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SOUTHERN EUROPE is the southern region of the European continent . Most definitions of Southern Europe, also known as MEDITERRANEAN EUROPE, include the countries of the Iberian peninsula
Iberian peninsula
( Spain
Spain
and Portugal
Portugal
), the Italian peninsula
Italian peninsula
, Greece
Greece
and Malta
Malta
. The definition of Southern Europe
Europe
may include the entirety of Southeast Europe
Europe
or the Balkan
Balkan
countries of Southeast Europe, which are geographically technically in the southern part of Europe
Europe
but have particular historical, political, economic, and cultural backgrounds that distinguish them from the main Southern European countries and places them more in the category of Eastern Europe
Europe
. Geographic features of Southern European countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
European sub-regions according to EuroVoc (the thesaurus of the European Union
European Union
). Southern Europe
Europe
is marked yellow on this map.

Different methods can be used to define Southern Europe, including its political , economic , and cultural attributes. Southern Europe can also be defined by its natural features — its geography , climate , and flora .

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography
Geography
* 2 Climate * 3 Flora
Flora

* 4 Population

* 4.1 Largest urban areas

* 5 History

* 5.1 Early history * 5.2 Post- Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* 5.3 20th century

* 6 Languages

* 6.1 Romance languages
Romance languages
* 6.2 Other languages

* 7 Transport * 8 Religion * 9 Other classifications * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References

GEOGRAPHY

Geographically, Southern Europe
Europe
is the southern half of the landmass of Europe
Europe
. This definition is relative, with no clear limits.

Countries geographically considered part of Southern Europe
Europe
include: Southwestern Europe
Europe

Countries whose borders lie within Southwestern Europe
Europe
:

* Andorra
Andorra
* France
France
(only southern France
France
) * Gibraltar
Gibraltar
* Monaco
Monaco
* Portugal
Portugal
* Spain
Spain

South-Central Europe
Europe

Countries whose borders lie within South-Central Europe:

* Italy
Italy
(sometimes excluding northern Italy
Italy
) * San Marino
San Marino
* Vatican City
Vatican City

Southeastern Europe
Europe

Countries whose borders lie within Southeastern Europe
Europe
(Balkan peninsula ) :

* Albania
Albania
* Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
* Bulgaria
Bulgaria
* Croatia
Croatia
* Greece
Greece
* Kosovo
Kosovo
* Macedonia * Montenegro
Montenegro
* Romania
Romania
* Serbia
Serbia
* Slovenia
Slovenia
* Turkey
Turkey
(only East Thrace )

Island countries

* Cyprus
Cyprus
* Malta
Malta

Major islands

* Sardinia
Sardinia
and Sicily
Sicily
* Corsica
Corsica
* Crete
Crete
* Balearic islands
Balearic islands

CLIMATE

Climates in Southern Europe
Europe
according to the Köppen climate classification : CSA: Subtropical mediterranean climate CSB: Temperate mediterranean climate CFA: Humid subtropical climate CFB: Temperate oceanic climate DFB: Humid continental climate
Humid continental climate

Southern Europe's most emblematic climate is that of the Mediterranean climate , which has become a typically known characteristic of the area. The Mediterranean climate covers much of Portugal, Spain, Southeast France, Italy, Albania, Greece, the Western and Southern coastal regions of Turkey
Turkey
as well as the Mediterranean islands. Those areas of Mediterranean climate present similar vegetations and landscapes throughout, including dry hills , small plains , pine forests and olive trees .

Cooler climates can be found in certain parts of Southern European countries, for example within the mountain ranges of Spain
Spain
and Italy. Additionally, the north coast of Spain
Spain
experiences a wetter Atlantic climate.

FLORA

The European floristic regions MEDITERRANEAN AGRICULTURE in coastal and peri-coastal regions

Southern Europe's flora is that of the Mediterranean Region, one of the phytochoria recognized by Armen Takhtajan . The Mediterranean and Submediterranean climate regions in Europe
Europe
are found in much of Southern Europe, mainly in Southern Portugal, most of Spain, the southern coast of France, Italy, the Croatian coast, much of Bosnia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Serbia, Albania, Macedonia, Greece, and the Mediterranean islands.

POPULATION

COUNTRY Area (km²) Population (2010 est.) Population density (per km²) CAPITAL

Albania
Albania
28,748 2,821,977 111.1 Tirana
Tirana

Andorra
Andorra
468 84,082 179.8 Andorra
Andorra
la Vella

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
51,129 4,613,414 90.2 Sarajevo
Sarajevo

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
110,994 7,364,570 77 Sofia
Sofia

Croatia
Croatia
56,594 4,489,409 81 Zagreb
Zagreb

France
France
(Provence , coastal Languedoc
Languedoc
, Northern Catalonia and Corsica
Corsica
) 62,464 7,940,808 127.1 Paris
Paris

Gibraltar
Gibraltar
(UK ) 6.8 29,431 4,328 Gibraltar
Gibraltar

Greece
Greece
131,990 11,295,002 85.3 Athens
Athens

Italy
Italy
301,338 60,418,711 200.5 Rome
Rome

Kosovo
Kosovo
10,908 1,859,203 170.4 Prishtina

Macedonia 25,713 2,114,550 82.2 Skopje
Skopje

Malta
Malta
316 412,966 1,306.8 Valletta
Valletta

Montenegro
Montenegro
13,812 672,181 50 Podgorica
Podgorica

Portugal
Portugal
92,090 11,317,192 114 Lisbon
Lisbon

San Marino
San Marino
61 31,716 501 City of San Marino
San Marino

Serbia
Serbia
77,474 7,120,666 102.46 Belgrade
Belgrade

Slovenia
Slovenia
20,273 2,054,199 99.6 Ljubljana
Ljubljana

Spain
Spain
504,030 46,030,109 93 Madrid
Madrid

Turkey
Turkey
( East Thrace ) 23,764 10,620,739 446.9 Ankara
Ankara

Vatican City
Vatican City
0.44 826 1877 Vatican City
Vatican City

TOTAL 1,338,694 164,127,170 122.60

LARGEST URBAN AREAS

RANK URBAN AREA STATE POPULATION Density (per km²)

