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SOUTHEAST ASIA or SOUTHEASTERN ASIA is a subregion of Asia
Asia
, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China
China
, east of India
India
, west of New Guinea
New Guinea
and north of Australia
Australia
. The region lies near the intersection of geological plates , with heavy seismic and volcanic activity. Southeast Asia
Asia
consists of two geographic regions:

* MAINLAND SOUTHEAST ASIA , also known historically as INDOCHINA , comprising Vietnam
Vietnam
, Laos
Laos
, Cambodia
Cambodia
, Thailand
Thailand
, Myanmar
Myanmar
(Burma) , and (West) Malaysia
Malaysia
. * MARITIME SOUTHEAST ASIA , also known historically as the EAST INDIES comprising Indonesia
Indonesia
, (East) Malaysia
Malaysia
, Singapore
Singapore
, Philippines
Philippines
, East Timor
East Timor
, Brunei
Brunei
, Christmas Island , Andaman and Nicobar Islands , and Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Divisions

* 1.1 Political

* 1.1.1 Sovereign states * 1.1.2 Dependent territories * 1.1.3 Administrative subdivisions

* 1.2 Geography

* 2 History

* 2.1 Prehistory * 2.2 Indianised kingdoms * 2.3 Spread of Islam
Islam

* 3 Trade and colonisation

* 3.1 China
China
* 3.2 Europe
Europe
* 3.3 Japan
Japan
* 3.4 Past * 3.5 Present

* 4 Geography

* 4.1 Boundaries * 4.2 Climate * 4.3 Environment

* 5 Economy

* 6 Demographics

* 6.1 Ethnic groups * 6.2 Religion * 6.3 Languages * 6.4 Cities

* 7 Culture

* 7.1 Influences

* 7.2 Arts

* 7.2.1 Music * 7.2.2 Writing

* 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links

DIVISIONS

POLITICAL

Definitions of "Southeast Asia" vary, but most definitions include the area represented by the countries (sovereign states and dependent territories) listed below. All of the states are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), while East Timor
East Timor
is an observer state. The area, together with part of South Asia, was widely known as the East Indies
East Indies
or simply the Indies
Indies
until the 20th century. Sovereignty issues exist over some territories in the South China
China
Sea . Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
has stated that it might join ASEAN, and is currently an observer.

Sovereign States

STATE Area (km2) Population (2016) Density (/km2) GDP (nominal), USD (2016) GDP (PPP) per capita, Int$ (2016) HDI (2015) CAPITAL

_ BRUNEI 5,765 423,000 78 10,458,000,000 $76,884 0.865 Bandar Seri Begawan

CAMBODIA 181,035 15,776,000 85 19,368,000,000 $3,737 0.563 Phnom Penh

EAST TIMOR 14,874 1,188,000 75 2,501,000,000 $4,187 0.605 Dili
Dili

INDONESIA 1,904,569 258,802,000 132 940,953,000,000 $11,720 0.689 Jakarta
Jakarta

LAOS 236,800 7,163,000 30 13,761,000,000 $5,710 0.586 Vientiane
Vientiane

MALAYSIA 329,847 30,751,602 91 302,748,000,000 $27,267 0.789 Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
*

MYANMAR 676,000 52,254,000 98 68,277,000,000 $5,832 0.556 Nay Pyi Daw

PHILIPPINES 300,000 102,904,637 338 311,687,000,000 $7,728 0.682 Manila
Manila

SINGAPORE 724 5,591,000 7,671 296,642,000,000 $90,151 0.925 SINGAPORE (city-state_)

THAILAND 513,120 68,981,000 127 390,592,000,000 $16,888 0.740 Bangkok
Bangkok

VIETNAM 331,210 92,637,200 279 200,493,000,000 $6,429 0.683 Hanoi
Hanoi

* Administrative centre in Putrajaya.

Dependent Territories

UNSD statistical division for Asia
Asia
based on statistic convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories: North Asia
Asia
Central Asia
Asia
Western Asia
Asia
South Asia
Asia
East Asia
Asia
SOUTHEAST ASIA

TERRITORY AREA (KM2) POPULATION DENSITY (/KM2) CAPITAL

CHRISTMAS ISLAND 135 1,402 10.4 Flying Fish Cove

COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS 14 596 42.6 West Island (Pulau Panjang)

Administrative Subdivisions

TERRITORY AREA (KM2) POPULATION DENSITY (/KM2) CAPITAL

ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS 8,250 379,944 46 Port Blair

GEOGRAPHY

Relief map of Southeast Asia.

Southeast Asia
Asia
is geographically divided into two subregions, namely Mainland Southeast Asia
Asia
(or Indochina
Indochina
) and Maritime Southeast Asia (or the similarly defined Malay Archipelago ) (Javanese : Nusantara).

Mainland Southeast Asia
Asia
includes:

* Cambodia
Cambodia
* Laos
Laos
* Myanmar
Myanmar
(Burma) * Peninsular Malaysia
Malaysia
* Thailand
Thailand
* Vietnam
Vietnam

Maritime Southeast Asia
Asia
includes:

* Indonesia
Indonesia
* Philippines
Philippines
* East Malaysia
Malaysia
* Brunei
Brunei
* Singapore
Singapore
* East Timor
East Timor

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
of India
India
are geographically considered part of Southeast Asia. Eastern Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and the Seven Sister States of India
India
are culturally part of Southeast Asia
Asia
and sometimes considered both South Asian
South Asian
and Southeast Asian. The rest of the island of New Guinea
New Guinea
which is not part of Indonesia, namely, Papua New Guinea, is sometimes included so are Palau
Palau
, Guam
Guam
, and the Northern Mariana Islands , which were all part of the Spanish East Indies
Indies
.

The eastern half of Indonesia
Indonesia
and East Timor
East Timor
(east of the Wallace Line ) are considered to be biogeographically part of Oceania. _ Andaman Sea Arafura Sea Bali Sea
Bali Sea
Banda Sea Ceram Sea Flores Sea Java Sea Molucca Sea Savu Sea South China
China
Sea Timor Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Philippine Sea (Pacific Ocean_) Samar Sea Sibuyan Sea Sulu Sea Visayan Sea
Visayan Sea
Celebes Sea Bismarck Sea Coral Sea East China
China
Sea Solomon Sea Gulf of Thailand
Thailand
Gulf of Tonkin Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Strait of Malacca Makassar Strait Gulf of Carpentaria Karimata Strait Luzon Strait Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Gulf of Tomini Sunda Strait Moro Gulf Oceans and Seas in Southeast Asia
Asia

HISTORY

Main article: History of Southeast Asia
Asia

PREHISTORY

_ A troupe of Bahau Dayak performers during the Hudoq festival_ (Harvest festival) in Samarinda , East Kalimantan , Indonesia
Indonesia
. Balinese small familial house shrines to honor the households' ancestor in Bali
Bali
island, Indonesia
Indonesia
.

_ Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
_ reached the region by around 45,000 years ago, having moved eastwards from the Indian subcontinent. _Homo floresiensis _ also lived in the area up until 12,000 years ago, when they became extinct. Austronesian people , who form the majority of the modern population in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, East Timor, and the Philippines, may have migrated to Southeast Asia
Asia
from Taiwan
Taiwan
. They arrived in Indonesia
Indonesia
around 2000 BC, and as they spread through the archipelago, they often settled along coastal areas and confined indigenous peoples such as Negritos
Negritos
of the Philippines
Philippines
or Papuans of New Guinea
New Guinea
to inland regions.

Studies presented by HUGO (Human Genome Organization) through genetic studies of the various peoples of Asia, empirically points out that instead of the other way around, another migration from the south first entered Southeast Asia
Asia
and then travelled slowly northwards.

Solheim and others have shown evidence for a _Nusantao_ (_Nusantara_) maritime trading network ranging from Vietnam
Vietnam
to the rest of the archipelago as early as 5000 BC to 1 AD. The peoples of Southeast Asia, especially those of Austronesian descent, have been seafarers for thousands of years, some reaching the island of Madagascar
Madagascar
. Their vessels, such as the vinta , were ocean-worthy. Magellan\'s voyage records how much more manoeuvrable their vessels were, as compared to the European ships.

Passage through the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
aided the colonisation of Madagascar by the Austronesian people, as well as commerce between West Asia
Asia
and Southeast Asia. Gold from Sumatra
Sumatra
is thought to have reached as far west as Rome, while a slave from the Sulu Sea was believed to have been used in Magellan\'s voyage as a translator.

Originally most people were animist . This was later replaced by Hinduism . Theravada Buddhism soon followed in 525. In the 15th century, Islamic influences began to enter. This forced the last Hindu court in Indonesia
Indonesia
to retreat to Bali
Bali
.

In Mainland Southeast Asia, Burma, Cambodia
Cambodia
and Thailand
Thailand
retained the Theravada
Theravada
form of Buddhism, brought to them from Sri Lanka. This type of Buddhism
Buddhism
was fused with the Hindu-influenced Khmer culture.

