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Southern Han
Southern Han
(Chinese: 南漢; pinyin: Nán Hàn; 917–971), originally Great Yue (Chinese: 大越), was one of the ten kingdoms that existed during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It was located on China's southern coast, controlling modern Guangdong
Guangdong
and Guangxi. The kingdom greatly expanded its capital Xingwang Fu (Chinese: 興王府; pinyin: Xìngwángfǔ, (present-day Guangzhou). It attempted but failed to annex the Tang province of Annam (modern northern Vietnam).

Contents

1 Founding of the Southern Han 2 Territorial extent 3 Relations with Vietnam 4 Fall of the Southern Han 5 Rulers 6 Rulers family tree 7 References 8 External links

Founding of the Southern Han[edit] Liu Yin was named regional governor and military officer by the Tang court in 905. Though the Tang fell two years later, Liu did not declare himself the founder of a new kingdom as other southern leaders had done. He merely inherited the title of Prince of Nanping in 909. It was not until Liu Yin’s death in 917 that his brother, Liu Yan, declared the founding of a new kingdom, which he initially called "Great Yue" (大越); he changed the name to Great Han (大漢) in 918. This was because his surname Liu (劉) was the imperial surname of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
and he claimed to be a descendant of that famous dynasty. The kingdom is often referred to as the Southern Han
Southern Han
Dynasty throughout China's history. Territorial extent[edit] With its capital at present-day Guangzhou, the domains of the kingdom spread along the coastal regions of present-day Guangdong, Guangxi, Hanoi
Hanoi
and the island of Hainan. It had borders with the kingdoms of Min, Chu and the Southern Tang
Southern Tang
as well as the non-Chinese kingdoms of Dali. The Southern Tang
Southern Tang
occupied all of the northern boundary of the Southern Han
Southern Han
after Min and Chu were conquered by the Southern Tang
Southern Tang
in 945 and 951 respectively. Relations with Vietnam[edit] While the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
was strong, the region of the present-day Vietnam
Vietnam
remained a stable, secure part of the Southern Han's Viet domains. However, as the Tang weakened late in the 9th century, the Viet sought to regain control over their own affairs. Hanoi, which had developed as a political center during the Tang Dynasty, was the center of an early Vietnamese polity. The Southern Han
Southern Han
sought to bring the Viet into its orbit; however, their invasion was unsuccessful and was repelled. In 939, the Viet in the Chinese province of Annam, under the leadership of Ngo Quyen (吳權), redeclared independence. Fall of the Southern Han[edit] The Five Dynasties ended in 960 when the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
was founded to replace the Later Zhou. From that point, the new Song rulers set themselves about to continue the reunification process set in motion by the Later Zhou. Through the 960s and 970s, the Song increased its influence in the south until finally it was able to force the Southern Han dynasty
Han dynasty
to submit to its rule in 971. Rulers[edit]

Sovereigns in the Southern Han
Southern Han
Kingdom 917–971

Temple Names Posthumous Names Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names

Gao Zu (高祖 gāo zǔ) Tian Huang Da Di (天皇大帝 tiān huáng dà dì) Liu Yan (劉巖 liú yán) Liu Yan (劉龑 liú yǎn) after 926

917–941 Qianheng (乾亨 qián hēng) 917–925 Bailong (白龍 bái lóng) 925–928 Dayou (大有 dà yǒu) 928–941

Did not exist Shang Di (殤帝 shāng dì) Liu Bin (劉玢 liú bīn) 941–943 Guangtian (光天 guāng tiān) 941–943

Zhong Zong (中宗 zhōng zōng) Wénwǔ Guāngmíng Xiào (文武光明孝皇帝) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign

Liu Sheng (劉晟 liú shèng) 943–958 Yingqian (應乾 yìng qián) 943 Qianhe (乾和 qiàn hé) 943–958

Hou Zhu (後主 hòu zhǔ) Did not exist Liu Chang (劉鋹 liú chǎng) 958–971 Dabao (大寶 dà bǎo) 958–971

Rulers family tree[edit]