1 İstanbul
İstanbul
(European part) Turkey
Turkey
8,963,431 2,620

2 Madrid
Madrid
Spain
Spain
6,171,000 4,600

3 Milan
Milan
Italy
Italy
5,257,000 2,800

4 Barcelona
Barcelona
Spain
Spain
4,693,000 4,300

5 Rome
Rome
Italy
Italy
3,906,000 3,400

6 Naples
Naples
Italy
Italy
3,706,000 3,600

7 Athens
Athens
Greece
Greece
3,484,000 5,000

8 Lisbon
Lisbon
Portugal
Portugal
2,666,000 2,800

9 Marseille
Marseille
France
France
1,578,000 3,600

10 Valencia
Valencia
Spain
Spain
1,570,000 5,700

HISTORY

EARLY HISTORY

Partition of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
.

The period known as classical antiquity began with the rise of the city-states of Ancient Greece
Greece
. Greek influence reached its zenith under the expansive empire of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
, spreading throughout Asia
Asia
.

The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin in a vast empire based on Roman law
Roman law
and Roman legions . It promoted trade, tolerance, and Greek culture. By 300 AD the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was divided into the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
based in Rome, and the Eastern Roman Empire based in Constantinople. The attacks of the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
of Northern Europe
Europe
led to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in AD 476, a date which traditionally marks the end of the classical period and the start of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
.

During the Middle Ages, the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
survived, though modern historians refer to this state as the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. In Western Europe, Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
moved into positions of power in the remnants of the former Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and established kingdoms and empires of their own.

The period known as the Crusades
Crusades
, a series of religiously motivated military expeditions originally intended to bring the Levant
Levant
back into Christian rule, began. Several Crusader states
Crusader states
were founded in the eastern Mediterranean. These were all short-lived. The Crusaders would have a profound impact on many parts of Europe. Their Sack of Constantinople in 1204 brought an abrupt end to the Byzantine Empire. Though it would later be re-established, it would never recover its former glory. The Crusaders would establish trade routes that would develop into the Silk Road
Silk Road
and open the way for the merchant republics of Genoa and Venice to become major economic powers. The Reconquista
Reconquista
, a related movement, worked to reconquer Iberia
Iberia
for Christendom.

The Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
represented a period of upheaval in Europe. The epidemic known as the Black Death
Black Death
and an associated famine caused demographic catastrophe in Europe
Europe
as the population plummeted. Dynastic struggles and wars of conquest kept many of the states of Europe
Europe
at war for much of the period. In the Balkans, the Ottoman Empire , a Turkish state originating in Anatolia
Anatolia
, encroached steadily on former Byzantine lands, culminating in the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.

POST-MIDDLE AGES

Beginning roughly in the 14th century in Florence
Florence
, and later spreading through Europe
Europe
with the development of the printing press , a Renaissance
Renaissance
of knowledge challenged traditional doctrines in science and theology, with the Arabic texts and thought bringing about rediscovery of classical Greek and Roman knowledge.

The Reconquista
Reconquista
of Portugal
Portugal
and Spain
Spain
led to a series of oceanic explorations resulting in the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
that established direct links with Africa, the Americas, and Asia, while religious wars continued to be fought in Europe, which ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia . The Spanish crown maintained its hegemony in Europe and was the leading power on the continent until the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees , which ended a conflict between Spain
Spain
and France
France
that had begun during the Thirty Years' War. An unprecedented series of major wars and political revolutions took place around Europe
Europe
and indeed the world in the period between 1610 and 1700. Observers at the time, and many historians since, have argued that wars caused the revolutions. Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
, invented the telescope and the thermometer which allowed him to observe and describe the solar system. Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
painted the most famous work in the world. Guglielmo Marconi
Guglielmo Marconi
invented the radio.

European overseas expansion led to the rise of colonial empires , producing the Columbian Exchange . The combination of resource inflows from the New World and the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
of Great Britain, allowed a new economy based on manufacturing instead of subsistence agriculture.

The period between 1815 and 1871 saw a large number of revolutionary attempts and independence wars. Balkan
Balkan
nations began to regain independence from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. Italy
Italy
unified into a nation state. The capture of Rome
Rome
in 1870 ended the Papal temporal power . Rivalry in a scramble for empires spread in what is known as The Age of Empire .

20TH CENTURY

The outbreak of World War I
World War I
in 1914 was precipitated by the rise of nationalism in Southeastern Europe
Europe
as the Great Powers
Great Powers
took up sides. The Allies defeated the Central Powers in 1918. During the Paris
Paris
Peace Conference the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, especially the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
.

The Nazi regime under Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
came to power in 1933, and along with Mussolini\'s Italy
Italy
sought to gain control of the continent by the Second World War
Second World War
. Following the Allied victory in the Second World War, Europe
Europe
was divided by the Iron Curtain . The countries in Southeastern Europe
Europe
were dominated by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and became communist states . The major non-communist Southern European countries joined a US-led military alliance ( NATO
NATO
) and formed the European Economic Community amongst themselves. The countries in the Soviet sphere of influence joined the military alliance known as the Warsaw Pact and the economic bloc called Comecon
Comecon
. Yugoslavia was neutral.