INDIANISED KINGDOMS

Main article: Greater India
India
Angkor Wat
Angkor Wat
in Siem Reap
Siem Reap
, Cambodia
Cambodia

Very little is known about Southeast Asian religious beliefs and practices before the advent of Indian merchants and religious influences from the 2nd century BCE onwards. Prior to the 13th century CE, Hinduism and Buddhism
Buddhism
were the main religions in Southeast Asia.

The Jawa Dwipa Hindu
Hindu
kingdom in Java
Java
and Sumatra
Sumatra
existed around 200 BCE. The history of the Malay-speaking world began with the advent of Indian influence , which dates back to at least the 3rd century BCE. Indian traders came to the archipelago both for its abundant forest and maritime products and to trade with merchants from China, who also discovered the Malay world at an early date. Both Hinduism and Buddhism
Buddhism
were well established in the Malay Peninsula by the beginning of the 1st century CE, and from there spread across the archipelago.

Cambodia
Cambodia
was first influenced by Hinduism during the beginning of the Funan kingdom. Hinduism was one of the Khmer Empire 's official religions. Cambodia
Cambodia
is the home to one of the only two temples dedicated to Brahma
Brahma
in the world. Angkor Wat
Angkor Wat
is also a famous Hindu temple of Cambodia.

The Champa civilisation was located in what is today central Vietnam, and was a highly Indianised Hindu
Hindu
Kingdom. The Vietnamese launched a massive conquest against the Cham people during the 1471 Vietnamese invasion of Champa , ransacking and burning Champa, slaughtering thousands of Cham people, and forcibly assimilating them into Vietnamese culture.

The Majapahit Empire
Majapahit Empire
was an Indianised kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. Its greatest ruler was Hayam Wuruk , whose reign from 1350 to 1389 marked the empire's peak when it dominated other kingdoms in the southern Malay Peninsula , Borneo
Borneo
, Sumatra
Sumatra
, and Bali
Bali
. Various sources such as the Nagarakertagama also mention that its influence spanned over parts of Sulawesi , Maluku , and some areas of western New Guinea
New Guinea
some parts of southern Philippines
Philippines
, making it the largest empire to ever exist in Southeast Asian history.

The Rajahnate of Butuan or simply as _Butuan_ was an Indic polity centered on present Mindanao
Mindanao
island in the city of Butuan in what is now the southern Philippines
Philippines
. It was known for its mining of gold, its gold products and its extensive trade network across the Nusantara area. The kingdom had trading relationships with the ancient civilizations of Japan
Japan
, China
China
, India
India
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Persia
Persia
, Cambodia and areas now comprised in Thailand
Thailand
.

The Cholas excelled in maritime activity in both military and the mercantile fields. Their raids of Kedah and the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
, and their continued commercial contacts with the Chinese Empire , enabled them to influence the local cultures. Many of the surviving examples of the Hindu
Hindu
cultural influence found today throughout Southeast Asia
Asia
are the result of the Chola
Chola
expeditions.

SPREAD OF ISLAM

Main articles: Spread of Islam
Islam
in Southeast Asia
Asia
and Islam
Islam
in Southeast Asia
Asia
Kampung Laut Mosque
Kampung Laut Mosque
in Tumpat is one of the oldest mosques in Malaysia, dating to the early 18th century.

In the 11th century, a turbulent period occurred in the history of Maritime Southeast Asia
Asia
. The Indian Chola
Chola
navy crossed the ocean and attacked the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
kingdom of Sangrama Vijayatungavarman in Kadaram ( Kedah ); the capital of the powerful maritime kingdom was sacked and the king was taken captive. Along with Kadaram, Pannai in present-day Sumatra
Sumatra
and Malaiyur and the Malayan peninsula were attacked too. Soon after that, the king of Kedah Phra Ong Mahawangsa became the first ruler to abandon the traditional Hindu
Hindu
faith, and converted to Islam
Islam
with the Sultanate of Kedah established in 1136. Samudera Pasai
Samudera Pasai
converted to Islam
Islam
in 1267, the King of Malacca Parameswara married the princess of Pasai, and the son became the first sultan of Malacca. Soon, Malacca became the center of Islamic study and maritime trade, and other rulers followed suit. Indonesian religious leader and Islamic scholar Hamka (1908–1981) wrote in 1961: "The development of Islam
Islam
in Indonesia
Indonesia
and Malaya is intimately related to a Chinese Muslim, Admiral Zheng He ." Children studying Qur\'an in Java
Java
, Indonesia, during colonial period

There are several theories to the Islamisation process in Southeast Asia. Another theory is trade. The expansion of trade among West Asia, India
India
and Southeast Asia
Asia
helped the spread of the religion as Muslim traders from Southern Yemen (Hadramout) brought Islam
Islam
to the region with their large volume of trade. Many settled in Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia. This is evident in the Arab-Indonesian, Arab-Singaporean, and Arab-Malay populations who were at one time very prominent in each of their countries. The second theory is the role of missionaries or Sufis . The Sufi
Sufi
missionaries played a significant role in spreading the faith by introducing Islamic ideas to the region. Finally, the ruling classes embraced Islam
Islam
and that further aided the permeation of the religion throughout the region. The ruler of the region's most important port, Malacca Sultanate , embraced Islam
Islam
in the 15th century, heralding a period of accelerated conversion of Islam
Islam
throughout the region as Islam
Islam
provided a positive force among the ruling and trading classes.

TRADE AND COLONISATION

CHINA

See also: List of tributaries of Imperial China
China
and Chinese Empire

Records from Magellan's voyage show that Brunei
Brunei
possessed more cannon than the European ships, so the Chinese must have been trading with them.

Malaysian legend has it that a Chinese Ming emperor sent a princess, Hang Li Po , to Malacca, with a retinue of 500, to marry Sultan Mansur Shah after the emperor was impressed by the wisdom of the sultan. Han Li Po's well (constructed 1459) is now a tourist attraction there, as is Bukit Cina , where her retinue settled.

The strategic value of the Strait of Malacca , which was controlled by Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th and early 16th century, did not go unnoticed by Portuguese writer Duarte Barbosa , who in 1500 wrote "He who is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice
Venice
".

From 111 BC to 938 AD northern Vietnam
Vietnam
was under Chinese rule. Vietnam
Vietnam
was successfully governed by a series of Chinese dynasties including the Han, Eastern Han, Eastern Wu, Cao Wei, Jin, Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang, Sui, Tang, and Southern Han.

EUROPE

See also: European colonisation of Southeast Asia
Asia
Strait of Malacca (narrows) Duit, a coin minted by the VOC , 1646–1667. 2 kas, 2 duit.

Western influence started to enter in the 16th century, with the arrival of the Portuguese in Malacca, Maluku and the Philippines, the latter being settled by the Spanish years later. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries the Dutch established the Dutch East Indies
East Indies
; the French Indochina
Indochina
; and the British Strait Settlements . By the 19th century, all Southeast Asian countries were colonised except for Thailand
Thailand
.

European explorers were reaching Southeast Asia
Asia
from the west and from the east. Regular trade between the ships sailing east from the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
and south from mainland Asia
Asia
provided goods in return for natural products, such as honey and hornbill beaks from the islands of the archipelago. Before the eighteenth and nineteenth century, the Europeans mostly were interested in expanding trade links. For the majority of the populations in each country, there was comparatively little interaction with Europeans and traditional social routines and relationships continued. For most, a life with subsistence level agriculture, fishing and, in less developed civilizations, hunting and gathering was still hard.

Europeans brought Christianity
Christianity
allowing Christian missionaries to become widespread. Thailand
Thailand
also allowed Western scientists to enter its country to develop its own education system as well as start sending Royal members and Thai scholars to get higher education from Europe
Europe
and Russia
Russia
.

JAPAN

See also: Greater East Asia
Asia
Co-Prosperity Sphere , Empire of Japan
Japan
, and Japanese war crimes
Japanese war crimes

During World War II
World War II
, Imperial Japan
Japan
invaded most of the former western colonies. The Shōwa occupation regime committed violent actions against civilians such as the Manila
Manila
massacre and the implementation of a system of forced labour , such as the one involving 4 to 10 million _romusha _ in Indonesia. A later UN report stated that four million people died in Indonesia
Indonesia
as a result of famine and forced labour during the Japanese occupation. The Allied powers who defeated Japan
Japan
in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II then contended with nationalists to whom the occupation authorities had granted independence.

PAST

Trade among Southeast Asian countries has a long tradition. The consequences of colonial rule, struggle for independence and in some cases war influenced the economic attitudes and policies of each country until today.

PRESENT

See also: Japanese foreign policy on Southeast Asia
Asia

Most countries in the region enjoy national autonomy. Democratic forms of government and the recognition of human rights are taking root. ASEAN
ASEAN
provides a framework for the integration of commerce, and regional responses to international concerns.

Conflicting claims over the Spratly Islands are made by Brunei
Brunei
, China
China
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Philippines
Philippines
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, and Vietnam
Vietnam
.

