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Southampton
Southampton
(/saʊθˈæmptən, -hæmptən/ ( listen)) is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, England. It is 69 miles (111 km) south-west of London and 15 miles (24 km) west north-west of Portsmouth[6][7] Southampton
Southampton
is a major port and the closest city to the New Forest. It lies at the northernmost point of Southampton Water
Southampton Water
at the confluence of the Rivers Test and Itchen,[8] with the River Hamble
River Hamble
joining to the south of the urban area. The city, which is a unitary authority, has an estimated population of 253,651.[1] The city's name is sometimes abbreviated in writing to "So'ton" or "Soton", and a resident of Southampton
Southampton
is called a Sotonian.[9] Significant employers in the city include Southampton
Southampton
City Council, the University of Southampton, Southampton
Southampton
Solent University, Southampton
Southampton
Airport, Ordnance Survey, BBC South, the NHS, ABP and Carnival UK.[citation needed] Southampton
Southampton
is noted for its association with the RMS Titanic,[10] the Spitfire[11] and more generally in the World War II narrative as one of the departure points for D-Day, and more recently as the home port of a number of the largest cruise ships in the world.[12] Southampton
Southampton
has a large shopping centre and retail park, Westquay. In 2014, the city council approved a neighbouring followup Westquay
Westquay
South which opened in 2016–2017. In the 2001 census Southampton
Southampton
and Portsmouth
Portsmouth
were recorded as being parts of separate urban areas, however by the time of the 2011 census they had merged apolitically to become the sixth-largest built-up area in England
England
with a population of 855,569.[2] This built-up area is part of the metropolitan area known as South Hampshire, which is also known as Solent City, particularly in the media when discussing local governance organisational changes. With a population of over 1.5 million this makes the region one of the United Kingdom's most populous metropolitan areas.[3]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early Southampton 1.2 11th–13th century 1.3 14th century 1.4 15th century 1.5 16th and 17th centuries 1.6 18th century 1.7 19th century 1.8 20th century

2 Governance 3 Geography

3.1 Areas and suburbs 3.2 Climate 3.3 Energy

4 Demographics 5 Economy 6 Culture, media and sport

6.1 Culture

6.1.1 Music

6.2 Media 6.3 Sport

7 Emergency services 8 Crime 9 Education 10 Transport

10.1 Road 10.2 Rail 10.3 Air 10.4 Cruise shipping 10.5 Ferry 10.6 Bus

11 Notable people 12 References 13 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Southampton
History of Southampton
and Timeline of Southampton Early Southampton[edit] Archaeological finds suggest that the area has been inhabited since the stone age.[13] Following the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43 and the conquering of the local Britons in 70 AD the fortress settlement of Clausentum
Clausentum
was established. It was an important trading port and defensive outpost of Winchester, at the site of modern Bitterne
Bitterne
Manor. Clausentum
Clausentum
was defended by a wall and two ditches and is thought to have contained a bath house.[14] Clausentum
Clausentum
was not abandoned until around 410.[13] The Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
formed a new, larger, settlement across the Itchen centred on what is now the St Mary's area of the city. The settlement was known as Hamwic,[13] which evolved into Hamtun and then Hampton.[15] Archaeological excavations of this site have uncovered one of the best collections of Saxon artefacts in Europe.[13] It is from this town that the county of Hampshire
Hampshire
gets its name. Viking raids from 840 onwards contributed to the decline of Hamwic in the 9th century,[16] and by the 10th century a fortified settlement, which became medieval Southampton, had been established.[17] 11th–13th century[edit] Following the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
in 1066, Southampton
Southampton
became the major port of transit between the then capital of England, Winchester, and Normandy. Southampton Castle
Southampton Castle
was built in the 12th century[18] and surviving remains of 12th-century merchants' houses such as King John's House and Canute's Palace are evidence of the wealth that existed in the town at this time.[19] By the 13th century Southampton had become a leading port, particularly involved in the import of French wine[17] in exchange for English cloth and wool.[20] The Franciscan friary in Southampton
Franciscan friary in Southampton
was founded circa 1233.[21] The friars constructed a water supply system in 1290, which carried water from Conduit Head (remnants of which survive near Hill Lane, Shirley) some 1.1 miles (1.7 km) to the site of the friary inside the town walls.[22][verification needed] Further remains can be observed at Conduit House on Commercial Road. 14th century[edit]