Italy
Italy
became a major industrialized country again, due to its post-war economic miracle . The European Union
European Union
(EU) involved the division of powers, with taxation, health and education handled by the nation states, while the EU had charge of market rules, competition, legal standards and environmentalism. The Soviet economic and political system collapsed, leading to the end of communism in the satellite countries in 1989, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union itself in 1991. As a consequence, Europe\'s integration deepened , the continent became depolarised, and the European Union
European Union
expanded to subsequently include many of the formerly communist European countries – Romania
Romania
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(2007) and Croatia
Croatia
(2013).

LANGUAGES

See also: Languages of Europe
Europe

The following table shows the languages in Southern Europe
Europe
that are spoken by at least five million people in the region:

LANGUAGE SPEAKERS Principal Southern European country / countries

Italian 59,400,000 Italy
Italy

Spanish 46,000,000+ Spain
Spain

Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
20,000,000+ Serbia
Serbia
Croatia
Croatia
Bosnia Montenegro
Montenegro
Kosovo
Kosovo

Greek 13,432,490 Greece
Greece
Cyprus
Cyprus
Albania
Albania

Bulgarian 11 500 000 Bulgaria
Bulgaria

Turkish 10,934,365 Turkey
Turkey
Northern Cyprus
Cyprus

Portuguese 10,000,000 Portugal
Portugal

Catalan 10,000,000 Spain
Spain
Andorra
Andorra
France
France
Italy
Italy

Albanian 7,500,000 Albania
Albania
Kosovo
Kosovo
Macedonia Montenegro
Montenegro
Greece
Greece
Italy
Italy

ROMANCE LANGUAGES

The most widely spoken family of languages in Southern Europe
Europe
are the Romance languages
Romance languages
, the heirs of Latin, which have spread from the Italian peninsula, and are emblematic of Southwestern Europe. (See the Latin Arch .) By far the most common Romance languages
Romance languages
in Southern Europe
Europe
are Italian (spoken by over 50 million people in Italy, San Marino, and the Vatican) and Spanish, which is spoken by over 40 million people in Spain
Spain
and Gibraltar. Other common Romance languages include Romanian (spoken in Romania
Romania
and Moldova), Portuguese (spoken in Portugal), Catalan (spoken in eastern Spain), Galician (spoken in northwestern Spain) and Occitan
Occitan
, which is spoken in the Val d\'Aran in Catalonia, in the Occitan
Occitan
Valleys in Italy
Italy
and finally in southern France.

OTHER LANGUAGES

The Hellenic languages or Greek language
Greek language
are widely spoken in Greece and in the Greek part of Cyprus. Additionally, other varieties of Greek are spoken in small communities in parts of other European counties.

Several South Slavic languages are spoken by millions of people in Southern Europe. Serbian is spoken in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia, and Croatia; Bulgarian is spoken in Bulgaria; Croatian is spoken in Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia; Bosnian is spoken in Bosnia; Slovene is spoken in Slovenia; and Macedonian is spoken in Macedonia.

English is used as a second language in parts of Southern Europe. As a primary language, however, English has only a small presence in Southern Europe, only in Gibraltar
Gibraltar
(alongside Spanish) and Malta (secondary to Maltese).

There are other language groupings in Southern Europe. Albanian is spoken in Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, and parts of Greece. Maltese is a Semitic language that is the official language of Malta, descended from Siculo-Arabic , but written in the Latin script with heavy Latin and Italian influences. The Basque language is spoken in the Basque Country , a region in northern Spain
Spain
and southwestern France.

TRANSPORT

The following table shows the busiest airports in Southern Europe
Europe
in 2013.

RANK COUNTRY AIRPORT CITY PASSENGERS (2012) PASSENGERS (2013) Change 2012-2013

1 Turkey
Turkey
İstanbul
İstanbul
Atatürk Airport İstanbul
İstanbul
44,998,508 51,320,875 014.0%

2 Spain
Spain
Barajas Airport
Barajas Airport
Madrid
Madrid
45,190,528 39,735,618 012.1%

3 Italy
Italy
Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport Rome
Rome
36,980,911 36,166,345 02.2%

4 Spain
Spain
Barcelona
Barcelona
El Prat Airport Barcelona
Barcelona
35,144,503 35,216,828 00.2%

5 Spain
Spain
Palma de Mallorca Airport Palma de Mallorca 22,666,858 22,768,032 00.4%

6 Italy
Italy
Malpensa Airport Milan
Milan
18,537,301 17,955,075 03.1%

7 Portugal
Portugal
Lisbon
Lisbon
Portela Airport Lisbon
Lisbon
15,301,176 16,008,848 04.6%

8 Spain
Spain
Málaga Airport Málaga
Málaga
12,581,944 12,925,186 02.7%

9 Greece
Greece
Athens
Athens
International Airport Athens
Athens
12,944,041 12,536,057 03.2%

10 France
France
Nice
Nice
Côte d\'Azur Airport Nice
Nice
11,189,896 11,554,195 03.2%

RELIGION

The religious distribution in 1054

The predominant religion in Southern Europe
Europe
is Christianity
Christianity
. Christianity
Christianity
spread throughout Southern Europe
Europe
during the Roman Empire, and Christianity
Christianity
was adopted as the official religion of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the year 380 AD. Due to the historical break of the Church into the western half based in Rome
Rome
and the eastern half based in Constantinople, different denominations of Christianity
Christianity
are prominent in different parts of Europe. Christians
Christians
in the western half of Southern Europe
Europe
— e.g., Portugal, Spain, Italy
Italy
— are generally Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
. Christians
Christians
in the eastern half of Southern Europe
Europe
— e.g., Greece, Macedonia — are generally Greek Orthodox .

Additionally, there are countries in the eastern part of Southern Europe
Europe
(e.g., Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Turkey), where Islam is widely practiced.

