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SOUTHERN EUROPE is the southern region of the European continent . Most definitions of Southern Europe, also known as MEDITERRANEAN EUROPE, include the countries of the Iberian peninsula ( Spain and Portugal ), the Italian peninsula , Greece and Malta . The definition of Southern Europe may include the entirety of Southeast Europe or the Balkan countries of Southeast Europe, which are geographically technically in the southern part of Europe but have particular historical, political, economic, and cultural backgrounds that distinguish them from the main Southern European countries and places them more in the category of Eastern Europe . Geographic features of Southern European countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea European sub-regions according to EuroVoc (the thesaurus of the European Union ). Southern Europe is marked yellow on this map.

Different methods can be used to define Southern Europe, including its political , economic , and cultural attributes. Southern Europe can also be defined by its natural features — its geography , climate , and flora .

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography * 2 Climate * 3 Flora

* 4 Population

* 4.1 Largest urban areas

* 5 History

* 5.1 Early history * 5.2 Post- Middle Ages * 5.3 20th century

* 6 Languages

* 6.1 Romance languages * 6.2 Other languages

* 7 Transport * 8 Religion * 9 Other classifications * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References

GEOGRAPHY

Geographically, Southern Europe is the southern half of the landmass of Europe . This definition is relative, with no clear limits.

Countries geographically considered part of Southern Europe include: Southwestern Europe

Countries whose borders lie within Southwestern Europe :

* Andorra * France (only southern France ) * Gibraltar * Monaco * Portugal * Spain

South-Central Europe

Countries whose borders lie within South-Central Europe:

* Italy (sometimes excluding northern Italy ) * San Marino * Vatican City

Southeastern Europe

Countries whose borders lie within Southeastern Europe (Balkan peninsula ) :

* Albania * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Bulgaria * Croatia * Greece * Kosovo * Macedonia * Montenegro * Romania * Serbia * Slovenia * Turkey (only East Thrace )

Island countries

* Cyprus * Malta

Major islands

* Sardinia and Sicily * Corsica * Crete * Balearic islands

CLIMATE

Climates in Southern Europe according to the Köppen climate classification : CSA: Subtropical mediterranean climate CSB: Temperate mediterranean climate CFA: Humid subtropical climate CFB: Temperate oceanic climate DFB: Humid continental climate

Southern Europe's most emblematic climate is that of the Mediterranean climate , which has become a typically known characteristic of the area. The Mediterranean climate covers much of Portugal, Spain, Southeast France, Italy, Albania, Greece, the Western and Southern coastal regions of Turkey as well as the Mediterranean islands. Those areas of Mediterranean climate present similar vegetations and landscapes throughout, including dry hills , small plains , pine forests and olive trees .

Cooler climates can be found in certain parts of Southern European countries, for example within the mountain ranges of Spain and Italy. Additionally, the north coast of Spain experiences a wetter Atlantic climate.

FLORA

The European floristic regions MEDITERRANEAN AGRICULTURE in coastal and peri-coastal regions

Southern Europe's flora is that of the Mediterranean Region, one of the phytochoria recognized by Armen Takhtajan . The Mediterranean and Submediterranean climate regions in Europe are found in much of Southern Europe, mainly in Southern Portugal, most of Spain, the southern coast of France, Italy, the Croatian coast, much of Bosnia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Serbia, Albania, Macedonia, Greece, and the Mediterranean islands.

POPULATION

COUNTRY Area (km²) Population (2010 est.) Population density (per km²) CAPITAL

Albania 28,748 2,821,977 111.1 Tirana

Andorra 468 84,082 179.8 Andorra la Vella

Bosnia and Herzegovina 51,129 4,613,414 90.2 Sarajevo

Bulgaria 110,994 7,364,570 77 Sofia

Croatia 56,594 4,489,409 81 Zagreb

Gibraltar (UK ) 6.8 29,431 4,328 Gibraltar

Greece 131,990 11,295,002 85.3 Athens

Italy 301,338 60,418,711 200.5 Rome

Kosovo 10,908 1,859,203 170.4 Prishtina

Macedonia 25,713 2,114,550 82.2 Skopje

Malta 316 412,966 1,306.8 Valletta

Montenegro 13,812 672,181 50 Podgorica

Portugal 92,090 11,317,192 114 Lisbon

San Marino 61 31,716 501 City of San Marino

Serbia 77,474 7,120,666 102.46 Belgrade

Slovenia 20,273 2,054,199 99.6 Ljubljana

Spain 504,030 46,030,109 93 Madrid

Turkey ( East Thrace ) 23,764 10,620,739 446.9 Ankara

Vatican City 0.44 826 1877 Vatican City

TOTAL 1,338,694 164,127,170 122.60

LARGEST URBAN AREAS

RANK URBAN AREA STATE POPULATION Density (per km²)