GEOGRAPHY

See also: Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia) , List of Southeast Asian mountains , and Zomia (geography)

Indonesia
Indonesia
is the largest country in Southeast Asia
Asia
and it also the largest archipelago in the world by size (according to the CIA World Factbook ). Geologically, the Indonesian Archipelago is one of the most volcanically active regions in the world. Geological uplifts in the region have also produced some impressive mountains, culminating in Puncak Jaya in Papua , Indonesia
Indonesia
at 5,030 metres (16,500 feet), on the island of New Guinea
New Guinea
; it is the only place where ice glaciers can be found in Southeast Asia. The highest mountain in Southeast Asia
Asia
is Hkakabo Razi at 5,967 meters and can be found in northern Burma sharing the same range of its parent peak, Mount Everest
Mount Everest
.

The South China
China
Sea is the major body of water within Southeast Asia. The Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, and Singapore, have integral rivers that flow into the South China
China
Sea.

Mayon Volcano , despite being dangerously active , holds the record of the world's most perfect cone which is built from past and continuous eruption .

BOUNDARIES

See also: Austronesia

Southeast Asia
Asia
is bounded to the southeast by the Australian continent , a boundary which runs through Indonesia. But a cultural touch point lies between Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
and the Indonesian region of the Papua and West Papua , which shares the island of New Guinea
New Guinea
with Papua New Guinea.

CLIMATE

Southeast Asia
Asia
map of Köppen climate classification.

The climate in Southeast Asia
Asia
is mainly tropical–hot and humid all year round with plentiful rainfall. Northern Vietnam
Vietnam
and the Myanmar Himalayas
Himalayas
are the only regions in Southeast Asia
Asia
that feature a subtropical climate , which has a cold winter with snow. The majority of Southeast Asia
Asia
has a wet and dry season caused by seasonal shift in winds or monsoon . The tropical rain belt causes additional rainfall during the monsoon season. The rain forest is the second largest on earth (with the Amazon being the largest). An exception to this type of climate and vegetation is the mountain areas in the northern region, where high altitudes lead to milder temperatures and drier landscape. Other parts fall out of this climate because they are desert like.

ENVIRONMENT

See also: Southeast Asian coral reefs and Wallace line Komodo dragon in Komodo National Park , Indonesia
Indonesia

The vast majority of Southeast Asia
Asia
falls within the warm, humid tropics, and its climate generally can be characterised as monsoonal. The animals of Southeast Asia
Asia
are diverse; on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra
Sumatra
, the orangutan , the Asian elephant , the Malayan tapir , the Sumatran rhinoceros and the Bornean clouded leopard can also be found. Six subspecies of the binturong or _bearcat_ exist in the region, though the one endemic to the island of Palawan is now classed as vulnerable.

Tigers of three different subspecies are found on the island of Sumatra
Sumatra
(the Sumatran tiger), in peninsular Malaysia
Malaysia
(the Malayan tiger), and in Indochina
Indochina
(the Indochinese tiger); all of which are endangered species.

The Komodo dragon
Komodo dragon
is the largest living species of lizard and inhabits the islands of Komodo , Rinca
Rinca
, Flores
Flores
, and Gili Motang in Indonesia. The Philippine eagle

The Philippine eagle is the national bird of the Philippines. It is considered by scientists as the largest eagle in the world, and is endemic to the Philippines' forests.

The wild Asian water buffalo , and on various islands related dwarf species of _ Bubalus
Bubalus
_ such as anoa were once widespread in Southeast Asia; nowadays the domestic Asian water buffalo is common across the region, but its remaining relatives are rare and endangered.

The mouse deer , a small tusked deer as large as a toy dog or cat, mostly can be found on Sumatra, Borneo
Borneo
(Indonesia) and in Palawan Islands (Philippines). The gaur , a gigantic wild ox larger than even wild water buffalo, is found mainly in Indochina. There is very little scientific information available regarding Southeast Asian amphibians.

Birds such as the peafowl and drongo live in this subregion as far east as Indonesia. The babirusa , a four-tusked pig, can be found in Indonesia
Indonesia
as well. The hornbill was prized for its beak and used in trade with China. The horn of the rhinoceros, not part of its skull, was prized in China
China
as well. Wallace's hypothetical line divide Indonesian Archipelago into 2 types of fauna, Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna. The deep water of the Lombok Strait between the islands of Bali
Bali
and Lombok formed a water barrier even when lower sea levels linked the now-separated islands and landmasses on either side.

The Indonesian Archipelago is split by the Wallace Line . This line runs along what is now known to be a tectonic plate boundary, and separates Asian (Western) species from Australasian (Eastern) species. The islands between Java/ Borneo
Borneo
and Papua form a mixed zone, where both types occur, known as Wallacea. As the pace of development accelerates and populations continue to expand in Southeast Asia, concern has increased regarding the impact of human activity on the region's environment. A significant portion of Southeast Asia, however, has not changed greatly and remains an unaltered home to wildlife. The nations of the region, with only few exceptions, have become aware of the need to maintain forest cover not only to prevent soil erosion but to preserve the diversity of flora and fauna. Indonesia, for example, has created an extensive system of national parks and preserves for this purpose. Even so, such species as the Javan rhinoceros face extinction, with only a handful of the animals remaining in western Java.

The shallow waters of the Southeast Asian coral reefs have the highest levels of biodiversity for the world's marine ecosystems, where coral, fish and molluscs abound. According to Conservation International, marine surveys suggest that the marine life diversity in the Raja Ampat (Indonesia) is the highest recorded on Earth. Diversity is considerably greater than any other area sampled in the Coral Triangle composed of Indonesia, Philippines, and Papua New Guinea. The Coral Triangle is the heart of the world's coral reef biodiversity, the Verde Passage is dubbed by Conservation International as the world's "center of the center of marine shorefish biodiversity". The whale shark , the world's largest species of fish and 6 species of sea turtles can also be found in the South China
China
Sea and the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
territories of the Philippines.

The trees and other plants of the region are tropical; in some countries where the mountains are tall enough, temperate-climate vegetation can be found. These rainforest areas are currently being logged-over, especially in Borneo.

While Southeast Asia
Asia
is rich in flora and fauna, Southeast Asia
Asia
is facing severe deforestation which causes habitat loss for various endangered species such as orangutan and the Sumatran tiger . Predictions have been made that more than 40% of the animal and plant species in Southeast Asia
Asia
could be wiped out in the 21st century. At the same time, haze has been a regular occurrence. The two worst regional hazes were in 1997 and 2006 in which multiple countries were covered with thick haze, mostly caused by "slash and burn " activities in Sumatra
Sumatra
and Borneo. In reaction, several countries in Southeast Asia
Asia
signed the ASEAN
ASEAN
Agreement on Transboundary Haze
Haze
Pollution to combat haze pollution.

The 2013 Southeast Asian Haze
Haze
saw API levels reach a hazardous level in some countries. Muar experienced the highest API level of 746 on 23 June 2013 at around 7 am.

ECONOMY

See also: Bamboo network The Keppel Container Terminal in the Port of Singapore
Singapore
. The Port of Singapore
Singapore
is the busiest transshipment and container port in the world, and is an important transportation and shipping hub in Southeast Asia.

Even prior to the penetration of European interests, Southeast Asia was a critical part of the world trading system. A wide range of commodities originated in the region, but especially important were spices such as pepper, ginger, cloves, and nutmeg. The spice trade initially was developed by Indian and Arab
Arab
merchants, but it also brought Europeans to the region. First Spaniards ( Manila
Manila
galleon ) and Portuguese , then the Dutch, and finally the British and French became involved in this enterprise in various countries. The penetration of European commercial interests gradually evolved into annexation of territories, as traders lobbied for an extension of control to protect and expand their activities. As a result, the Dutch moved into Indonesia
Indonesia
, the British into Malaya and parts of Borneo, the French into Indochina
Indochina
, and the Spanish and the US into the Philippines
Philippines
. An economic effect of this imperialism was the shift in the production of commodities. For example, the rubber plantations of Malaysia, Java, Vietnam
Vietnam
and Cambodia, the tin mining of Malaya, the rice fields of the Mekong Delta in Vietnam
Vietnam
and Irrawaddy River delta in Burma, were a response to powerful market demands.

The overseas Chinese community has played a large role in the development of the economies in the region. These business communities are connected through the bamboo network , a network of overseas Chinese businesses operating in the markets of Southeast Asia
Asia
that share common family and cultural ties. The origins of Chinese influence can be traced to the 16th century, when Chinese migrants from southern China
China
settled in Indonesia, Thailand, and other Southeast Asian countries. Chinese populations in the region saw a rapid increase following the Communist Revolution in 1949, which forced many refugees to emigrate outside of China.

The region's economy greatly depends on agriculture; rice and rubber have long been prominent exports. Manufacturing and services are becoming more important. An emerging market , Indonesia
Indonesia
is the largest economy in this region. Newly industrialised countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines, while Singapore and Brunei
Brunei
are affluent developed economies. The rest of Southeast Asia
Asia
is still heavily dependent on agriculture, but Vietnam
Vietnam
is notably making steady progress in developing its industrial sectors. The region notably manufactures textiles, electronic high-tech goods such as microprocessors and heavy industrial products such as automobiles. Oil reserves in Southeast Asia
Asia
are plentiful.