OTHER CLASSIFICATIONS

European Travel Commission classification

European Travel Commission divides the European region on the basis of Tourism Decision Metrics (TDM) model. Countries which belong to the Southern/Mediterranean Europe
Europe
are:

* Albania
Albania
* Bulgaria
Bulgaria
* Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
* Croatia
Croatia
* Cyprus
Cyprus
* Italy
Italy
* Greece
Greece
* Macedonia * Malta
Malta
* Montenegro
Montenegro
* Serbia
Serbia
* Slovenia
Slovenia
* Spain
Spain
* Turkey
Turkey

SEE ALSO

* Geography
Geography
portal * Europe
Europe
portal * Mediterranean portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to SOUTHERN EUROPE .

* Mediterranean Basin * Southeast Europe
Europe
* Northern Europe
Europe
* Western Europe
Europe
* EU Med Group * Eurovoc#Southern Europe
Europe

NOTES

* ^ Kosovo
Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia
Serbia
. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory . The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement . Kosovo
Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 111 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states . * ^ Both native and second language speakers residing in Southern Europe
Europe
only.

REFERENCES

* ^ Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural
Cultural
Anthropology, Dr Alan Barnard and Jonathan Spence. Retrieved 10 October 2015. * ^ In strict geographic terms Central Europe
Europe
include Germany, Switzerland, Northern Italy, Austria, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary... * ^ Article in Britannica * ^ BBC * ^ Library of Congress. Cataloging Policy and Support Office, Library of Congress Subject Headings * ^ Wolfgang Frey and Rainer Lösch; Lehrbuch der Geobotanik. Pflanze und Vegetation in Raum und Zeit. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, München 2004 * ^ United Nations: World Urbanization Prospects * ^ e.g. Averroes#Commentaries on Aristotle and Plato written in the 12th century, which was mentioned in Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
IV:144 around 1320 AD * ^ Geoffrey Parker, "States Make War But Wars Also Break States,"Journal of Military History (2010) 74#1 pp 11–34 * ^ John Lichfield, The Moving of the Mona Lisa, The Independent, 2005-04-02 (accessed 2012-03-09) * ^ Sungook Hong, Wireless: From Marconi's Black-box to the Audion, MIT Press - 2001, page 1 * ^ Richard J. Mayne. "history of Europe:: The Middle Ages". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 18 April 2009. * ^ Steven Kreis (11 October 2006). "The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England". Historyguide.org. Retrieved 31 January 2010. * ^ Italian at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) * ^ Spanish at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) * ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin * ^ Greek at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) * ^ Bulgarian at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) * ^ European Turkey
Turkey
Population * ^ Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
* ^ Portuguese at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) * ^ Catalan News Agency - Number of Catalan speakers rising despite adverse context * ^ Informe sobre la Situació de la Llengua Catalana Xarxa CRUSCAT. Coneixements, usos i representacions del català * ^ Mate Kapović, ed. (2017). The Indo-European Languages (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 552. ISBN 978-1-315-67855-9 . * ^ A B C D E F G H http://www.aena.es/csee/Satellite?pagename=Estadisticas/Home * ^ A B C D http://www.assaeroporti.com/statistiche/ * ^ A B Portugal
Portugal
Airport Statistics * ^ A B http://www.aia.gr/company-and-business/the-company/facts-and-figures/ * ^ A B http://corporate.nice.aeroport.fr/About-us/NEWS-MEDIA/Statistics/Monthly-Statistics-Reports2 * ^ Dragan Brujić (2005). "Vodič kroz svet Vizantije (Guide to the Byzantine World)". Beograd. p. 51. * ^ European Tourism in 2014: Trends ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Regions of the world

* v * t * e

Regions of Africa
Africa

NORTH

* Mediterranean * Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Arc

* Greater Middle East
Greater Middle East

* MENA
MENA
* Middle East
Middle East

* Maghreb
Maghreb

* Barbary Coast
Barbary Coast
* Barbara * Ancient Libya * Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
( Middle Atlas
Middle Atlas
) * Sahara
Sahara
* Western Sahara
Sahara
* Sahel
Sahel

* Eastern Mediterranean

* Egypt

* Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
* Middle Egypt
Middle Egypt
* Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
* Cataracts of the Nile
Cataracts of the Nile
* Bashmur

* Nubia
Nubia

* Lower Nubia
Nubia

* Nile Valley
Nile Valley
* Nile Delta
Nile Delta
* Darfur
Darfur
* Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
* Sub-Saharan

EAST

* Aethiopia
Aethiopia
* Swahili coast * East African Rift
East African Rift
* Great Rift Valley * Afar Triangle * Danakil Desert * Danakil Alps * Albertine Rift
Albertine Rift
Valley * Gregory Rift
Gregory Rift
Valley * Southern Rift Valley

* Rift Valley lakes
Rift Valley lakes

* African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes

* Mittelafrika

* Horn of Africa
Africa

* Ethiopian Highlands * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Tadjoura

* Sudan (region)
Sudan (region)
* Sudanian Savanna * East African montane forests * Sub-Saharan

CENTRAL

* Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea

* Cape Lopez * Mayombe
Mayombe

* Igboland
Igboland

* Mbaise

* Maputaland
Maputaland
* Pool Malebo
Pool Malebo
* Congo Basin
Congo Basin
* Chad Basin
Chad Basin
* Congolese rainforests * Ouaddaï highlands * Ennedi Plateau * Sub-Saharan

WEST

* Pepper Coast * Gold Coast * Slave Coast * Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
* Cape Palmas
Cape Palmas
* Cape Mesurado * Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea

* Sudanian Savanna * Niger Basin * Guinean Forests of West Africa
Africa
* Sudan (region)
Sudan (region)
* Niger Delta
Niger Delta
* Inner Niger Delta
Niger Delta
* Sub-Saharan

SOUTH

* Madagascar
Madagascar

* Central Highlands (Madagascar)
Central Highlands (Madagascar)
* Northern Highlands

