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Southern Europe
Europe
is the southern region of the European continent. Most definitions of Southern Europe, also known as Mediterranean Europe, includes Southern and Eastern Spain, Southern France, Italy, the Adriatic coast of former Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece
Greece
and East Thrace of European Turkey. Serbia[1][2] and Portugal
Portugal
are also usually included despite not having a coast in the Mediterranean.[3]

Geographic features of Southern European countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea

European subregions according to Eurovoc
Eurovoc
(the thesaurus of the European Union). Southern Europe
Europe
is marked yellow on this map.

Different methods can be used to define Southern Europe, including its political, economic, and cultural attributes. Southern Europe
Europe
can also be defined by its natural features — its geography, climate, and flora.

Contents

1 Geography 2 Climate 3 Flora 4 Population

4.1 Largest urban areas

5 History

5.1 Early history 5.2 Post-Middle Ages 5.3 20th century

6 Languages

6.1 Romance languages 6.2 Other languages

7 Transport 8 Religion 9 Other classifications 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References

Geography[edit] Geographically, Southern Europe
Europe
is the southern half of the landmass of Europe. This definition is relative, although largely based in history, culture, climate, and flora which is shared across the region. It includes southwestern Europe: the Iberian Peninsula ( Portugal
Portugal
and Spain) and southern France, including the minor territories of Andorra, Gibraltar, and Monaco. It also includes Italy in South-Central and the micro-states of San Marino
San Marino
and the Vatican City. It includes mostly just Greece
Greece
in Southeastern Europe. However, Albania, Montenegro, the coast of Croatia
Croatia
and the southern tips of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and East Thrace
East Thrace
in European Turkey
Turkey
can be considered part of southern Europe
Europe
according to some authors.[4][5][6] The Major islands in the region are Sardinia, Sicily, Corsica, Crete, and the Balearic islands
Balearic islands
and the Island countries of Cyprus
Cyprus
and Malta. Climate[edit] Southern Europe's most emblematic climate is that of the Mediterranean climate , which has become a typically known characteristic of the area, which is due to the large subtropical semi-permanent centre of high atmospheric pressure found, not in the Mediterranean itself, but in the Atlantic Ocean, the Azores High. The Mediterranean climate covers much of Portugal, Spain, Southeast France, Italy, Albania, Greece, the Western and Southern coastal regions of Turkey
Turkey
as well as the Mediterranean islands. Those areas of Mediterranean climate present similar vegetations and landscapes throughout, including dry hills, small plains, pine forests and olive trees. Cooler climates can be found in certain parts of Southern European countries, for example within the mountain ranges of Spain
Spain
and Italy. Additionally, the north coast of Spain
Spain
experiences a wetter Atlantic climate. Flora[edit]

The European floristic regions

  Mediterranean agriculture in coastal and peri-coastal regions

Southern Europe's flora is that of the Mediterranean Region, one of the phytochoria recognized by Armen Takhtajan. The Mediterranean and Submediterranean climate regions in Europe
Europe
are found in much of Southern Europe, mainly in Southern Portugal, most of Spain, the southern coast of France, Italy, the Croatian coast, much of Bosnia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Serbia, Albania, Macedonia, Greece, and the Mediterranean islands.[7] Population[edit]

Country Area (km²) Population[8] (2016 est.) Population density (per km²) Capital

 Albania 28,748 2,926,348 111.1 Tirana

 Andorra 468 77,281 179.8 Andorra
Andorra
la Vella

 Croatia 56,594 4,213,265 81 Zagreb

  France
France
(Provence, coastal Languedoc, Northern Catalonia
Northern Catalonia
and Corsica) 62,464 7,940,808 127.1 Paris

  Gibraltar
Gibraltar
(UK) 6.8 34,408 4,328 Gibraltar

 Greece 131,990 11,183,716 85.3 Athens

 Italy 301,338 59,429,938 200.5 Rome

 Malta 316 429,362 1,306.8 Valletta

 Montenegro 13,812 628,615 50 Podgorica

 Portugal 92,090 10,371,627 114 Lisbon

 San Marino 61 33,203 501 City of San Marino

 Spain 504,030 46,347,576 93 Madrid

  Turkey
Turkey
(East Thrace) 23,764 10,620,739 446.9 Ankara

  Vatican City 0.44 801 1877 Vatican City

Largest urban areas[edit]