Seventeen telecommunications companies contracted to build the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable to connect Southeast Asia
Asia
to the US This is to avoid disruption of the kind recently caused by the cutting of the undersea cable from Taiwan
Taiwan
to the US in the 2006 Hengchun earthquakes . Along with its temples Cambodia
Cambodia
has been promoting its coastal resorts.Island off Otres Beach Sihanoukville, Cambodia.

Tourism has been a key factor in economic development for many Southeast Asian countries, especially Cambodia. According to UNESCO, "tourism, if correctly conceived, can be a tremendous development tool and an effective means of preserving the cultural diversity of our planet." Since the early 1990s, "even the non- ASEAN
ASEAN
nations such as Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam
Vietnam
and Burma, where the income derived from tourism is low, are attempting to expand their own tourism industries." In 1995, Singapore
Singapore
was the regional leader in tourism receipts relative to GDP at over 8%. By 1998, those receipts had dropped to less than 6% of GDP while Thailand
Thailand
and Lao PDR increased receipts to over 7%. Since 2000, Cambodia
Cambodia
has surpassed all other ASEAN
ASEAN
countries and generated almost 15% of its GDP from tourism in 2006.

Indonesia
Indonesia
is the only member of G-20 major economies and is the largest economy in the region. Indonesia's estimated gross domestic product (nominal) for 2008 was US$511.7 billion with estimated nominal per capita GDP was US$2,246, and per capita GDP PPP was US$3,979 (international dollars).

Stock markets in Southeast Asia
Asia
have performed better than other bourses in the Asia-Pacific region in 2010, with the Philippines' PSE leading the way with 22 percent growth, followed by Thailand's SET with 21 percent and Indonesia's JKSE with 19 percent.

Southeast Asia's GDP per capita is US$3,853 according to a 2015 United Nations report, which is comparable to Guatemala and Tonga.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Pie chart showing the distribution of population among the nations of Southeast Asia
Asia

Southeast Asia
Asia
has an area of approximately 4,000,000 km2 (1.6 million square miles). As of 2013, Around 625 million people lived in the region, more than a fifth of them (143 million) on the Indonesian island of Java
Java
, the most densely populated large island in the world. Indonesia
Indonesia
is the most populous country with 255 million people as of 2015, and also the 4th most populous country in the world. The distribution of the religions and people is diverse in Southeast Asia and varies by country. Some 30 million overseas Chinese also live in Southeast Asia, most prominently in Christmas Island , Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, and also as the Hoa in Vietnam. People of Southeast Asian origins are known as Southeast Asians or Aseanites.

ETHNIC GROUPS

Main article: Ethnic groups of Southeast Asia
Asia
Ati woman in Aklan – the Negritos
Negritos
were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia A Native Indonesian Balinese girl wearing kebaya during a traditional ceremony.

In modern times, the Javanese are the largest ethnic group in Southeast Asia, with more than 100 million people, mostly concentrated in Java
Java
, Indonesia. In Burma, the Burmese account for more than two-thirds of the ethnic stock in this country, while ethnic Thais and Vietnamese account for about four-fifths of the respective populations of those countries. Indonesia
Indonesia
is clearly dominated by the Javanese and Sundanese ethnic groups, while Malaysia
Malaysia
is split between half Malays and one-quarter Chinese. Within the Philippines, the Visayan (mainly Cebuanos and Hiligaynons ), Tagalog , Ilocano and Bicolano groups are significant.

RELIGION

See also: Buddhism
Buddhism
in Southeast Asia
Asia
, Hinduism in Southeast Asia
Asia
, Islam
Islam
in Southeast Asia
Asia
, Shenism in Southeast Asia
Asia
, Muslim Southeast Asia
Asia
, and Christianity
Christianity
in Asia
Asia
Thai Theravada
Theravada
Buddhists in Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
, Thailand. Roman Catholic Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception , metropolitan see of the Archbishop of Manila
Manila
, Philippines. Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque in Brunei, an Islamic country with Syariah
Syariah
rule. A Protestant
Protestant
church in Indonesia
Indonesia
. Indonesia
Indonesia
has the largest Protestant
Protestant
population in Southeast Asia. The Mother Temple of Besakih , one of Bali's most significant Hindu
Hindu
temples.

Countries in Southeast Asia
Asia
practice many different religions. Islam is the most practised faith, numbering approximately 240 million adherents, or about 40% of the entire population, concentrated in Indonesia
Indonesia
, Brunei
Brunei
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Southern Thailand
Thailand
and in the Southern Philippines
Philippines
. Indonesia
Indonesia
is the most populous Muslim-majority country around the world.

Buddhism
Buddhism
is predominant in Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma and Singapore. Ancestor worship and Confucianism are also widely practised in Vietnam
Vietnam
and Singapore.

Christianity
Christianity
is predominant in the Philippines, eastern Indonesia, East Malaysia
Malaysia
and East Timor. The Philippines
Philippines
has the largest Roman Catholic population in Asia. East Timor
East Timor
is also predominantly Roman Catholic due to a history of Portuguese rule.

The religious composition for each country is as follows: Some values are taken from the _ CIA World Factbook _:

No individual Southeast Asian country is religiously homogeneous. In the world's most populous Muslim nation, Indonesia, Hinduism is dominant on islands such as Bali
Bali
. Christianity
Christianity
also predominates in the rest of the part of the Philippines, New Guinea
New Guinea
and Timor
Timor
. Pockets of Hindu
Hindu
population can also be found around Southeast Asia
Asia
in Singapore, Malaysia
Malaysia
etc. Garuda
Garuda
(Sanskrit: Garuḍa), the phoenix who is the mount (vahanam) of Vishnu
Vishnu
, is a national symbol in both Thailand
Thailand
and Indonesia; in the Philippines, gold images of Garuda
Garuda
have been found on Palawan ; gold images of other Hindu
Hindu
gods and goddesses have also been found on Mindanao
Mindanao
. Balinese Hinduism is somewhat different from Hinduism practised elsewhere, as Animism and local culture is incorporated into it. Christians can also be found throughout Southeast Asia; they are in the majority in East Timor
East Timor
and the Philippines, Asia's largest Christian nation. In addition, there are also older tribal religious practices in remote areas of Sarawak in East Malaysia, Highland Philippines
Philippines
and Papua in eastern Indonesia. In Burma, Sakka ( Indra
Indra
) is revered as a _nat _. In Vietnam, Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
is practised, which is influenced by native animism but with strong emphasis on ancestor worship .

COUNTRY RELIGIONS

Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
HINDUISM (69%), Christianity, Islam, Sikhism and others

Brunei
Brunei
ISLAM (67%), Buddhism, Christianity, others (indigenous beliefs, etc.)

Burma BUDDHISM (89%), Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Animism, others

Cambodia
Cambodia
BUDDHISM (97%), Islam, Christianity, Animism, others

Christmas Island BUDDHISM (75%), Islam, Christianity

Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
ISLAM (80%), others

East Timor
East Timor
ROMAN CATHOLICISM (97%), Islam, Protestantism, Buddhism, Hinduism

Indonesia
Indonesia
ISLAM (87.18%), Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, others

Laos
Laos
BUDDHISM (67%), Animism, Christianity, others

Malaysia
Malaysia
ISLAM (60.4%), Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Animism

Philippines
Philippines
ROMAN CATHOLICISM (80%), Islam
Islam
(11%), Iglesia ni Cristo (Church of Christ) (3%), Buddhism
Buddhism
(2%), Animism (1.25%), others (0.35%)

Singapore
Singapore
BUDDHISM, Christianity, Islam, Taoism, Hinduism, others

Thailand
Thailand
BUDDHISM (93.83%), Islam
Islam
(4.56%), Christianity
Christianity
(0.8%), Hinduism (0.011%), others (0.079%)

Vietnam
Vietnam
VIETNAMESE FOLK RELIGION (45.3%), Buddhism
Buddhism
(16.4%), Christianity (8.2%), Other (0.4%), Unaffiliated (29.6%)

LANGUAGES

See also: Classification schemes for Southeast Asian languages , Sino-Tibetan languages , Austroasiatic languages , Austronesian languages , Hmong–Mien languages
Hmong–Mien languages
, and Tai–Kadai languages

Each of the languages have been influenced by cultural pressures due to trade, immigration, and historical colonisation as well.

The language composition for each country is as follows: (official languages are in BOLD.)