* Rhodesia

* North * South

* Thembuland
Thembuland
* Succulent Karoo
Succulent Karoo
* Nama Karoo * Bushveld
Bushveld
* Highveld * Fynbos
Fynbos
* Cape Floristic Region * Kalahari Desert * Okavango Delta * False Bay
False Bay
* Hydra Bay
Hydra Bay
* Sub-Saharan

* Anglophone Africa
Africa
* Francophone Africa
Africa
* Lusophone Africa
Africa
* Arabophone Africa
Africa
* Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
* Tropical Africa
Africa
* Islands

* v * t * e

Regions of North America
North America

CANADA

* Eastern Canada
Canada
* Western Canada
Canada
* Canadian Prairies * Northern Canada
Canada
* Atlantic Canada
Canada
* French Canada
Canada
* English Canada
Canada

* Acadia
Acadia

* Acadian Peninsula

* Quebec City–Windsor Corridor
Quebec City–Windsor Corridor
* Peace River Country * Cypress Hills * Palliser\'s Triangle * Canadian Shield
Canadian Shield
* Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga * Newfoundland (island)
Newfoundland (island)
* Vancouver island
Vancouver island
* Gulf Islands
Gulf Islands
* Strait of Georgia
Strait of Georgia
* Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Canadian Arctic Archipelago
* Labrador Peninsula * Gaspé Peninsula
Gaspé Peninsula

* Avalon Peninsula
Avalon Peninsula

* Bay de Verde Peninsula

* Brodeur Peninsula * Melville Peninsula * Bruce Peninsula * Banks Peninsula (Nunavut)
Banks Peninsula (Nunavut)
* Cook Peninsula * Gulf of Boothia * Georgian Bay * Hudson Bay * James Bay
James Bay
* Greenland
Greenland

UNITED STATES

* Eastern

* Appalachia * East Coast * Great Lakes

* Northeastern

* Mid-Atlantic * New England
New England

* Western

* Alaska Peninsula
Alaska Peninsula
* Mountain States
Mountain States
* Northwestern * Pacific * Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
* Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
* West Coast

* Central

* Great Plains
Great Plains
* Midwestern

* Southern

* Deep South * Gulf * Southeastern * South Central * Southwestern * Upland South

* Belt regions

* Bible Belt
Bible Belt
* Black Belt * Corn Belt
Corn Belt
* Cotton Belt * Frost Belt
Frost Belt
* Rice Belt
Rice Belt
* Rust Belt
Rust Belt
* Sun Belt * Snow Belt

MEXICO

* Northern Mexico
Mexico
* Baja California Peninsula
Baja California Peninsula

* Gulf of California

* Colorado River Delta
Colorado River Delta

* Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Soconusco
Soconusco
* Tierra Caliente * La Mixteca * La Huasteca * Bajío
Bajío
* Valley of Mexico
Mexico
* Mezquital Valley
Mezquital Valley
* Sierra Madre de Oaxaca * Yucatán Peninsula
Yucatán Peninsula
* Basin and Range Province
Basin and Range Province

CENTRAL

* Western Caribbean Zone * Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama

* Gulf of Panama
Gulf of Panama

* Pearl Islands

* Azuero Peninsula * Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast

CARIBBEAN

* West Indies
West Indies

* Antilles
Antilles

* Greater Antilles
Antilles

* Lesser Antilles
Antilles

* Leeward * Leeward Antilles
Antilles
* Windward

* Lucayan Archipelago
Lucayan Archipelago
* Southern Caribbean
Caribbean

* Aridoamerica * Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
* Oasisamerica
Oasisamerica
* Northern * Middle * Anglo

* Latin

* French * Hispanic

* American Cordillera * Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
* LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of South America
South America

NORTH

* Caribbean
Caribbean
South America
South America
* West Indies
West Indies
* Los Llanos * The Guianas
The Guianas
* Gulf of Paria * Paria Peninsula
Paria Peninsula
* Paraguaná Peninsula
Paraguaná Peninsula
* Orinoco Delta

SOUTH

* Tierra del Fuego * Patagonia
Patagonia
* Pampas * Pantanal * Gran Chaco * Chiquitano dry forests * Valdes Peninsula

WEST

* Andes
Andes
* Altiplano
Altiplano
* Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert

EAST

* Amazon basin
Amazon basin
* Caatinga
Caatinga
* Cerrado

* Latin * Hispanic * American Cordillera * Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
* LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of Asia
Asia

CENTRAL

* Greater Middle East
Greater Middle East

* Aral Sea
Aral Sea

* Aralkum Desert * Caspian Sea * Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee

* Transoxiana
Transoxiana

* Turan
Turan

* Greater Khorasan * Ariana
Ariana
* Khwarezm * Sistan * Kazakhstania

* Eurasian Steppe
Eurasian Steppe

* Asian Steppe * Kazakh Steppe
Kazakh Steppe
* Pontic–Caspian steppe
Pontic–Caspian steppe

* Mongolian-Manchurian grassland
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* Wild Fields

* Yedisan
Yedisan
* Muravsky Trail
Muravsky Trail

* Ural

* Ural Mountains

* Volga region * Idel-Ural * Kolyma
Kolyma
* Transbaikal
Transbaikal
* Pryazovia
Pryazovia
* Bjarmaland * Kuban
Kuban
* Zalesye
Zalesye
* Ingria * Novorossiya
Novorossiya
* Gornaya Shoriya * Tulgas * Iranian plateau
Iranian plateau
* Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
* Tian Shan
Tian Shan
* Badakhshan
Badakhshan
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass * Mount Imeon
Mount Imeon
* Mongolian Plateau * Western Regions

NORTH

* Inner Asia
Asia
* Northeast

* Far East
Far East

* Russian Far East
Far East
* Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