1 İstanbul (European part) Turkey 8,963,431 2,620

2 Madrid Spain 6,171,000 4,600

3 Milan Italy 5,257,000 2,800

4 Barcelona Spain 4,693,000 4,300

5 Rome Italy 3,906,000 3,400

6 Naples Italy 3,706,000 3,600

7 Athens Greece 3,484,000 5,000

8 Lisbon Portugal 2,666,000 2,800

9 Belgrade Serbia 1,700,000 3,300

10 Valencia Spain 1,561,000 5,700

HISTORY

EARLY HISTORY

Partition of the Roman Empire .

The period known as classical antiquity began with the rise of the city-states of Ancient Greece . Greek influence reached its zenith under the expansive empire of Alexander the Great , spreading throughout Asia .

The Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin in a vast empire based on Roman law and Roman legions . It promoted trade, tolerance, and Greek culture. By 300 AD the Roman Empire was divided into the Western Roman Empire based in Rome, and the Eastern Roman Empire based in Constantinople. The attacks of the Germanic peoples of Northern Europe led to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire in AD 476, a date which traditionally marks the end of the classical period and the start of the Middle Ages .

During the Middle Ages, the Eastern Roman Empire survived, though modern historians refer to this state as the Byzantine Empire . In Western Europe, Germanic peoples moved into positions of power in the remnants of the former Western Roman Empire and established kingdoms and empires of their own.

The period known as the Crusades , a series of religiously motivated military expeditions originally intended to bring the Levant back into Christian rule, began. Several Crusader states were founded in the eastern Mediterranean. These were all short-lived. The Crusaders would have a profound impact on many parts of Europe. Their Sack of Constantinople in 1204 brought an abrupt end to the Byzantine Empire. Though it would later be re-established, it would never recover its former glory. The Crusaders would establish trade routes that would develop into the Silk Road and open the way for the merchant republics of Genoa and Venice to become major economic powers. The Reconquista , a related movement, worked to reconquer Iberia for Christendom.

The Late Middle Ages represented a period of upheaval in Europe. The epidemic known as the Black Death and an associated famine caused demographic catastrophe in Europe as the population plummeted. Dynastic struggles and wars of conquest kept many of the states of Europe at war for much of the period. In the Balkans, the Ottoman Empire , a Turkish state originating in Anatolia , encroached steadily on former Byzantine lands, culminating in the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.

POST-MIDDLE AGES

Beginning roughly in the 14th century in Florence , and later spreading through Europe with the development of the printing press , a Renaissance of knowledge challenged traditional doctrines in science and theology, with the Arabic texts and thought bringing about rediscovery of classical Greek and Roman knowledge.

The Reconquista of Portugal and Spain led to a series of oceanic explorations resulting in the Age of Discovery that established direct links with Africa, the Americas, and Asia, while religious wars continued to be fought in Europe, which ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia . The Spanish crown maintained its hegemony in Europe and was the leading power on the continent until the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees , which ended a conflict between Spain and France that had begun during the Thirty Years' War. An unprecedented series of major wars and political revolutions took place around Europe and indeed the world in the period between 1610 and 1700. Observers at the time, and many historians since, have argued that wars caused the revolutions. Galileo Galilei , invented the telescope and the thermometer which allowed him to observe and describe the solar system. Leonardo da Vinci painted the most famous work in the world. Guglielmo Marconi invented the radio.

European overseas expansion led to the rise of colonial empires , producing the Columbian Exchange . The combination of resource inflows from the New World and the Industrial Revolution of Great Britain, allowed a new economy based on manufacturing instead of subsistence agriculture.

The period between 1815 and 1871 saw a large number of revolutionary attempts and independence wars. Balkan nations began to regain independence from the Ottoman Empire . Italy unified into a nation state. The capture of Rome in 1870 ended the Papal temporal power . Rivalry in a scramble for empires spread in what is known as The Age of Empire .