COUNTRY LANGUAGES

Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
BENGALI, HINDI, ENGLISH, TAMIL,TELUGU, MALAYALAM, Shompen, A-Pucikwar, Aka-Jeru, Aka-Bea, Aka-Bo, Aka-Cari, Aka-Kede, Aka-Kol, Aka-Kora, Aka-Bale, Jangil, Jarawa, Oko-Juwoi, Önge, Sentinelese, Camorta, Car, Chaura, Katchal, Nancowry, Southern Nicobarese, Teressa

Brunei
Brunei
MALAY, English, Indonesian, Chinese, indigenous Bornean dialects

Burma BURMESE, Shan, Kayin(Karen), Rakhine, Kachin, Chin, Mon, Kayah, Chinese and other ethnic languages

Cambodia
Cambodia
KHMER, Thai, English, French, Vietnamese, Cham, Chinese, others

Christmas Island ENGLISH, Chinese, Malay

Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
ENGLISH, Cocos Malay

East Timor
East Timor
TETUM, PORTUGUESE, Indonesian, English, Mambae, Makasae, Tukudede, Bunak, Galoli, Kemak, Fataluku, Baikeno, others

Indonesia
Indonesia
INDONESIAN, Javanese , English , Dutch , Sundanese , Batak , Minangkabau , Buginese , Banjar , Papuan , Dayak , Acehnese , Ambonese Balinese , Betawi , Madurese , Musi , Manado , Sasak , Makassarese , Batak Dairi , Karo , Mandailing , Jambi Malay , Mongondow , Gorontalo , Ngaju , Nias , North Moluccan , Uab Meto , Bima , Manggarai , Toraja-Sa\'dan , Komering , Tetum , Rejang , Muna , Sumbawa , Bangka Malay , Osing , Gayo , Bungku-Tolaki languages , Moronene , Bungku , Bahonsuai , Kulisusu , Wawonii , Mori Bawah , Mori Atas , Padoe , Tomadino , Lewotobi , Tae\' , Mongondow , Lampung , Tolaki , Ma\'anyan , Simeulue , Gayo , Buginese , Mandar , Minahasan , Enggano , Ternate , Tidore , Mairasi , East Cenderawasih Language , Lakes Plain Languages , Tor-Kwerba , Nimboran , Skou/Sko , Border languages , Senagi , Pauwasi , Mandarin , Hokkien
Hokkien
, Cantonese
Cantonese
, Hakka , Teochew , Tamil , Punjabi , Bengali , Arabic

Indonesia
Indonesia
has over 700 languages in over 17,000 islands across the archipelago, making Indonesia
Indonesia
the second most linguistically diverse country on the planet, slightly behind Papua New Guinea. The official language of Indonesia
Indonesia
is Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia), widely used in educational, political, economic, and other formal situations. In daily activities and informal situations, most Indonesians speak in their local language(s). For more details, _see: Languages of Indonesia
Indonesia
_.

_ Laos
Laos
LAO, Thai, Vietnamese, Hmong, Miao, Mien, Dao, Shan, French, English and others

Malaysia
Malaysia
MALAY, English , Indonesian , Mandarin , Tamil , Kedah Malay , Sabah Malay , Brunei
Brunei
Malay , Kelantan Malay , Pahang Malay , Acehnese , Javanese , Minangkabau , Banjar , Buginese , Hakka , Cantonese
Cantonese
, Hokkien
Hokkien
, Teochew , Foochownese , Telugu , Hindi , Bengali , Punjabi , Sinhalese , Malayalam , Arabic , Brunei
Brunei
Bisaya , Okolod , Kota Marudu Talantang , Kelabit , Lotud , Terengganu Malay , Semelai , Thai , Iban , Kadazan , Dusun , Kristang , Bajau , Jakun , Mah Meri , Batek , Melanau , Semai , Temuan , Temiar , Penan , Tausug , Iranun and others, see: Languages of Malaysia
Malaysia
_

Philippines
Philippines
FILIPINO, ENGLISH, Tagalog , Visayan (Aklanon , Cebuano , Kinaray-a , Capiznon , Hiligaynon , Waray , Masbateño , Romblomanon , Cuyonon , Surigaonon , Butuanon , Tausug ) Ivatan , Ilocano , Ibanag , Pangasinan , Kapampangan , Bikol , Sama-Bajaw , Maguindanao , Maranao , Chavacano

The Philippines
Philippines
has more than a hundred native languages, most without official recognition from the national government. Spanish and Arabic are on a voluntary and optional basis. Malaysian , Indonesian , Standard Chinese , Lan-nang ( Min Nan ), Cantonese
Cantonese
, Hakka , Japanese and Korean are also spoken in the Philippines
Philippines
due to immigration, geographic proximity and historical ties. _See: Languages of the Philippines
Philippines
_

Singapore
Singapore
ENGLISH, MALAY, MANDARIN CHINESE, TAMIL, Hokkien, Teochew, Cantonese, Hakka, Telugu, Malayalam, Hindi, Punjabi, Javanese, Singlish creole and others

Thailand
Thailand
THAI, Teochew, Minnan, Hakka, Yuehai, English, Malay, Bengali, Hindi, Urdu, Arabic, Lao, Khmer , Isaan, Shan, Lue, Phutai, Mon, Mein, Hmong, Karen, Burmese and others

Vietnam
Vietnam
VIETNAMESE, English, Khmer , French, Cantonese, Hmong, Tai, Cham and others

CITIES

* Jabodetabek ( Jakarta
Jakarta
/West Java
Java
/ Banten
Banten
), Indonesia
Indonesia
. Jabodetabek is an abbreviation of Jakarta
Jakarta
, Bogor , Depok , Tangerang , and Bekasi
Bekasi
, which are the satellite cities of the Special
Special
Capital Region of Jakarta
Jakarta
. * Metro Manila
Manila
( Manila
Manila
/ Quezon City
Quezon City
/ Makati
Makati
/ Taguig
Taguig
/ Pasay /Caloocan and 11 others), Philippines
Philippines
* Bangkok
Bangkok
Metropolitan Region ( Bangkok
Bangkok
/Nonthaburi /Samut Prakan / Pathum Thani / Samut Sakhon / Nakhon Pathom ), Thailand
Thailand
* Greater Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
/ Klang Valley ( Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
/ Selangor
Selangor
), Malaysia
Malaysia
* Greater Penang
Penang
( Penang
Penang
/ Kedah / Perak ), Malaysia
Malaysia
* Ho Chi Minh City Metropolitan Area ( Ho Chi Minh City / Vung Tau ), Vietnam
Vietnam
* Yangon
Yangon
Region ( Yangon
Yangon
/ Thanlyin ), Myanmar
Myanmar
* Hanoi
Hanoi
Capital Region ( Hanoi
Hanoi
/ Hai Phong
Hai Phong
/ Ha Long
Ha Long
), Vietnam
Vietnam
* Gerbangkertosusila ( Surabaya
Surabaya
/ Sidoarjo / Gresik /Mojokerto / Lamongan / Bangkalan ), Indonesia
Indonesia
* Bandung
Bandung
Metropolitan Area ( Bandung
Bandung
/ Cimahi ), Indonesia
Indonesia
* Metro Cebu
Metro Cebu
( Cebu City / Mandaue
Mandaue
/ Lapu-Lapu City /Talisay City and 11 others), Philippines
Philippines
* Metro Davao ( Davao City
Davao City
/ Digos / Tagum /Island Garden City of Samal ), Philippines
Philippines
* Metro Iloilo-Guimaras ( Iloilo City
Iloilo City
/ Pavia
Pavia
/ Oton / Leganes /Zarraga /San Miguel / Guimaras ) , Philippines
Philippines
* Phnom Penh City (Phnom Penh/Kandal ), Cambodia
Cambodia

CULTURE

See also: Southeast Asian cinema , Southeast Asian Games
Southeast Asian Games
, and Southeast Asian music Rice field at Tonlé Sap in Cambodia
Cambodia

The culture in Southeast Asia
Asia
is very diverse: on mainland Southeast Asia, the culture is a mix of Indochinese (Burma, Cambodia, Laos
Laos
and Thailand) and Chinese (Vietnam). While in Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore
Singapore
and Malaysia
Malaysia
the culture is a mix of indigenous Austronesian , Indian, Islamic, Western, and Chinese cultures. Also Brunei
Brunei
shows a strong influence from Arabia. Singapore
Singapore
and Vietnam
Vietnam
show more Chinese influence in that Singapore, although being geographically a Southeast Asian nation, is home to a large Chinese majority and Vietnam
Vietnam
was in China\'s sphere of influence for much of its history. Indian influence in Singapore
Singapore
is only evident through the Tamil migrants, which influenced, to some extent, the cuisine of Singapore. Throughout Vietnam's history, it has had no direct influence from India
India
– only through contact with the Thai, Khmer and Cham peoples. A paddy field in Vietnam.

Rice paddy agriculture has existed in Southeast Asia
Asia
for thousands of years, ranging across the subregion. Some dramatic examples of these rice paddies populate the Banaue Rice Terraces
Banaue Rice Terraces
in the mountains of Luzon
Luzon
in the Philippines
Philippines
. Maintenance of these paddies is very labour-intensive. The rice paddies are well-suited to the monsoon climate of the region.

Stilt houses can be found all over Southeast Asia, from Thailand
Thailand
and Vietnam, to Borneo, to Luzon
Luzon
in the Philippines, to Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
. The region has diverse metalworking, especially in Indonesia. This include weaponry, such as the distinctive kris , and musical instruments, such as the gamelan .

INFLUENCES

The region's chief cultural influences have been from some combination of Islam
Islam
, India
India
, and China
China
. Diverse cultural influence is pronounced in the Philippines, derived particularly from the period of the Spanish and American rule, contact with Indian-influenced cultures, and the Chinese and Japanese trading era.