* Extreme North

* Siberia
Siberia

* Baikalia
Baikalia
( Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
) * Transbaikal
Transbaikal
* Khatanga Gulf * Baraba Steppe

* Kamchatka Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula
* Amur Basin * Yenisei Gulf
Yenisei Gulf
* Yenisei Basin * Beringia
Beringia

EAST

* Japanese archipelago

* Northeastern Japan Arc
Northeastern Japan Arc
* Sakhalin Island Arc

* Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
* Gobi Desert
Gobi Desert
* Taklamakan Desert
Taklamakan Desert
* Greater Khingan * Mongolian Plateau * Inner Asia
Asia
* Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
* Outer Mongolia
Outer Mongolia
* China proper
China proper

* Manchuria
Manchuria

* Outer Manchuria
Manchuria
* Inner Manchuria
Manchuria
* Northeast China Plain
Plain
* Mongolian-Manchurian grassland
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* North China Plain
Plain
* Liaodong Peninsula
Liaodong Peninsula
* Himalayas
Himalayas

* Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau

* Tibet
Tibet

* Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
* Northern Silk Road
Silk Road
* Hexi Corridor * Nanzhong * Lingnan * Liangguang
Liangguang
* Jiangnan
Jiangnan
* Jianghuai * Guanzhong
Guanzhong
* Huizhou * Wu * Jiaozhou * Zhongyuan
Zhongyuan
* Shaannan
Shaannan

* Ordos Loop
Ordos Loop

* Loess Plateau
Loess Plateau
* Shaanbei

* Leizhou Peninsula
Leizhou Peninsula
* Gulf of Tonkin * Yangtze River Delta * Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
* Yenisei Basin * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass

WEST

* Greater Middle East
Greater Middle East

* MENA
MENA
* Middle East
Middle East

* Red Sea
Red Sea
* Caspian Sea * Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
* Zagros Mountains

* Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf

* Pirate Coast * Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz
* Greater and Lesser Tunbs
Greater and Lesser Tunbs

* Al-Faw Peninsula
Al-Faw Peninsula
* Gulf of Oman
Gulf of Oman
* Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
* Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Balochistan
Balochistan

* Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula

* Najd
Najd
* Hejaz
Hejaz
* Tihamah
Tihamah
* Eastern Arabia
Eastern Arabia

* South Arabia

* Hadhramaut * Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

* Tigris–Euphrates

* Mesopotamia

* Upper Mesopotamia
Upper Mesopotamia
* Lower Mesopotamia
Lower Mesopotamia
* Sawad
Sawad
* Nineveh plains * Akkad (region)
Akkad (region)

* Canaan
Canaan
* Aram * Eber-Nari
Eber-Nari
* Eastern Mediterranean * Mashriq
Mashriq

* Levant
Levant

* Southern Levant
Levant
* Transjordan * Jordan Rift Valley
Jordan Rift Valley

* Levantine Sea
Levantine Sea
* Golan Heights
Golan Heights
* Hula Valley
Hula Valley
* Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
* West Bank
West Bank
* Galilee
Galilee
* Gilead
Gilead
* Judea
Judea
* Samaria
Samaria
* Arabah
Arabah
* Anti-Lebanon Mountains
Anti-Lebanon Mountains
* Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
* Arabian Desert
Arabian Desert
* Syrian Desert
Syrian Desert
* Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
* Azerbaijan * Syria * Palestine * Iranian plateau
Iranian plateau
* Armenian Highlands
Armenian Highlands

* Caucasus
Caucasus

* Caucasus
Caucasus
mountains

* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Lesser Caucasus
Caucasus

* North Caucasus
Caucasus

* South Caucasus
Caucasus

* Kur-Araz Lowland * Lankaran Lowland
Lankaran Lowland
* Alborz
Alborz
* Absheron Peninsula
Absheron Peninsula

* Anatolia
Anatolia
* Cilicia * Cappadocia
Cappadocia
* Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Greater India
Greater India
* Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
* Himalayas
Himalayas
* Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
* Western Ghats
Western Ghats
* Eastern Ghats * Ganges Basin * Ganges Delta * Pashtunistan * Punjab * Balochistan
Balochistan
* Thar Desert
Thar Desert
* Indus Valley * Indus River
Indus River
Delta * Indus Valley Desert * Indo-Gangetic Plain
Plain
* Eastern coastal plains
Eastern coastal plains
* Western Coastal Plains * Meghalaya subtropical forests * Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests * Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows * Doab
Doab
* Bagar region * Great Rann of Kutch * Little Rann of Kutch
Little Rann of Kutch
* Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
* Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
* Konkan
Konkan
* False Divi Point * Hindi Belt
Hindi Belt
* Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
* Bay of Bengal * Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Khambhat
* Gulf of Kutch
Gulf of Kutch
* Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar
* Trans-Karakoram Tract
Trans-Karakoram Tract
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass * Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
* Maldive Islands * Alpide belt

SOUTHEAST

* Mainland

* Indochina
Indochina
* Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula

* Maritime

* Peninsular Malaysia * Sunda Islands * Greater Sunda Islands * Lesser Sunda Islands

* Indonesian Archipelago * Timor
Timor

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula
Papuan Peninsula
* Huon Peninsula
Huon Peninsula
* Huon Gulf
Huon Gulf
* Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula
Gazelle Peninsula

* Philippine Archipelago
Philippine Archipelago

* Luzon
Luzon
* Visayas
Visayas
* Mindanao
Mindanao

* Leyte Gulf
Leyte Gulf
* Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
* East Indies
East Indies
* Nanyang * Alpide belt

* Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
* Tropical Asia
Asia
* Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Regions of Europe
Europe

NORTH

* Nordic * Northwestern * Scandinavia
Scandinavia
* Scandinavian Peninsula
Scandinavian Peninsula
* Fennoscandia
Fennoscandia
* Baltoscandia
Baltoscandia
* Sápmi
Sápmi
* West Nordic * Baltic * Gulf of Bothnia * Iceland
Iceland
* Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands

EAST

* Danubian countries * Prussia * Galicia

* Sambia Peninsula

* Amber Coast
Amber Coast

* Curonian Spit * Izyum Trail * Lithuania Minor
Lithuania Minor
* Nemunas Delta * Baltic

* Southeastern

* Balkans
Balkans
* Aegean Islands
Aegean Islands
* Gulf of Chania * North Caucasus
Caucasus
* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Kabardia
Kabardia

* European Russia
European Russia

* Southern Russia
Southern Russia

CENTRAL

* Alpine states
Alpine states
* Alpide belt * Mitteleuropa * Visegrád Group
Visegrád Group

WEST

* Benelux
Benelux
* Low Countries
Low Countries
* Northwest * British Isles
British Isles
* English Channel
English Channel
* Channel Islands
Channel Islands
* Cotentin Peninsula
Cotentin Peninsula
* Normandy
Normandy
* Brittany
Brittany
* Gulf of Lion

* Iberia
Iberia

* Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
* Baetic System
Baetic System

* Pyrenees
Pyrenees
* Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
* Insular Italy
Italy
* Tuscan Archipelago
Tuscan Archipelago
* Aegadian Islands
Aegadian Islands

* Iberia
Iberia

* Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
* Baetic System
Baetic System

* Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Arc * Southeastern * Mediterranean * Crimea
Crimea
* Donbass
Donbass
* Sloboda Ukraine
Sloboda Ukraine
* Alpide belt

* Germanic * Romance * Celtic * Slavic countries * Uralic * European Plain
Plain
* Eurasian Steppe
Eurasian Steppe
* Pontic–Caspian steppe
Pontic–Caspian steppe
* Wild Fields

* Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin

* Great Hungarian Plain
Plain
* Little Hungarian Plain
Plain
* Eastern Slovak Lowland

* Volhynia * Karelia
Karelia
* East Karelia
Karelia

* v * t * e

Regions of Oceania
Oceania

AUSTRALASIA

* Gulf of Carpentaria
Gulf of Carpentaria

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula
Papuan Peninsula
* Huon Peninsula
Huon Peninsula
* Huon Gulf
Huon Gulf
* Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula
Gazelle Peninsula

* New Zealand
New Zealand

* South Island
South Island

* North Island
North Island

* Coromandel Peninsula
Coromandel Peninsula

* Zealandia
Zealandia
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Solomon Islands (archipelago)
Solomon Islands (archipelago)

* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

* Kula Gulf
Kula Gulf

* Australia
Australia
* Capital Country * Eastern Australia
Australia
* Lake Eyre basin
Lake Eyre basin
* Murray–Darling basin
Murray–Darling basin
* Northern Australia
Australia
* Nullarbor Plain
Plain
* Outback
Outback

* Southern Australia
Australia

* Maralinga
Maralinga

* Sunraysia
Sunraysia
* Great Victoria Desert
Great Victoria Desert
* Gulf of Carpentaria
Gulf of Carpentaria
* Gulf St Vincent
Gulf St Vincent
* Lefevre Peninsula * Fleurieu Peninsula
Fleurieu Peninsula
* Yorke Peninsula * Eyre Peninsula
Eyre Peninsula
* Mornington Peninsula * Bellarine Peninsula * Mount Henry Peninsula
Mount Henry Peninsula

MELANESIA

* Islands Region
Islands Region

* Bismarck Archipelago * Solomon Islands Archipelago

* Fiji
Fiji
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

MICRONESIA

* Caroline Islands
Caroline Islands

* Federated States of Micronesia
Micronesia
* Palau
Palau

* Guam
Guam
* Kiribati
Kiribati
* Marshall Islands * Nauru
Nauru
* Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
* Wake Island

POLYNESIA

* Easter Island
Easter Island
* Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
* Cook Islands

* French Polynesia
Polynesia

* Austral Islands * Gambier Islands * Marquesas Islands * Society Islands
Society Islands
* Tuamotu
Tuamotu

* Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands
* Mangareva Islands * Samoa
Samoa
* Tokelau
Tokelau
* Tonga
Tonga
* Tuvalu
Tuvalu

* Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Polar regions

ANTARCTIC

* Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula * East Antarctica
East Antarctica
* West Antarctica
West Antarctica
* Eklund Islands * Ecozone * Extreme points * Islands

ARCTIC

* Arctic
Arctic
Alaska * British Arctic
Arctic
Territories * Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Canadian Arctic Archipelago
* Finnmark
Finnmark
* Greenland
Greenland
* Northern Canada
Canada
* Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
* Nunavik
Nunavik
* Nunavut
Nunavut
* Russian Arctic
Arctic
* Sakha * Sápmi
Sápmi
* Yukon
Yukon
* North American Arctic
Arctic

* v * t * e

Earth
Earth
's oceans and seas

ARCTIC OCEAN

* Amundsen Gulf * Barents Sea
Barents Sea
* Beaufort Sea * Chukchi Sea
Chukchi Sea
* East Siberian Sea
East Siberian Sea
* Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Boothia * Kara Sea
Kara Sea
* Laptev Sea * Lincoln Sea
Lincoln Sea
* Prince Gustav Adolf Sea
Prince Gustav Adolf Sea
* Pechora Sea * Queen Victoria Sea * Wandel Sea
Wandel Sea
* White Sea
White Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

* Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
* Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
* Alboran Sea
Alboran Sea
* Archipelago Sea
Archipelago Sea
* Argentine Sea * Baffin Bay
Baffin Bay
* Balearic Sea
Balearic Sea
* Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
* Bay of Biscay * Bay of Bothnia * Bay of Campeche
Bay of Campeche
* Bay of Fundy
Bay of Fundy
* Black Sea
Black Sea
* Bothnian Sea * Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea * Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
* English Channel
English Channel
* Foxe Basin
Foxe Basin
* Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Bothnia * Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
* Gulf of Lion * Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea
* Gulf of Maine
Gulf of Maine
* Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Gulf of Saint Lawrence * Gulf of Sidra
Gulf of Sidra
* Gulf of Venezuela * Hudson Bay * Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
* Irish Sea
Irish Sea
* Irminger Sea
Irminger Sea
* James Bay
James Bay
* Labrador Sea * Levantine Sea
Levantine Sea
* Libyan Sea
Libyan Sea
* Ligurian Sea
Ligurian Sea
* Marmara Sea * Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
* Myrtoan Sea * North Sea
North Sea
* Norwegian Sea * Sargasso Sea * Sea of Åland
Sea of Åland
* Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
* Sea of Crete
Crete
* Sea of the Hebrides * Thracian Sea
Thracian Sea
* Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
* Wadden Sea
Wadden Sea

INDIAN OCEAN

* Andaman Sea
Andaman Sea
* Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
* Bali Sea
Bali Sea
* Bay of Bengal * Flores Sea
Flores Sea
* Great Australian Bight
Great Australian Bight
* Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
* Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Khambhat
* Gulf of Kutch
Gulf of Kutch
* Gulf of Oman
Gulf of Oman
* Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez
* Java Sea
Java Sea
* Laccadive Sea * Mozambique Channel * Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
* Red Sea
Red Sea
* Timor
Timor
Sea

PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea
Arafura Sea
* Banda Sea
Banda Sea
* Bering Sea
Bering Sea
* Bismarck Sea
Bismarck Sea
* Bohai Sea * Bohol Sea * Camotes Sea * Celebes Sea
Celebes Sea
* Ceram Sea
Ceram Sea
* Chilean Sea * Coral Sea
Coral Sea
* East China Sea
East China Sea
* Gulf of Alaska * Gulf of Anadyr * Gulf of California * Gulf of Carpentaria
Gulf of Carpentaria
* Gulf of Fonseca * Gulf of Panama
Gulf of Panama
* Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
* Gulf of Tonkin * Halmahera Sea * Koro Sea
Koro Sea
* Mar de Grau
Mar de Grau
* Molucca Sea * Moro Gulf
Moro Gulf
* Philippine Sea
Philippine Sea
* Salish Sea * Savu Sea * Sea of Japan
Sea of Japan
* Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk
* Seto Inland Sea
Seto Inland Sea
* Shantar Sea * Sibuyan Sea
Sibuyan Sea
* Solomon Sea * South China Sea * Sulu Sea
Sulu Sea
* Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
* Visayan Sea
Visayan Sea
* Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea

SOUTHERN OCEAN

* Amundsen Sea
Amundsen Sea
* Bellingshausen Sea * Cooperation Sea * Cosmonauts Sea * Davis Sea
Davis Sea
* D\'Urville Sea * King Haakon VII Sea * Lazarev Sea
Lazarev Sea
* Mawson Sea * Riiser-Larsen Sea * Ross Sea * Scotia Sea
Scotia Sea
* Somov Sea
Somov Sea
* Weddell Sea
Weddell Sea

ENDORHEIC BASINS

* Aral Sea
Aral Sea
* Caspian Sea * Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
* Salton Sea
Salton Sea

* BOOK * CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Europe
Europe
articles

HISTORY

CHRONOLOGY

* Prehistory * Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
* Late antiquity
Late antiquity
* Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* Early modernity * World War I border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Military

* Sovereignty

* predecessor states

GEOGRAPHY

* Areas and populations * Largest metropolitan areas * Cities * Extreme points * Geology * Islands * Lakes * Mountains * Rivers

* Sovereign states and dependent territories

* by population

* Villages

POLITICS

* Eurosphere * International organisations * Integration * Law * Politics * Post-Soviet Europe
Europe
* Transatlantic relations

INTERGOVERNMENTAL

* Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) * Council of Europe
Europe
(CoE) * Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) * GUAM Organization * North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)

* Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Europe
(OSCE)

* statistics

EUROPEAN UNION

* Economy

* relations * free trade agreements

* Education * European Economic Area (EEA) * European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) * European Union
European Union
Customs Union (EUCU) * Eurozone
Eurozone
* Foreign relations

* Members

* enlargement

* Politics * Schengen Area
Schengen Area
* Statistics * Visa policy

ECONOMY

* History * Financial (and social) rankings * Free trade areas * Energy * Telecommunications * Transport

INTERGOVERNMENTAL

* Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) * Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia (CUBKR) * Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC) * European Free Trade Association
European Free Trade Association
(EFTA)

SOVEREIGN STATES BY

* Average wage

* Budget revenues

* per capita

* Corruption index

* GDP (nominal)

* per capita

* GDP (PPP)

* per capita

* GNI (nominal) per capita * GNI (PPP) per capita * HDI * Internet users (%) * Minimum wage * Press Freedom Index * Unemployment rate (%) * Health expense per capita * Military spending (%) * Childhood population (%) * Urban population (%) * Life expectancy * Electricity use per capita

SOCIETY

* Etiquette * Social (and financial) rankings

* Languages

* endangered

* Universities

* Bologna Process
Bologna Process
* Erasmus

CULTURE

* Art

* painting * sculpture

* Architecture * Capital of Culture

* Cinema

* film festivals

* Classical music * Cuisine * Dance * Literature * Philosophy

* Religion

* Christianity
Christianity
* Islam * Judaism

* Sport * Symbols

DEMOGRAPHICS

* Ageing

* Ethnic groups

* genetic history

* Immigration * Life expectancy * Retirement

* Outline * Index

* Category * Portal
Portal
* Maps

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 235920934 * GND : 4078023-5

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