20TH CENTURY

The outbreak of World War I in 1914 was precipitated by the rise of nationalism in Southeastern Europe as the Great Powers took up sides. The Allies defeated the Central Powers in 1918. During the Paris Peace Conference the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, especially the Treaty of Versailles .

The Nazi regime under Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, and along with Mussolini\'s Italy sought to gain control of the continent by the Second World War . Following the Allied victory in the Second World War, Europe was divided by the Iron Curtain . The countries in Southeastern Europe were dominated by the Soviet Union and became communist states . The major non-communist Southern European countries joined a US-led military alliance ( NATO ) and formed the European Economic Community amongst themselves. The countries in the Soviet sphere of influence joined the military alliance known as the Warsaw Pact and the economic bloc called Comecon . Yugoslavia was neutral.

Italy became a major industrialized country again, due to its post-war economic miracle . The European Union (EU) involved the division of powers, with taxation, health and education handled by the nation states, while the EU had charge of market rules, competition, legal standards and environmentalism. The Soviet economic and political system collapsed, leading to the end of communism in the satellite countries in 1989, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union itself in 1991. As a consequence, Europe\'s integration deepened , the continent became depolarised, and the European Union expanded to subsequently include many of the formerly communist European countries – Romania and Bulgaria (2007) and Croatia (2013).

LANGUAGES

See also: Languages of Europe

The following table shows the languages in Southern Europe that are spoken by at least five million people in the region:

LANGUAGE SPEAKERS Principal Southern European country / countries

Italian 59,400,000 Italy

Spanish 46,000,000+ Spain

Serbo-Croatian 20,000,000+ Serbia Croatia Bosnia Montenegro Kosovo

Greek 13,432,490 Greece Cyprus _ Albania

Bulgarian 11 500 000 Bulgaria

Turkish 10,934,365 Turkey Northern Cyprus

Portuguese 10,000,000 Portugal

Catalan 10,000,000 Spain Andorra

Albanian 7,500,000 Albania Kosovo Macedonia Montenegro Greece Italy

Macedonian 1,344,815 Macedonia

ROMANCE LANGUAGES

The most widely spoken family of languages in Southern Europe are the Romance languages , the heirs of Latin, which have spread from the Italian peninsula, and are emblematic of Southwestern Europe. _(See the Latin Arch .)_ By far the most common Romance languages in Southern Europe are Italian (spoken by over 50 million people in Italy, San Marino, and the Vatican) and Spanish, which is spoken by over 40 million people in Spain and Gibraltar. Other common Romance languages include Romanian (spoken in Romania and Moldova), Portuguese (spoken in Portugal), Catalan (spoken in eastern Spain), Galician (spoken in northwestern Spain) and Occitan , which is spoken in the Val d\'Aran in Catalonia, in the Occitan Valleys in Italy and finally in southern France.

OTHER LANGUAGES

The Hellenic languages or Greek language are widely spoken in Greece and in the Greek part of Cyprus. Additionally, other varieties of Greek are spoken in small communities in parts of other European counties.

Several South Slavic languages are spoken by millions of people in Southern Europe. Serbian is spoken in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia, and Croatia; Bulgarian is spoken in Bulgaria; Croatian is spoken in Croatia and Bosnia; Bosnian is spoken in Bosnia; Slovene is spoken in Slovenia; and Macedonian is spoken in Macedonia.

English is used as a second language in parts of Southern Europe. As a primary language, however, English has only a small presence in Southern Europe, only in Gibraltar (alongside Spanish) and Malta (secondary to Maltese).

There are other language groupings in Southern Europe. Albanian is spoken in Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, and parts of Greece. Maltese is a Semitic language that is the official language of Malta, descended from Siculo-Arabic , but written in the Latin script with heavy Latin and Italian influences. The Basque language is spoken in the Basque Country , a region in northern Spain and southwestern France.

TRANSPORT

The following table shows the busiest airports in Southern Europe in 2013.