As a rule, the peoples who ate with their fingers were more likely influenced by the culture of India, for example, than the culture of China, where the peoples ate with chopsticks ; tea, as a beverage, can be found across the region. The fish sauces distinctive to the region tend to vary.

ARTS

The Royal Ballet of Cambodia
Cambodia
(Paris, France 2010)

The arts of Southeast Asia
Asia
have affinity with the arts of other areas. Dance in much of Southeast Asia
Asia
includes movement of the hands as well as the feet, to express the dance's emotion and meaning of the story that the ballerina is going to tell the audience. Most of Southeast Asia
Asia
introduced dance into their court; in particular, Cambodian royal ballet represented them in the early 7th century before the Khmer Empire , which was highly influenced by Indian Hinduism. Apsara Dance , famous for strong hand and feet movement, is a great example of Hindu
Hindu
symbolic dance.

Puppetry and shadow plays were also a favoured form of entertainment in past centuries, a famous one being Wayang from Indonesia. The arts and literature in some of Southeast Asia
Asia
is quite influenced by Hinduism, which was brought to them centuries ago. Indonesia, despite conversion to Islam
Islam
which opposes certain forms of art, has retained many forms of Hindu-influenced practices, culture, art and literature. An example is the Wayang Kulit (Shadow Puppet) and literature like the Ramayana
Ramayana
. The wayang kulit show has been recognized by UNESCO
UNESCO
on November 7, 2003, as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity .

It has been pointed out that Khmer and Indonesian classical arts were concerned with depicting the life of the gods, but to the Southeast Asian mind the life of the gods was the life of the peoples themselves—joyous, earthy, yet divine. The Tai , coming late into Southeast Asia, brought with them some Chinese artistic traditions, but they soon shed them in favour of the Khmer and Mon traditions, and the only indications of their earlier contact with Chinese arts were in the style of their temples, especially the tapering roof, and in their lacquerware .

Music

Main article: Music of Southeast Asia
Asia
Angklung
Angklung
as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity .

Traditional music in Southeast Asia
Asia
is as varied as its many ethnic and cultural divisions. Main styles of traditional music can be seen: Court music, folk music, music styles of smaller ethnic groups, and music influenced by genres outside the geographic region.

Of the court and folk genres, gong-chime ensembles and orchestras make up the majority (the exception being lowland areas of Vietnam). _ Gamelan
Gamelan
_ and _ Angklung
Angklung
_ orchestras from Indonesia, _ Piphat
Piphat
_ /_ Pinpeat _ ensembles of Thailand
Thailand
and Cambodia
Cambodia
and the _ Kulintang _ ensembles of the southern Philippines, Borneo
Borneo
, Sulawesi and Timor
Timor
are the three main distinct styles of musical genres that have influenced other traditional musical styles in the region. String instruments also are popular in the region.

On November 18, 2010, UNESCO
UNESCO
officially recognized angklung as a _Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity_, and encourage Indonesian people and government to safeguard, transmit, promote performances and to encourage the craftsmanship of angklung making.

Writing

Main articles: Writing systems of Southeast Asia
Asia
, Baybayin , Jawi script , S.E.A. Write Award , and Thai alphabet Thai manuscript from before the 19th century writing system. Sign in Balinese and Latin script at a Hindu
Hindu
temple in Bali
Bali

The history of Southeast Asia
Asia
has led to a wealth of different authors, from both within and without writing about the region.

Originally, Indians were the ones who taught the native inhabitants about writing. This is shown through Brahmic forms of writing present in the region such as the Balinese script shown on split palm leaf called _lontar_ (see image to the left — magnify the image to see the writing on the flat side, and the decoration on the reverse side).

The antiquity of this form of writing extends before the invention of paper around the year 100 in China. Note each palm leaf section was only several lines, written longitudinally across the leaf, and bound by twine to the other sections. The outer portion was decorated. The alphabets of Southeast Asia
Asia
tended to be abugidas , until the arrival of the Europeans, who used words that also ended in consonants, not just vowels. Other forms of official documents, which did not use paper, included Javanese copperplate scrolls. This material would have been more durable than paper in the tropical climate of Southeast Asia.

In Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, the Malay language
Malay language
is now generally written in the Latin script. The same phenomenon is present in Indonesian, although different spelling standards are utilised (e.g. 'Teksi' in Malay and 'Taksi' in Indonesian for the word 'Taxi').

The use of Chinese characters, in the past and present, is only evident in Vietnam
Vietnam
and more recently, Singapore
Singapore
and Malaysia. The adoption of Chinese characters in Vietnam
Vietnam
dates back to around 111BC, when it was occupied by the Chinese. A Vietnamese script called Chu nom used modified Chinese characters to express the Vietnamese language. Both classical Chinese and Chu Nom were used up until the early 20th century.

However, the use of the Chinese script has been in decline, especially in Singapore
Singapore
and Malaysia
Malaysia
as the younger generations are in favour of the Latin Script.

SEE ALSO

* Southeast Asia
Asia
portal

* List of Southeast Asian leaders * Northeast Asia
Asia
* South Asia
Asia
* Southeast Asia
Asia
Treaty Organization * Tiger Cub Economies

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– Brunei. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 17 October 2011. * ^ CIA – The World Factbook
The World Factbook
– Cambodia. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 17 October 2011. * ^ CIA – The World Factbook
The World Factbook
– Christmas Island. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 17 October 2011. * ^ CIA – The World Factbook
The World Factbook
– Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 17 October 2011. * ^ CIA – The World Factbook
The World Factbook
– East Timor. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 17 October 2011. * ^ "Top 20 Countries by Number of Languages Spoken". _www.vistawide.com_. Retrieved 2016-05-28. * ^ CIA – The World Factbook
The World Factbook
– Laos. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 17 October 2011. * ^ CIA – The World Factbook
The World Factbook
– Malaysia. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 17 October 2011. * ^ CIA – The World Factbook
The World Factbook
– Thailand. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 17 October 2011. * ^ CIA – The World Factbook
The World Factbook
– Vietnam. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 17 October 2011. * ^ http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001478/147804eb.pdf * ^ http://www.microsite.nl.sg/PDFs/BiblioAsia/BIBA_0303Oct07a.pdf

* Tiwari, Rajnish (2003): _Post-crisis Exchange Rate Regimes in Southeast Asia_ (PDF), Seminar Paper, University of Hamburg. * Rand, Nelson (2009). _Conflict: Journeys through war and terror in SouthEast Asia_. Dunboyne: Maverick House Publishers. ISBN 978-1-905379-54-5 .

FURTHER READING

* Osborne, Milton (2010; first published in 1979). _Southeast Asia: An Introductory History_ Allen Cruickshank, Dan (1996; first published in 1896). _Sir Banister Fletcher\'s a History of Architecture_, Architectural Press, 20th edition. ISBN 0-7506-2267-9 . Cf. Part Four, Chapter 27. * Farah, Paolo Davide (2015) Energy Investments and Environmental Concerns in Southeast Asia, in: Paolo Davide FARAH & Piercarlo ROSSI, ENERGY: POLICY, LEGAL AND SOCIAL-ECONOMIC ISSUES UNDER THE DIMENSIONS OF SUSTAINABILITY AND SECURITY, World Scientific Reference on Globalisation in Eurasia and the Pacific Rim, Imperial College Press (London, UK) padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutSOUTHEAST ASIAat's sister projects

* _Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Travel guide from Wikivoyage * Learning resources from Wikiversity * Data from Wikidata

* Topography of Southeast Asia
Asia
in detail (PDF ) (previous version) * CityMayors.com article * Southeast Asian Archive at the University of California, Irvine * Southeast Asia
Asia
Digital Library at Northern Illinois University * "Documenting the Southeast Asian Refugee Experience", exhibit at the University of California, Irvine , Library * Southeast Asia
Asia
Visions, a collection of historical travel narratives Cornell University Library Digital Collection * www.southeastasia.org Official website of the ASEAN
ASEAN
Tourism Association * Southeast Asia
Asia
Time Lapse Video Southeast Asia
Asia
Time Lapse Video * Southeast Asia
Asia
eCommerce Southeast Asia
Asia
eCommerce * Art of Island Southeast Asia, a full text exhibition catalogue from The Metropolitan Museum of Art * List of Southeast Asia
Asia
eCommerce * Philippines
Philippines
Population updated as of 11/20/2016 //Philippines Population updated as of 11/20/2016

* v * t * e

Countries and other territories in Southeast Asia
Asia

SOVEREIGN STATES

* Brunei
Brunei
* Cambodia
Cambodia
* East Timor
East Timor
* Indonesia
Indonesia
* Laos
Laos
* Malaysia
Malaysia
* Myanmar
Myanmar
* Philippines
Philippines
* Singapore
Singapore
* Thailand
Thailand
* Vietnam
Vietnam

DEPENDENT TERRITORIES OR SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGIONS

* Christmas Island ( Australia
Australia
) * Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
( Australia
Australia
)

SUBDIVISIONS

* Paracel Islands
Paracel Islands
_ (controlled by China
China
) * _ Pratas Islands _ (controlled by Taiwan
Taiwan
)