Rank Urban Area State Population[9] Density (per km²)

1 İstanbul
İstanbul
(European part)  Turkey 8,963,431 2,620

2 Madrid  Spain 6,171,000 4,600

3 Milan  Italy 5,257,000 2,800

4 Barcelona  Spain 4,693,000 4,300

5 Rome  Italy 3,906,000 3,400

6 Naples  Italy 3,706,000 3,600

7 Athens  Greece 3,484,000 5,000

8 Lisbon  Portugal 2,666,000 2,800

9 Marseille  France 1,578,000 3,600

10 Valencia  Spain 1,570,000 5,700

History[edit] Early history[edit]

Partition of the Roman Empire.

The period known as classical antiquity began with the rise of the city-states of Ancient Greece. Greek influence reached its zenith under the expansive empire of Alexander the Great, spreading throughout Asia. The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin in a vast empire based on Roman law
Roman law
and Roman legions. It promoted trade, tolerance, and Greek culture. By 300 AD the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was divided into the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
based in Rome, and the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
based in Constantinople. The attacks of the Germanic peoples of Northern Europe
Europe
led to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire in AD 476, a date which traditionally marks the end of the classical period and the start of the Middle Ages. During the Middle Ages, the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
survived, though modern historians refer to this state as the Byzantine Empire. In Western Europe, Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
moved into positions of power in the remnants of the former Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and established kingdoms and empires of their own. The period known as the Crusades, a series of religiously motivated military expeditions originally intended to bring the Levant
Levant
back into Christian rule, began. Several Crusader states
Crusader states
were founded in the eastern Mediterranean. These were all short-lived. The Crusaders would have a profound impact on many parts of Europe. Their Sack of Constantinople in 1204 brought an abrupt end to the Byzantine Empire. Though it would later be re-established, it would never recover its former glory. The Crusaders would establish trade routes that would develop into the Silk Road
Silk Road
and open the way for the merchant republics of Genoa and Venice to become major economic powers. The Reconquista, a related movement, worked to reconquer Iberia
Iberia
for Christendom. The Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
represented a period of upheaval in Europe. The epidemic known as the Black Death
Black Death
and an associated famine caused demographic catastrophe in Europe
Europe
as the population plummeted. Dynastic struggles and wars of conquest kept many of the states of Europe
Europe
at war for much of the period. In the Balkans, the Ottoman Empire, a Turkish state originating in Anatolia, encroached steadily on former Byzantine lands, culminating in the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. Post-Middle Ages[edit] Beginning roughly in the 14th century in Florence, and later spreading through Europe
Europe
with the development of the printing press, a Renaissance
Renaissance
of knowledge challenged traditional doctrines in science and theology, with the Arabic texts and thought[10] bringing about rediscovery of classical Greek and Roman knowledge. The Reconquista
Reconquista
of Portugal
Portugal
and Spain
Spain
led to a series of oceanic explorations resulting in the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
that established direct links with Africa, the Americas, and Asia, while religious wars continued to be fought in Europe, which ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia. The Spanish crown maintained its hegemony in Europe
Europe
and was the leading power on the continent until the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees, which ended a conflict between Spain
Spain
and France
France
that had begun during the Thirty Years' War. An unprecedented series of major wars and political revolutions took place around Europe
Europe
and indeed the world in the period between 1610 and 1700. Observers at the time, and many historians since, have argued that wars caused the revolutions.[11] European overseas expansion led to the rise of colonial empires, producing the Columbian Exchange.[12] The combination of resource inflows from the New World and the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
of Great Britain, allowed a new economy based on manufacturing instead of subsistence agriculture.[13] The period between 1815 and 1871 saw a large number of revolutionary attempts and independence wars. Balkan
Balkan
nations began to regain independence from the Ottoman Empire. Italy
Italy
unified into a nation state. The capture of Rome
Rome
in 1870 ended the Papal temporal power. Rivalry in a scramble for empires spread in what is known as The Age of Empire. 20th century[edit] The outbreak of World War I
World War I
in 1914 was precipitated by the rise of nationalism in Southeastern Europe
Europe
as the Great Powers
Great Powers
took up sides. The Allies defeated the Central Powers
Central Powers
in 1918. During the Paris
Paris
Peace Conference the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, especially the Treaty of Versailles. The Nazi regime under Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
came to power in 1933, and along with Mussolini's Italy
Italy
sought to gain control of the continent by the Second World War. Following the Allied victory in the Second World War, Europe
Europe
was divided by the Iron Curtain. The countries in Southeastern Europe
Europe
were dominated by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and became communist states. The major non-communist Southern European countries joined a US-led military alliance (NATO) and formed the European Economic
Economic
Community amongst themselves. The countries in the Soviet sphere of influence joined the military alliance known as the Warsaw Pact and the economic bloc called Comecon. Yugoslavia was neutral. Italy
Italy
became a major industrialized country again, due to its post-war economic miracle. The European Union
European Union
(EU) involved the division of powers, with taxation, health, and education handled by the nation states, while the EU had charge of market rules, competition, legal standards and environmentalism. The Soviet economic and political system collapsed, leading to the end of communism in the satellite countries in 1989, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
itself in 1991. As a consequence, Europe's integration deepened, the continent became depolarised, and the European Union
European Union
expanded to subsequently include many of the formerly communist European countries – Romania and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(2007) and Croatia
Croatia
(2013). Languages[edit] See also: Languages of Europe The following table shows the languages in Southern Europe
Europe
that are spoken by at least five million people in the region:

Language Speakers[a] Principal Southern European country / countries

Italian 59,400,000[14]  Italy

Spanish 46,000,000+[15]  Spain

Greek 13,432,490[16]  Greece  Cyprus  Albania

Turkish 10,934,365[17][18]  Turkey  Northern Cyprus

Portuguese 10,000,000[19]  Portugal

Catalan 10,000,000 [20][21]  Spain  Andorra  France  Italy

Romance languages[edit] The most widely spoken family of languages in Southern Europe
Europe
are the Romance languages, the heirs of Latin, which have spread from the Italian peninsula, and are emblematic of Southwestern Europe. (See the Latin Arch.) By far the most common Romance languages
Romance languages
in Southern Europe
Europe
are Italian (spoken by over 50 million people in Italy, San Marino, and the Vatican) and Spanish, which is spoken by over 40 million people in Spain
Spain
and Gibraltar. Other common Romance languages include Romanian (spoken in Romania
Romania
and Moldova), Portuguese (spoken in Portugal), Catalan (spoken in eastern Spain), Galician (spoken in northwestern Spain) and Occitan, which is spoken in the Val d'Aran
Val d'Aran
in Catalonia, in the Occitan
Occitan
Valleys in Italy
Italy
and finally in southern France. Other languages[edit] The Hellenic languages
Hellenic languages
or Greek language
Greek language
are widely spoken in Greece and in the Greek part of Cyprus. Additionally, other varieties of Greek are spoken in small communities in parts of other European counties. English is used as a second language in parts of Southern Europe. As a primary language, however, English has only a small presence in Southern Europe, only in Gibraltar
Gibraltar
(alongside Spanish) and Malta (secondary to Maltese). There are other language groupings in Southern Europe. Albanian is spoken in Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, and parts of Greece. Maltese is a Semitic language
Semitic language
that is the official language of Malta, descended from Siculo-Arabic, but written in the Latin script with heavy Latin and Italian influences. The Basque language
Basque language
is spoken in the Basque Country, a region in northern Spain
Spain
and southwestern France. Transport[edit] The following table shows the busiest airports in Southern Europe
Europe
in 2013.

Rank Country Airport City Passengers (2012) Passengers (2013) Change 2012-2013

1 Turkey İstanbul
İstanbul
Atatürk Airport İstanbul 44,998,508 51,320,875 014.0%

2 Spain Adolfo Suarez Madrid-Barajas Airport Madrid 45,190,528[22] 39,735,618[22] 012.1%

3 Italy Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport Rome 36,980,911[23] 36,166,345[23] 02.2%

4 Spain Barcelona
Barcelona
El Prat Airport Barcelona 35,144,503[22] 35,216,828[22] 00.2%

5 Spain Palma de Mallorca Airport Palma de Mallorca 22,666,858[22] 22,768,032[22] 00.4%

6 Italy Malpensa Airport Milan 18,537,301[23] 17,955,075[23] 03.1%

7 Portugal Lisbon
Lisbon
Portela Airport Lisbon 15,301,176[24] 16,008,848[24] 04.6%

8 Spain Málaga
Málaga
Airport Málaga 12,581,944[22] 12,925,186[22] 02.7%

9 Greece Athens
Athens
International Airport Athens 12,944,041[25] 12,536,057[25] 03.2%

10 France Nice
Nice
Côte d'Azur Airport Nice 11,189,896[26] 11,554,195[26] 03.2%

Religion[edit]