RANK COUNTRY AIRPORT CITY PASSENGERS (2012) PASSENGERS (2013) Change 2012-2013

1 Turkey İstanbul Atatürk Airport İstanbul 44,998,508 51,320,875 014.0%

2 Spain Barajas Airport Madrid 45,190,528 39,735,618 012.1%

3 Italy Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport Rome 36,980,911 36,166,345 02.2%

4 Spain Barcelona El Prat Airport Barcelona 35,144,503 35,216,828 00.2%

5 Spain Palma de Mallorca Airport Palma de Mallorca 22,666,858 22,768,032 00.4%

6 Italy Malpensa Airport Milan 18,537,301 17,955,075 03.1%

7 Portugal Lisbon Portela Airport Lisbon 15,301,176 16,008,848 04.6%

8 Spain Málaga Airport Málaga 12,581,944 12,925,186 02.7%

9 Greece Athens International Airport Athens 12,944,041 12,536,057 03.2%

10 France Nice Côte d\'Azur Airport Nice 11,189,896 11,554,195 03.2%

RELIGION

The religious distribution in 1054

The predominant religion in Southern Europe is Christianity . Christianity spread throughout Southern Europe during the Roman Empire, and Christianity was adopted as the official religion of the Roman Empire in the year 380 AD. Due to the historical break of the Church into the western half based in Rome and the eastern half based in Constantinople, different denominations of Christianity are prominent in different parts of Europe. Christians in the western half of Southern Europe — e.g., Portugal, Spain, Italy — are generally Roman Catholic . Christians in the eastern half of Southern Europe — e.g., Greece, Macedonia — are generally Greek Orthodox .

Additionally, there are countries in the eastern part of Southern Europe (e.g., Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Turkey), where Islam is widely practiced.

OTHER CLASSIFICATIONS

European Travel Commission classification

European Travel Commission divides the European region on the basis of Tourism Decision Metrics (TDM) model. Countries which belong to the Southern/Mediterranean Europe are:

* Albania * Bulgaria * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Croatia * Cyprus * Italy * Greece * Macedonia * Malta * Montenegro * Serbia * Slovenia * Spain * Turkey

SEE ALSO

* _ Geography portal * Europe portal * Mediterranean portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to SOUTHERN EUROPE _.

* Mediterranean Basin * Southeast Europe * Northern Europe * Western Europe * EU Med Group * Eurovoc#Southern Europe

NOTES

* ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia . The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory . The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement . Kosovo has received formal recognition as an independent state from 111 out of 193 United Nations member states . * ^ Both native and second language speakers residing in Southern Europe only.

REFERENCES

* ^ Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Dr Alan Barnard and Jonathan Spence. Retrieved 10 October 2015. * ^ In strict geographic terms Central Europe include Germany, Switzerland, Northern Italy, Austria, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary... * ^ Article in _Britannica_ * ^ BBC * ^ Library of Congress. Cataloging Policy and Support Office, Library of Congress Subject Headings * ^ Wolfgang Frey and Rainer Lösch; _Lehrbuch der Geobotanik. Pflanze und Vegetation in Raum und Zeit_. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, München 2004 * ^ United Nations: World Urbanization Prospects * ^ e.g. Averroes#Commentaries on Aristotle and Plato written in the 12th century, which was mentioned in _ Divine Comedy _ IV:144 around 1320 AD * ^ Geoffrey Parker, "States Make War But Wars Also Break States,"_Journal of Military History_ (2010) 74#1 pp 11–34 * ^ John Lichfield, _The Moving of the Mona Lisa_, The Independent, 2005-04-02 (accessed 2012-03-09) * ^ Sungook Hong, Wireless: From Marconi's Black-box to the Audion, MIT Press - 2001, page 1 * ^ Richard J. Mayne. "history of Europe:: The Middle Ages". _Britannica Online Encyclopedia_. Retrieved 18 April 2009. * ^ Steven Kreis (11 October 2006). "The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England". Historyguide.org. Retrieved 31 January 2010. * ^ Italian at _ Ethnologue _ (18th ed., 2015) * ^ Spanish at _ Ethnologue _ (18th ed., 2015) * ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin * ^ Greek at _ Ethnologue _ (18th ed., 2015) * ^ Bulgarian at _ Ethnologue _ (18th ed., 2015) * ^ European Turkey Population * ^ Northern Cyprus * ^ Portuguese at _ Ethnologue _ (18th ed., 2015) * ^ Catalan News Agency - Number of Catalan speakers rising despite adverse context * ^ Informe sobre la Situació de la Llengua Catalana Xarxa CRUSCAT. Coneixements, usos i representacions del català * ^ Mate Kapović, ed. (2017). _The Indo-European Languages_ (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 552. ISBN 978-1-315-67855-9 . * ^ "2002 Census - Mother tongue (p. 197)" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-08-07. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ http://www.aena.es/csee/Satellite?pagename=Estadisticas/Home * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ http://www.assaeroporti.com/statistiche/ * ^ _A_ _B_ Portugal Airport Statistics * ^ _A_ _B_ http://www.aia.gr/company-and-business/the-company/facts-and-figures/ * ^ _A_ _B_ http://corporate.nice.aeroport.fr/About-us/NEWS-MEDIA/Statistics/Monthly-Statistics-Reports2 * ^ Dragan Brujić (2005). "Vodič kroz svet Vizantije (Guide to the Byzantine World)". Beograd. p. 51. * ^ European Tourism in 2014: Trends ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Regions of the world