* _ Spratly Islands _ (disputed among and controlled by various claimants) * Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
( India
India
)

* v * t * e

Regions of the world

* v * t * e

Regions of Africa
Africa

NORTH

* Mediterranean * Gibraltar Arc

* Greater Middle East

* MENA * Middle East
Middle East

* Maghreb
Maghreb

* Barbary Coast * Barbara * Ancient Libya * Atlas Mountains ( Middle Atlas
Middle Atlas
) * Sahara
Sahara
* Western Sahara
Sahara
* Sahel
Sahel

* Eastern Mediterranean

* Egypt

* Upper Egypt * Middle Egypt
Middle Egypt
* Lower Egypt * Cataracts of the Nile * Bashmur

* Nubia
Nubia

* Lower Nubia
Nubia

* Nile Valley * Nile Delta * Darfur
Darfur
* Gulf of Aqaba * Sub-Saharan

EAST

* Aethiopia * Swahili coast * East African Rift * Great Rift Valley * Afar Triangle * Danakil Desert * Danakil Alps * Albertine Rift Valley * Gregory Rift Valley * Southern Rift Valley

* Rift Valley lakes
Rift Valley lakes

* African Great Lakes

* Mittelafrika

* Horn of Africa
Africa

* Ethiopian Highlands * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Tadjoura

* Sudan (region) * Sudanian Savanna * East African montane forests * Sub-Saharan

CENTRAL

* Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Cape Lopez * Mayombe

* Igboland

* Mbaise

* Maputaland * Pool Malebo * Congo Basin * Chad Basin * Congolese rainforests * Ouaddaï highlands * Ennedi Plateau * Sub-Saharan

WEST

* Pepper Coast * Gold Coast * Slave Coast * Ivory Coast * Cape Palmas * Cape Mesurado * Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Sudanian Savanna * Niger Basin * Guinean Forests of West Africa
Africa
* Sudan (region) * Niger Delta
Niger Delta
* Inner Niger Delta
Niger Delta
* Sub-Saharan

SOUTH

* Madagascar
Madagascar

* Central Highlands (Madagascar) * Northern Highlands

* Rhodesia

* North * South

* Thembuland * Succulent Karoo
Succulent Karoo
* Nama Karoo * Bushveld
Bushveld
* Highveld * Fynbos
Fynbos
* Cape Floristic Region
Cape Floristic Region
* Kalahari Desert * Okavango Delta * False Bay * Hydra Bay
Hydra Bay
* Sub-Saharan

* Anglophone Africa
Africa
* Francophone Africa
Africa
* Lusophone Africa
Africa
* Arabophone Africa
Africa
* Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
* Tropical Africa
Africa
* Islands

* v * t * e

Regions of North America
North America

CANADA

* Eastern Canada
Canada
* Western Canada
Canada
* Canadian Prairies * Northern Canada
Canada
* Atlantic Canada
Canada
* French Canada
Canada
* English Canada
Canada

* Acadia

* Acadian Peninsula

* Quebec City–Windsor Corridor * Peace River Country * Cypress Hills * Palliser\'s Triangle * Canadian Shield * Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga * Newfoundland (island)
Newfoundland (island)
* Vancouver island * Gulf Islands * Strait of Georgia * Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Labrador Peninsula * Gaspé Peninsula

* Avalon Peninsula

* Bay de Verde Peninsula

* Brodeur Peninsula * Melville Peninsula * Bruce Peninsula * Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) * Cook Peninsula * Gulf of Boothia * Georgian Bay * Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
* James Bay * Greenland
Greenland

UNITED STATES

* Eastern

* Appalachia * East Coast * Great Lakes

* Northeastern

* Mid-Atlantic * New England
New England

* Western

* Alaska Peninsula * Mountain States * Northwestern * Pacific * Pacific Northwest * Rocky Mountains * West Coast

* Central

* Great Plains * Midwestern

* Southern

* Deep South * Gulf * Southeastern * South Central * Southwestern * Upland South

* Belt regions

* Bible Belt
Bible Belt
* Black Belt * Corn Belt * Cotton Belt * Frost Belt
Frost Belt
* Rice Belt * Rust Belt
Rust Belt
* Sun Belt * Snow Belt

MEXICO

* Northern Mexico
Mexico
* Baja California Peninsula

* Gulf of California

* Colorado River Delta
Colorado River Delta

* Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Soconusco * Tierra Caliente * La Mixteca * La Huasteca * Bajío * Valley of Mexico
Mexico
* Mezquital Valley * Sierra Madre de Oaxaca * Yucatán Peninsula * Basin and Range Province

CENTRAL

* Western Caribbean Zone * Isthmus of Panama

* Gulf of Panama

* Pearl Islands

* Azuero Peninsula * Mosquito Coast

CARIBBEAN

* West Indies
Indies

* Antilles
Antilles

* Greater Antilles
Antilles

* Lesser Antilles
Antilles

* Leeward * Leeward Antilles
Antilles
* Windward

* Lucayan Archipelago * Southern Caribbean
Caribbean

* Aridoamerica * Mesoamerica * Oasisamerica
Oasisamerica
* Northern * Middle * Anglo

* Latin

* French * Hispanic

* American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of South America
South America

NORTH

* Caribbean
Caribbean
South America
South America
* West Indies
Indies
* Los Llanos * The Guianas * Gulf of Paria * Paria Peninsula * Paraguaná Peninsula * Orinoco Delta

SOUTH

* Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
* Patagonia
Patagonia
* Pampas
Pampas
* Pantanal * Gran Chaco * Chiquitano dry forests * Valdes Peninsula
Valdes Peninsula

WEST

* Andes
Andes
* Altiplano
Altiplano
* Atacama Desert

EAST

* Amazon basin * Caatinga
Caatinga
* Cerrado

* Latin * Hispanic * American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of Asia
Asia

CENTRAL

* Greater Middle East

* Aral Sea

* Aralkum Desert * Caspian Sea * Dead Sea * Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee

* Transoxiana

* Turan
Turan

* Greater Khorasan * Ariana
Ariana
* Khwarezm * Sistan * Kazakhstania

* Eurasian Steppe

* Asian Steppe * Kazakh Steppe
Kazakh Steppe
* Pontic–Caspian steppe

* Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* Wild Fields
Wild Fields

* Yedisan * Muravsky Trail
Muravsky Trail

* Ural

* Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains

* Volga region * Idel-Ural * Kolyma * Transbaikal * Pryazovia * Bjarmaland * Kuban * Zalesye * Ingria
Ingria
* Novorossiya
Novorossiya
* Gornaya Shoriya * Tulgas * Iranian plateau * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Pamir Mountains * Tian Shan * Badakhshan
Badakhshan
* Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass * Mount Imeon * Mongolian Plateau * Western Regions

NORTH

* Inner Asia
Asia
* Northeast

* Far East
Far East

* Russian Far East
Far East
* Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

* Extreme North

* Siberia
Siberia

* Baikalia ( Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
) * Transbaikal * Khatanga Gulf
Khatanga Gulf
* Baraba Steppe

* Kamchatka Peninsula * Amur Basin * Yenisei Gulf
Yenisei Gulf
* Yenisei Basin * Beringia

EAST

* Japanese archipelago

* Northeastern Japan
Japan
Arc * Sakhalin Island Arc

* Korean Peninsula * Gobi Desert * Taklamakan Desert
Taklamakan Desert
* Greater Khingan * Mongolian Plateau * Inner Asia
Asia
* Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
* Outer Mongolia * China
China
proper

* Manchuria
Manchuria

* Outer Manchuria
Manchuria
* Inner Manchuria
Manchuria
* Northeast China
China
Plain * Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* North China
China
Plain * Liaodong Peninsula * Himalayas
Himalayas

* Tibetan Plateau

* Tibet
Tibet

* Tarim Basin * Northern Silk Road
Northern Silk Road
* Hexi Corridor
Hexi Corridor
* Nanzhong * Lingnan * Liangguang * Jiangnan * Jianghuai * Guanzhong * Huizhou * Wu * Jiaozhou * Zhongyuan * Shaannan

* Ordos Loop

* Loess Plateau * Shaanbei

* Leizhou Peninsula * Gulf of Tonkin * Yangtze River Delta * Pearl River Delta * Yenisei Basin * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass

WEST

* Greater Middle East

* MENA * Middle East
Middle East

* Red Sea
Red Sea
* Caspian Sea * Mediterranean Sea * Zagros Mountains

* Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf

* Pirate Coast * Strait of Hormuz * Greater and Lesser Tunbs

* Al-Faw Peninsula * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Balochistan
Balochistan

* Arabian Peninsula

* Najd * Hejaz
Hejaz
* Tihamah * Eastern Arabia

* South Arabia
South Arabia

* Hadhramaut * Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert

* Tigris–Euphrates

* Mesopotamia

* Upper Mesopotamia * Lower Mesopotamia * Sawad * Nineveh plains * Akkad (region)