The religious distribution in 1054[27]

The predominant religion in Southern Europe
Europe
is Christianity. Christianity
Christianity
spread throughout Southern Europe
Europe
during the Roman Empire, and Christianity
Christianity
was adopted as the official religion of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the year 380 AD. Due to the historical break of the Church into the western half based in Rome
Rome
and the eastern half based in Constantinople, different denominations of Christianity
Christianity
are prominent in different parts of Europe. Christians
Christians
in the western half of Southern Europe
Europe
— e.g., Portugal, Spain, Italy
Italy
— are generally Roman Catholic. Christians
Christians
in the eastern half of Southern Europe
Europe
— e.g., Greece, Macedonia — are generally Greek Orthodox. Other classifications[edit]

European Travel Commission classification

European Travel Commission divides the European region on the basis of Tourism Decision Metrics (TDM) model. Countries which belong to the Southern/Mediterranean Europe
Europe
are:[28]

 Albania  Bulgaria  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Croatia  Cyprus  Italy  Greece  Macedonia  Malta  Montenegro  Serbia  Slovenia  Spain  Turkey

See also[edit]

Geography
Geography
portal Europe
Europe
portal Mediterranean portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Southern Europe.

Mediterranean Basin Southeast Europe Northern Europe Western Europe EU Med Group Eurovoc#Southern Europe

Notes[edit]

^ Both native and second language speakers residing in Southern Europe only.

References[edit]

^ Serbia
Serbia
- Insight. Retrieved 12 March 2018 ^ UN Geographic regions. United Nations Statistical Division. Retrieved 12 March 2018 ^ Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural
Cultural
Anthropology, Dr Alan Barnard and Jonathan Spence. Retrieved 10 October 2015. ^ Article in Britannica ^ "New five-euro note has goddess". 27 October 2017 – via www.bbc.com.  ^ Library of Congress. Cataloging Policy and Support Office, Library of Congress Subject Headings ^ Wolfgang Frey and Rainer Lösch; Lehrbuch der Geobotanik. Pflanze und Vegetation in Raum und Zeit. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, München 2004 ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic
Economic
and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ "United Nations: World Urbanization Prospects".  ^ e.g. Averroes#Commentaries on Aristotle and Plato
Averroes#Commentaries on Aristotle and Plato
written in the 12th century, which was mentioned in Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
IV:144 around 1320 AD ^ Geoffrey Parker, "States Make War But Wars Also Break States,"Journal of Military History (2010) 74#1 pp 11–34 ^ Richard J. Mayne. "history of Europe:: The Middle Ages". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 18 April 2009.  ^ Steven Kreis (11 October 2006). "The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England". Historyguide.org. Retrieved 31 January 2010.  ^ Italian at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Spanish at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Greek at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ European Turkey
Turkey
Population ^ Northern Cyprus ^ Portuguese at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ "Number of Catalan speakers rising despite adverse context". www.catalannewsagency.com.  ^ "Informe sobre la Situació de la Llengua Catalana - Xarxa CRUSCAT. Coneixements, usos i representacions del català". blogs.iec.cat.  ^ a b c d e f g h "Estadísticas - Aeropuertos Españoles - aena.es". www.aena.es.  ^ a b c d "Statistiche - Assaeroporti". www.assaeroporti.com.  ^ a b Portugal, ANA - Aeroportos de (14 July 2016). "Annual Reports - Corporate".  ^ a b http://www.aia.gr/company-and-business/the-company/facts-and-figures/ ^ a b S.S.L.L., Internethic. "Monthly Statistics Reports / Statistics / NEWS - MEDIA - Aéroport Nice
Nice
Côte d'Azur : gateway to the mythical French Riviera". corporate.nice.aeroport.fr.  ^ Dragan Brujić (2005). "Vodič kroz svet Vizantije (Guide to the Byzantine World)". Beograd. p. 51. [dead link] ^ European Tourism in 2014: Trends & Prospects (Q3/2014), page 15

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Regions of the world

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Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

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Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

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Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

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Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

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Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

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West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
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Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

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Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 235920

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