* v * t * e

Regions of Africa

NORTH

* Mediterranean * Gibraltar Arc

* Greater Middle East

* MENA * Middle East

* Maghreb

* Barbary Coast * Barbara * Ancient Libya * Atlas Mountains ( Middle Atlas ) * Sahara * Western Sahara * Sahel

* Eastern Mediterranean

* Egypt

* Upper Egypt * Middle Egypt * Lower Egypt * Cataracts of the Nile * Bashmur

* Nubia

* Lower Nubia

* Nile Valley * Nile Delta * Darfur * Gulf of Aqaba * Sub-Saharan

EAST

* Aethiopia * Swahili coast * East African Rift * Great Rift Valley * Afar Triangle * Danakil Desert * Danakil Alps * Albertine Rift Valley * Gregory Rift Valley * Southern Rift Valley

* Rift Valley lakes

* African Great Lakes

* Mittelafrika

* Horn of Africa

* Ethiopian Highlands * Gulf of Aden * Gulf of Tadjoura

* Sudan (region) * Sudanian Savanna * East African montane forests * Sub-Saharan

CENTRAL

* Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Cape Lopez * Mayombe

* Igboland

* Mbaise

* Maputaland * Pool Malebo * Congo Basin * Chad Basin * Congolese rainforests * Ouaddaï highlands * Ennedi Plateau * Sub-Saharan

WEST

* Pepper Coast * Gold Coast * Slave Coast * Ivory Coast * Cape Palmas * Cape Mesurado * Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Sudanian Savanna * Niger Basin * Guinean Forests of West Africa * Sudan (region) * Niger Delta * Inner Niger Delta * Sub-Saharan

SOUTH

* Madagascar

* Central Highlands (Madagascar) * Northern Highlands

* Rhodesia

* North * South

* Thembuland * Succulent Karoo * Nama Karoo * Bushveld * Highveld * Fynbos * Cape Floristic Region * Kalahari Desert * Okavango Delta * False Bay * Hydra Bay * Sub-Saharan

* Anglophone Africa * Francophone Africa * Lusophone Africa * Arabophone Africa * Sub-Saharan Africa * Tropical Africa * Islands

* v * t * e

Regions of North America

CANADA

* Eastern Canada * Western Canada * Canadian Prairies * Northern Canada * Atlantic Canada * French Canada * English Canada

* Acadia

* Acadian Peninsula

* Quebec City–Windsor Corridor * Peace River Country * Cypress Hills * Palliser\'s Triangle * Canadian Shield * Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga * Newfoundland (island) * Vancouver island * Gulf Islands * Strait of Georgia * Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Labrador Peninsula * Gaspé Peninsula

* Avalon Peninsula

* Bay de Verde Peninsula

* Brodeur Peninsula * Melville Peninsula * Bruce Peninsula * Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) * Cook Peninsula * Gulf of Boothia * Georgian Bay * Hudson Bay * James Bay * Greenland

UNITED STATES

* Eastern

* Appalachia * East Coast * Great Lakes

* Northeastern

* Mid-Atlantic * New England

* Western

* Alaska Peninsula * Mountain States * Northwestern * Pacific * Pacific Northwest * Rocky Mountains * West Coast

* Central

* Great Plains * Midwestern

* Southern

* Deep South * Gulf * Southeastern * South Central * Southwestern * Upland South

* Belt regions

* Bible Belt * Black Belt * Corn Belt * Cotton Belt * Frost Belt * Rice Belt * Rust Belt * Sun Belt * Snow Belt