* Canaan
Canaan
* Aram * Eber-Nari * Eastern Mediterranean * Mashriq
Mashriq

* Levant
Levant

* Southern Levant
Levant
* Transjordan * Jordan Rift Valley

* Levantine Sea * Golan Heights
Golan Heights
* Hula Valley * Gaza Strip * West Bank
West Bank
* Galilee
Galilee
* Gilead * Judea
Judea
* Samaria * Arabah * Anti-Lebanon Mountains * Sinai Peninsula * Arabian Desert * Syrian Desert * Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
* Azerbaijan * Syria * Palestine * Iranian plateau * Armenian Highlands

* Caucasus
Caucasus

* Caucasus
Caucasus
mountains

* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Lesser Caucasus
Caucasus

* North Caucasus
Caucasus

* South Caucasus
Caucasus

* Kur-Araz Lowland * Lankaran Lowland
Lankaran Lowland
* Alborz * Absheron Peninsula

* Anatolia
Anatolia
* Cilicia * Cappadocia * Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Greater India
India
* Indian subcontinent * Himalayas
Himalayas
* Hindu
Hindu
Kush * Western Ghats
Western Ghats
* Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
* Ganges Basin * Ganges Delta * Pashtunistan * Punjab * Balochistan
Balochistan
* Thar Desert * Indus Valley * Indus River
Indus River
Delta * Indus Valley Desert * Indo-Gangetic Plain * Eastern coastal plains * Western Coastal Plains * Meghalaya subtropical forests * Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests * Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows * Doab * Bagar region * Great Rann of Kutch * Little Rann of Kutch * Deccan Plateau * Coromandel Coast * Konkan * False Divi Point * Hindi Belt * Lakshadweep * Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
* Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Mannar * Trans-Karakoram Tract * Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass * Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
* Maldive Islands * Alpide belt

SOUTHEAST

* Mainland

* Indochina
Indochina
* Malay Peninsula

* Maritime

* Peninsular Malaysia
Malaysia
* Sunda Islands * Greater Sunda Islands * Lesser Sunda Islands

* Indonesian Archipelago * Timor
Timor

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* Philippine Archipelago

* Luzon
Luzon
* Visayas * Mindanao
Mindanao

* Leyte Gulf * Gulf of Thailand
Thailand
* East Indies
East Indies
* Nanyang * Alpide belt

* Asia-Pacific * Tropical Asia
Asia
* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Regions of Europe
Europe

NORTH

* Nordic * Northwestern * Scandinavia
Scandinavia
* Scandinavian Peninsula * Fennoscandia * Baltoscandia
Baltoscandia
* Sápmi * West Nordic * Baltic * Gulf of Bothnia * Iceland
Iceland
* Faroe Islands

EAST

* Danubian countries * Prussia * Galicia

* Sambia Peninsula
Sambia Peninsula

* Amber Coast
Amber Coast

* Curonian Spit * Izyum Trail * Lithuania Minor * Nemunas Delta
Nemunas Delta
* Baltic

* Southeastern

* Balkans * Aegean Islands * Gulf of Chania * North Caucasus
Caucasus
* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Kabardia

* European Russia
Russia

* Southern Russia
Russia

CENTRAL

* Alpine states * Alpide belt * Mitteleuropa * Visegrád Group

WEST

* Benelux * Low Countries
Low Countries
* Northwest * British Isles
British Isles
* English Channel * Channel Islands
Channel Islands
* Cotentin Peninsula
Cotentin Peninsula
* Normandy
Normandy
* Brittany
Brittany
* Gulf of Lion

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus * Baetic System

* Pyrenees
Pyrenees
* Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Italian Peninsula * Insular Italy * Tuscan Archipelago
Tuscan Archipelago
* Aegadian Islands

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus * Baetic System

* Gibraltar Arc * Southeastern * Mediterranean * Crimea
Crimea
* Donbass
Donbass
* Sloboda Ukraine * Alpide belt

* Germanic * Romance * Celtic * Slavic countries * Uralic * European Plain
European Plain
* Eurasian Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe * Wild Fields
Wild Fields

* Pannonian Basin

* Great Hungarian Plain * Little Hungarian Plain * Eastern Slovak Lowland

* Volhynia * Karelia
Karelia
* East Karelia
Karelia

* v * t * e

Regions of Oceania
Oceania

AUSTRALASIA

* Gulf of Carpentaria

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* New Zealand
New Zealand

* South Island

* North Island

* Coromandel Peninsula

* Zealandia
Zealandia
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Solomon Islands (archipelago)

* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

* Kula Gulf

* Australia
Australia
* Capital Country * Eastern Australia
Australia
* Lake Eyre basin * Murray–Darling basin * Northern Australia
Australia
* Nullarbor Plain
Nullarbor Plain
* Outback

* Southern Australia
Australia

* Maralinga

* Sunraysia * Great Victoria Desert * Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf St Vincent * Lefevre Peninsula
Lefevre Peninsula
* Fleurieu Peninsula * Yorke Peninsula
Yorke Peninsula
* Eyre Peninsula * Mornington Peninsula
Mornington Peninsula
* Bellarine Peninsula * Mount Henry Peninsula

MELANESIA

* Islands Region

* Bismarck Archipelago * Solomon Islands Archipelago

* Fiji
Fiji
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

MICRONESIA

* Caroline Islands

* Federated States of Micronesia
Micronesia
* Palau
Palau

* Guam
Guam
* Kiribati * Marshall Islands * Nauru * Northern Mariana Islands * Wake Island

POLYNESIA

* Easter Island
Easter Island
* Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
* Cook Islands
Cook Islands

* French Polynesia
Polynesia

* Austral Islands * Gambier Islands * Marquesas Islands * Society Islands * Tuamotu

* Kermadec Islands * Mangareva Islands * Samoa
Samoa
* Tokelau * Tonga
Tonga
* Tuvalu
Tuvalu

* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Polar regions

ANTARCTIC

* Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula * East Antarctica
East Antarctica
* West Antarctica * Eklund Islands * Ecozone * Extreme points * Islands

ARCTIC

* Arctic
Arctic
Alaska * British Arctic
Arctic
Territories * Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Finnmark
Finnmark
* Greenland
Greenland
* Northern Canada
Canada
* Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
* Nunavik * Nunavut
Nunavut
* Russian Arctic
Arctic
* Sakha * Sápmi * Yukon
Yukon
* North American Arctic
Arctic

* v * t * e

Earth
Earth
's oceans and seas

ARCTIC OCEAN

* Amundsen Gulf * Barents Sea * Beaufort Sea * Chukchi Sea * East Siberian Sea * Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Boothia * Kara Sea * Laptev Sea * Lincoln Sea * Prince Gustav Adolf Sea * Pechora Sea * Queen Victoria Sea * Wandel Sea * White Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

* Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
* Aegean Sea * Alboran Sea * Archipelago Sea * Argentine Sea * Baffin Bay * Balearic Sea
Balearic Sea
* Baltic Sea * Bay of Biscay
Bay of Biscay
* Bay of Bothnia * Bay of Campeche * Bay of Fundy
Bay of Fundy
* Black Sea
Black Sea
* Bothnian Sea * Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea * Celtic Sea * English Channel * Foxe Basin * Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Bothnia * Gulf of Finland * Gulf of Lion * Gulf of Guinea * Gulf of Maine * Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Gulf of Saint Lawrence * Gulf of Sidra * Gulf of Venezuela * Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
* Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
* Irish Sea * Irminger Sea
Irminger Sea
* James Bay * Labrador Sea * Levantine Sea * Libyan Sea * Ligurian Sea * Marmara Sea * Mediterranean Sea * Myrtoan Sea * North Sea
North Sea
* Norwegian Sea
Norwegian Sea
* Sargasso Sea * Sea of Åland * Sea of Azov * Sea of Crete * Sea of the Hebrides * Thracian Sea * Tyrrhenian Sea * Wadden Sea
Wadden Sea

INDIAN OCEAN

* Andaman Sea * Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
* Bali Sea
Bali Sea
* Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
* Flores Sea * Great Australian Bight * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Suez * Java Sea * Laccadive Sea * Mozambique Channel * Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
* Red Sea
Red Sea
* Timor Sea

PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea * Banda Sea * Bering Sea * Bismarck Sea * Bohai Sea * Bohol Sea * Camotes Sea * Celebes Sea * Ceram Sea * Chilean Sea * Coral Sea * East China
China
Sea * Gulf of Alaska * Gulf of Anadyr * Gulf of California * Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf of Fonseca * Gulf of Panama * Gulf of Thailand
Thailand
* Gulf of Tonkin * Halmahera Sea * Koro Sea * Mar de Grau * Molucca Sea * Moro Gulf * Philippine Sea
Philippine Sea
* Salish Sea * Savu Sea * Sea of Japan
Japan
* Sea of Okhotsk * Seto Inland Sea
Seto Inland Sea
* Shantar Sea * Sibuyan Sea * Solomon Sea * South China
China
Sea * Sulu Sea * Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
* Visayan Sea
Visayan Sea
* Yellow Sea

SOUTHERN OCEAN

* Amundsen Sea
Amundsen Sea
* Bellingshausen Sea * Cooperation Sea * Cosmonauts Sea * Davis Sea * D\'Urville Sea * King Haakon VII Sea *