,
Liloan, Sogod, San Juan,
Hinunangan and Silago. However, these
terminals are open spaces used by buses as parking areas and are
therefore not equipped with buildings and other facilities.
The province has only one existing airport that is located in
Panan‑awan in Maasin. This airport is considered a feeder airport
with a total runway length of 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) and width
of 30 metres (98 ft).
Leyte has a total of 11 seaports, two of which are declared
as national ports, the
Maasin and Liloan ports, and the 10 are
municipal ports. Of these 10 ports, five are operational: Maasin,
Liloan, Saint Bernard, San Juan and Sogod. By sea, travel to
Maasin port takes an average of six hours and a maximum of two hours.
A ferryboat from Liloan to Surigao takes three hours.
Leyte has one existing airport,
Panan-awan Airport located in
Maasin City. At present, however, the airport does not service any
commercial flight. It has no terminal and can only accommodate
aircraft for general aviation weighing 12,000 pounds (5,400 kg)
and below at daytime.
Colleges and universities
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Maasin — Maasin
Maasin City College — Maasin
Saint James College — Padre Burgos
Saint Joseph College — Maasin
Saint Thomas Aquinas College — Sogod
Leyte Business College — Maasin
Leyte State University — Bontoc Campus
Leyte State University —
Leyte State University — San Juan Campus
Leyte State University — Sogod (main campus)
Leyte State University —
Tomas Oppus Campus
STI College — Maasin
^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines:
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21 January 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
^ a b c d e
Census of Population (2015). "Region VIII (Eastern
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Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
^ "Travel; Southern Leyte". GlobalPinoy. Archived from the original on
10 April 2005. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
^ a b Policy and Advocacy Haribon
^ a b Southern Leyte: Attractions
^ a b c d e "The Province of Southern Leyte". National Statistical
Coordination Board - Regional Division VIII (Eastern Visayas).
Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. Retrieved 10 July
^ Villamor, Col. Jesus A. (1982). They Never Surrender.
Philippines: Vera-Reyes Inc. p. 127. access-date= requires
^ "Republic Act No. 2227; An Act Creating the Province of Southern
Leyte". The LawPhil Project. 22 May 1959. Retrieved 10 January
Landslide tragedy stuns Philippines". BBC News. 21 December 2003.
Retrieved 18 April 2016. Up to 200 people may have died in landslides
triggered by heavy rains in the central Philippines, officials
^ "200 feared dead in Philippine landslides". The Guardian. 22
December 2003. Retrieved 18 April 2016. Rescuers worked with their
bare hands and crowbars to dig out victims after the mudslides began
on Friday night. Officials fear at least 200 people are dead and many
more are homeless.
^ a b c "Province: Southern Leyte". PSGC Interactive.
Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 8 January
^ a b "Province of Southern Leyte". Department of Agriculture -
Regional Field Unit VIII. 2002. Archived from the original on 5 July
2004. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
^ a b c Regis, Emelina G. (21 March 2002). "Stop Quarrying and
Rechanneling Subang Daku of Sogod, Southern Leyte". Sogod Bay
(Geocities). Archived from the original on 26 October 2009. Retrieved
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Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap · Google Maps
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