MEXICO

* Northern Mexico * Baja California Peninsula

* Gulf of California

* Colorado River Delta

* Gulf of Mexico * Soconusco * Tierra Caliente * La Mixteca * La Huasteca * Bajío * Valley of Mexico * Mezquital Valley * Sierra Madre de Oaxaca * Yucatán Peninsula * Basin and Range Province

CENTRAL

* Western Caribbean Zone * Isthmus of Panama

* Gulf of Panama

* Pearl Islands

* Azuero Peninsula * Mosquito Coast

CARIBBEAN

* West Indies

* Antilles

* Greater Antilles

* Lesser Antilles

* Leeward * Leeward Antilles * Windward

* Lucayan Archipelago * Southern Caribbean

* Aridoamerica * Mesoamerica * Oasisamerica * Northern * Middle * Anglo

* Latin

* French * Hispanic

* American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of South America

NORTH

* Caribbean South America * West Indies * Los Llanos * The Guianas * Gulf of Paria * Paria Peninsula * Paraguaná Peninsula * Orinoco Delta

SOUTH

* Tierra del Fuego * Patagonia * Pampas * Pantanal * Gran Chaco * Chiquitano dry forests * Valdes Peninsula

WEST

* Andes * Altiplano * Atacama Desert

EAST

* Amazon basin * Caatinga * Cerrado

* Latin * Hispanic * American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of Asia

CENTRAL

* Greater Middle East

* Aral Sea

* Aralkum Desert * Caspian Sea * Dead Sea * Sea of Galilee

* Transoxiana

* Turan

* Greater Khorasan * Ariana * Khwarezm * Sistan * Kazakhstania

* Eurasian Steppe

* Asian Steppe * Kazakh Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe

* Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* Wild Fields

* Yedisan * Muravsky Trail

* Ural

* Ural Mountains

* Volga region * Idel-Ural * Kolyma * Transbaikal * Pryazovia * Bjarmaland * Kuban * Zalesye * Ingria * Novorossiya * Gornaya Shoriya * Tulgas * Iranian plateau * Altai Mountains * Pamir Mountains * Tian Shan * Badakhshan * Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass * Mount Imeon * Mongolian Plateau * Western Regions

NORTH

* Inner Asia * Northeast

* Far East

* Russian Far East * Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

* Extreme North

* Siberia

* Baikalia ( Lake Baikal ) * Transbaikal * Khatanga Gulf * Baraba Steppe

* Kamchatka Peninsula * Amur Basin * Yenisei Gulf * Yenisei Basin * Beringia

EAST

* Japanese archipelago

* Northeastern Japan Arc * Sakhalin Island Arc

* Korean Peninsula * Gobi Desert * Taklamakan Desert * Greater Khingan * Mongolian Plateau * Inner Asia * Inner Mongolia * Outer Mongolia * China proper

* Manchuria

* Outer Manchuria * Inner Manchuria * Northeast China Plain * Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* North China Plain * Liaodong Peninsula * Himalayas

* Tibetan Plateau

* Tibet

* Tarim Basin * Northern Silk Road * Hexi Corridor * Nanzhong * Lingnan * Liangguang * Jiangnan * Jianghuai * Guanzhong * Huizhou * Wu * Jiaozhou * Zhongyuan * Shaannan

* Ordos Loop

* Loess Plateau * Shaanbei

* Leizhou Peninsula * Gulf of Tonkin * Yangtze River Delta * Pearl River Delta * Yenisei Basin * Altai Mountains * Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass

WEST

* Greater Middle East

* MENA * Middle East

* Red Sea * Caspian Sea * Mediterranean Sea * Zagros Mountains

* Persian Gulf

* Pirate Coast * Strait of Hormuz * Greater and Lesser Tunbs

* Al-Faw Peninsula * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Aden * Balochistan

* Arabian Peninsula

* Najd * Hejaz * Tihamah * Eastern Arabia

* South Arabia

* Hadhramaut * Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert

* Tigris–Euphrates

* Mesopotamia

* Upper Mesopotamia * Lower Mesopotamia * Sawad * Nineveh plains * Akkad (region)