Rulers family tree

Liu Zhiqian 劉知謙 (d. 894)

Liu Yin 劉隱 b.874–d.911

Liu Yan 劉龑 889–942 Gaozu 高祖 r.917-942

Liu Tai 劉台

Emperor Huizong of Min

Liu Hua 劉華 b.896-d.930

Liu Hongchang 劉弘昌 d.944 Prince of Yue 越王

Liu Bin 劉玢 920-943 Shāng 殤皇 r.942-943

Liu Sheng 劉晟 920–958 Zhongzong r.943-958

Liu Honggao 劉弘杲 d.943 Prince of Xun 循王

Liu Chang 劉鋹 942–980 r.958-971

References[edit]

Mote, F.W. (1999). Imperial China
China
(900-1800). Harvard University Press. pp. 11, 15. ISBN 0-674-01212-7.  Schafer, Edward H. "The History of the Empire of Southern Han: According to Chapter 65 of the Wu-tai-shih of Ou-yang Hsiu", Zinbun-kagaku-kenkyusyo (ed.), Silver Jubilee Volume of the Zinbun-kagaku-kenkyusyo. Kyoto, Kyoto University, 1954. Tarling, Nicholas, ed. (1999). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia (Volume One, Part One): From early times to c. 1500. Cambridge University Press. p. 139. ISBN 0-521-66369-5. 

External links[edit]

Chinaknowledge.de

v t e

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period

Five Dynasties

Later Liang (Jin) / Later Tang Later Jin Later Han Later Zhou

Ten Kingdoms (States)

Wu Former Shu Chu Wuyue Min / (Yin) Southern Han Jingnan Later Shu Southern Tang Northern Han

Other states

Qi Zhao Yan

De facto independent entities

Yiwu Jiedushi Dingnan Jiedushi Qingyuan Jiedushi Jinghai Jiedushi Wuping Jiedushi Guiyi Jiedushi

Neighboring states

Balhae Gansu Uyghur Kingdom Liao dynasty Tibetan kingdoms Dali Ngô dynasty

Histories

Old History of the Five Dynasties Historical Records of the Five Dynasties Spring and Autumn Annals of the Ten Kingdoms Wudai Huiyao

v t e

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
rulers

Five Dynasties (and other northern states)

Later Liang

Zhu Wen Zhu Yougui Zhu Youzhen

Concurrent warlords

Liu Shouguang (Yan) Wang Rong (Zhao) Li Maozhen (Qi)

Later Tang

Jin

Li Keyong

Li Cunxu Li Siyuan Li Conghou Li Congke

Later Jin

Shi Jingtang Shi Chonggui

Interregnum (Liao occupation)

Emperor Taizong of Liao Emperor Shizong of Liao

Later Han

Liu Zhiyuan Liu Chengyou

Northern Han

Liu Chong Liu Chengjun Liu Ji'en Liu Jiyuan

Later Zhou

Guo Wei Chai Rong Guo Zongxun

Ten Kingdoms (other than Northern Han)

Former Shu

Wang Jian Wang Zongyan

Later Shu

Meng Zhixiang Meng Chang

Jingnan

Gao Jixing Gao Conghui Gao Baorong Gao Baoxu Gao Jichong

Chu

Ma Yin Ma Xisheng Ma Xifan Ma Xiguang Ma Xi'e Ma Xichong

Southern Han

Liu Yan Liu Bin Liu Sheng Liu Chang

Wu

Yang Xingmi Yang Wo Yang Longyan Yang Pu

Southern Tang

Li Bian Li Jing Li Yu

Min

Wang Chao Wang Shenzhi Wang Yanhan Wang Yanjun Wang Jipeng Wang Yanxi Zhu Wenjin

Yin

Wang Yanzheng

Wuyue

Qian Liu Qian Yuanguan Qian Hongzuo Qian Hongzong Qian Chu

Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16 Kingdoms → S. Dynasties / N. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5 Dynasties & 10 Kingdoms → Liao / Song / W. Xia / Jīn → Yuan → Ming →

.