* Canaan * Aram * Eber-Nari * Eastern Mediterranean * Mashriq

* Levant

* Southern Levant * Transjordan * Jordan Rift Valley

* Levantine Sea * Golan Heights * Hula Valley * Gaza Strip * West Bank * Galilee * Gilead * Judea * Samaria * Arabah * Anti-Lebanon Mountains * Sinai Peninsula * Arabian Desert * Syrian Desert * Fertile Crescent * Azerbaijan * Syria * Palestine * Iranian plateau * Armenian Highlands

* Caucasus

* Caucasus mountains

* Greater Caucasus * Lesser Caucasus

* North Caucasus

* South Caucasus

* Kur-Araz Lowland * Lankaran Lowland * Alborz * Absheron Peninsula

* Anatolia * Cilicia * Cappadocia * Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Greater India * Indian subcontinent * Himalayas * Hindu Kush * Western Ghats * Eastern Ghats * Ganges Basin * Ganges Delta * Pashtunistan * Punjab * Balochistan * Thar Desert * Indus Valley * Indus River Delta * Indus Valley Desert * Indo-Gangetic Plain * Eastern coastal plains * Western Coastal Plains * Meghalaya subtropical forests * Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests * Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows * Doab * Bagar region * Great Rann of Kutch * Little Rann of Kutch * Deccan Plateau * Coromandel Coast * Konkan * False Divi Point * Hindi Belt * Lakshadweep * Bay of Bengal * Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Mannar * Trans-Karakoram Tract * Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass * Andaman and Nicobar Islands * Maldive Islands * Alpide belt

SOUTHEAST

* Mainland

* Indochina * Malay Peninsula

* Maritime

* Peninsular Malaysia * Sunda Islands * Greater Sunda Islands * Lesser Sunda Islands

* Indonesian Archipelago * Timor

* New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* Philippine Archipelago

* Luzon * Visayas * Mindanao

* Leyte Gulf * Gulf of Thailand * East Indies * Nanyang * Alpide belt

* Asia-Pacific * Tropical Asia * Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Regions of Europe

NORTH

* Nordic * Northwestern * Scandinavia * Scandinavian Peninsula * Fennoscandia * Baltoscandia * Sápmi * West Nordic * Baltic * Gulf of Bothnia * Iceland * Faroe Islands

EAST

* Danubian countries * Prussia * Galicia

* Sambia Peninsula

* Amber Coast

* Curonian Spit * Izyum Trail * Lithuania Minor * Nemunas Delta * Baltic

* Southeastern

* Balkans * Aegean Islands * Gulf of Chania * North Caucasus * Greater Caucasus * Kabardia

* European Russia

* Southern Russia

CENTRAL

* Alpine states * Alpide belt * Mitteleuropa * Visegrád Group

WEST

* Benelux * Low Countries * Northwest * British Isles * English Channel * Channel Islands * Cotentin Peninsula * Normandy * Brittany * Gulf of Lion

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus * Baetic System

* Pyrenees * Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Italian Peninsula * Insular Italy * Tuscan Archipelago * Aegadian Islands

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus * Baetic System

* Gibraltar Arc * Southeastern * Mediterranean * Crimea * Donbass * Sloboda Ukraine * Alpide belt

* Germanic * Romance * Celtic * Slavic countries * European Plain * Eurasian Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe * Wild Fields

* Pannonian Basin

* Great Hungarian Plain * Little Hungarian Plain * Eastern Slovak Lowland

* Volhynia * Karelia * East Karelia

* v * t * e

Regions of Oceania

AUSTRALASIA

* Gulf of Carpentaria

* New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* New Zealand

* South Island

* North Island

* Coromandel Peninsula

* Zealandia * New Caledonia * Solomon Islands (archipelago)

* Vanuatu

* Kula Gulf

* Australia * Capital Country * Eastern Australia * Lake Eyre basin * Murray–Darling basin * Northern Australia * Nullarbor Plain * Outback

* Southern Australia

* Maralinga

* Sunraysia * Great Victoria Desert * Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf St Vincent * Lefevre Peninsula * Fleurieu Peninsula * Yorke Peninsula * Eyre Peninsula * Mornington Peninsula * Bellarine Peninsula * Mount Henry Peninsula

MELANESIA

* Islands Region

* Bismarck Archipelago * Solomon Islands Archipelago

* Fiji * New Caledonia * Papua New Guinea * Vanuatu

MICRONESIA

* Caroline Islands

* Federated States of Micronesia * Palau

* Guam * Kiribati * Marshall Islands * Nauru * Northern Mariana Islands * Wake Island

POLYNESIA

* Easter Island * Hawaiian Islands * Cook Islands

* French Polynesia

* Austral Islands * Gambier Islands * Marquesas Islands * Society Islands * Tuamotu

* Kermadec Islands * Mangareva Islands * Samoa * Tokelau * Tonga * Tuvalu

* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Polar regions

ANTARCTIC

* Antarctic Peninsula * East Antarctica * West Antarctica * Eklund Islands * Ecozone * Extreme points * Islands

ARCTIC

* Arctic Alaska * British Arctic Territories * Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Finnmark * Greenland * Northern Canada * Northwest Territories * Nunavik * Nunavut * Russian Arctic * Sakha * Sápmi * Yukon * North American Arctic

* v * t * e

Earth 's oceans and seas

ARCTIC OCEAN

* Amundsen Gulf * Barents Sea * Beaufort Sea * Chukchi Sea * East Siberian Sea * Greenland Sea * Gulf of Boothia * Kara Sea * Laptev Sea * Lincoln Sea * Prince Gustav Adolf Sea * Pechora Sea * Queen Victoria Sea * Wandel Sea * White Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

* Adriatic Sea * Aegean Sea * Alboran Sea * Archipelago Sea * Argentine Sea * Baffin Bay * Balearic Sea * Baltic Sea * Bay of Biscay * Bay of Bothnia * Bay of Campeche * Bay of Fundy * Black Sea * Bothnian Sea * Caribbean Sea * Celtic Sea * English Channel * Foxe Basin * Greenland Sea * Gulf of Bothnia * Gulf of Finland * Gulf of Lion * Gulf of Guinea * Gulf of Maine * Gulf of Mexico * Gulf of Saint Lawrence * Gulf of Sidra * Gulf of Venezuela * Hudson Bay * Ionian Sea * Irish Sea * Irminger Sea * James Bay * Labrador Sea * Levantine Sea * Libyan Sea * Ligurian Sea * Marmara Sea * Mediterranean Sea * Myrtoan Sea * North Sea * Norwegian Sea * Sargasso Sea * Sea of Åland * Sea of Azov * Sea of Crete * Sea of the Hebrides * Thracian Sea * Tyrrhenian Sea * Wadden Sea

INDIAN OCEAN

* Andaman Sea * Arabian Sea * Bali Sea * Bay of Bengal * Flores Sea * Great Australian Bight * Gulf of Aden * Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Suez * Java Sea * Laccadive Sea * Mozambique Channel * Persian Gulf * Red Sea * Timor Sea

PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea * Banda Sea * Bering Sea * Bismarck Sea * Bohai Sea * Bohol Sea * Camotes Sea * Celebes Sea * Ceram Sea * Chilean Sea * Coral Sea * East China Sea * Gulf of Alaska * Gulf of Anadyr * Gulf of California * Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf of Fonseca * Gulf of Panama * Gulf of Thailand * Gulf of Tonkin * Halmahera Sea * Koro Sea * Mar de Grau * Molucca Sea * Moro Gulf * Philippine Sea * Salish Sea * Savu Sea * Sea of Japan * Sea of Okhotsk * Seto Inland Sea * Shantar Sea * Sibuyan Sea * Solomon Sea * South China Sea * Sulu Sea * Tasman Sea * Visayan Sea * Yellow Sea

SOUTHERN OCEAN

* Amundsen Sea * Bellingshausen Sea * Cooperation Sea * Cosmonauts Sea * Davis Sea * D\'Urville Sea * King Haakon VII Sea * Lazarev Sea * Mawson Sea * Riiser-Larsen Sea * Ross Sea * Scotia Sea * Somov Sea * Weddell Sea

ENDORHEIC BASINS

* Aral Sea * Caspian Sea * Dead Sea * Sea of Galilee * Salton Sea

* BOOK * CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Europe articles

HISTORY

CHRONOLOGY

* Prehistory * Classical antiquity * Late antiquity * Middle Ages * Early modernity * World War I border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Military

* Sovereignty

* predecessor states

GEOGRAPHY

* Areas and populations * Largest metropolitan areas * Cities * Extreme points * Geology * Islands * Lakes * Mountains * Rivers

* Sovereign states and dependent territories

* by population

* Villages

POLITICS

* Eurosphere * International organisations * Integration * Law * Politics * Post-Soviet Europe *