Part of Southampton's Town Walls

The friars granted use of the water to the town in 1310.[22] The town was sacked in 1338 by French, Genoese and Monegasque ships (under Charles Grimaldi, who used the plunder to help found the principality of Monaco).[23] On visiting Southampton
Southampton
in 1339, Edward III ordered that walls be built to 'close the town'. The extensive rebuilding—part of the walls dates from 1175—culminated in the completion of the western walls in 1380.[24][25] Roughly half of the walls, 13 of the original towers, and six gates survive.[24] In 1348, the Black Death
Black Death
reached England
England
via merchant vessels calling at Southampton.[26] 15th century[edit] Prior to King Henry's departure for the Battle of Agincourt
Battle of Agincourt
in 1415, the ringleaders of the " Southampton
Southampton
Plot"—Richard, Earl of Cambridge, Henry Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham, and Sir Thomas Grey of Heton—were accused of high treason and tried at what is now the Red Lion public house in the High Street.[27] They were found guilty and summarily executed outside the Bargate.[28] The city walls include God's House Tower, built in 1417, the first purpose-built artillery fortification in England.[29] Over the years it has been used as home to the city's gunner, the Town Gaol and even as storage for the Southampton
Southampton
Harbour Board.[25] Until September 2011, it housed the Museum of Archaeology.[30] The walls were completed in the 15th century,[31] but later development of several new fortifications along Southampton Water
Southampton Water
and the Solent by Henry VIII meant that Southampton
Southampton
was no longer dependent upon its fortifications.[32] During the Middle Ages, shipbuilding had become an important industry for the town. Henry V's famous warship HMS Grace Dieu was built in Southampton
Southampton
and launched in 1418.[18] The friars passed on ownership of the water supply system itself to the town in 1420.[22] On the other hand, many of the medieval buildings once situated within the town walls are now in ruins or have disappeared altogether. From successive incarnations of the motte and bailey castle, only a section of the bailey wall remains today, lying just off Castle Way.[33] 16th and 17th centuries[edit] The friary was dissolved in 1538 but its ruins remained until they were swept away in the 1940s.[21] The port was the point of departure for the Pilgrim Fathers
Pilgrim Fathers
aboard Mayflower
Mayflower
in 1620.[24] In 1642, during the English Civil War, a Parliamentary garrison moved into Southampton.[34] The Royalists advanced as far as Redbridge in March 1644 but were prevented from taking the town.[34] 18th century[edit] Southampton
Southampton
engineer Walter Taylor's 18th century mechanisation of the block-making process was a significant step in the Industrial Revolution.[35] Southampton
Southampton
has been used for military embarkation, including during 18th-century wars with the French,[36] the Crimean war,[37] and the Boer War.[38] Southampton
Southampton
was designated No. 1 Military Embarkation port during the Great War[18] and became a major centre for treating the returning wounded and POWs.[18] It was also central to the preparations for the Invasion of Europe
Invasion of Europe
in 1944.[18] Southampton
Southampton
became a spa town in 1740.[39] It had also become a popular site for sea bathing by the 1760s, despite the lack of a good quality beach.[39] Innovative buildings specifically for this purpose were built at West Quay, with baths that were filled and emptied by the flow of the tide.[39] 19th century[edit] The town experienced major expansion during the Victorian era.[18] The Southampton
Southampton
Docks company had been formed in 1835.[18] In October 1838 the foundation stone of the docks was laid[18] and the first dock opened in 1842.[18] The structural and economic development of docks continued for the next few decades.[18] The railway link to London was fully opened in May 1840.[18] Southampton
Southampton
subsequently became known as The Gateway to the Empire.[40] In his 1854 book "The Cruise of the Steam Yacht North Star" John Choules described Southampton
Southampton
thus: "I hardly know a town that can show a more beautiful Main Street than Southampton, except it be Oxford. The High Street opens from the quay, and under various names it winds in a gently sweeping line for one mile and a half, and is of very handsome width. The variety of style and color of material in the buildings affords an exhibition of outline, light and color, that I think is seldom equalled. The shops are very elegant, and the streets are kept exceedingly clean." 20th century[edit]

The memorial to the engineers of the Titanic

From 1904 to 2004, the Thornycroft shipbuilding yard was a major employer in Southampton,[18] building and repairing ships used in the two World Wars.[18] In 1912, the RMS Titanic sailed from Southampton. Four in five of the crew on board the vessel were Sotonians,[41] with about a third of those who perished in the tragedy hailing from the city.[24] Southampton
Southampton
was subsequently the home port for the transatlantic passenger services operated by Cunard with their Blue Riband
Blue Riband
liner RMS Queen Mary and her running mate RMS Queen Elizabeth. In 1938, Southampton
Southampton
docks also became home to the flying boats of Imperial Airways.[18] Southampton
Southampton
Container Terminals first opened in 1968[18] and has continued to expand. The Supermarine Spitfire
Supermarine Spitfire
was designed and developed in Southampton, evolving from the Schneider trophy-winning seaplanes of the 1920s and 1930s. Its designer, R J Mitchell, lived in the Portswood
Portswood
area of Southampton, and his house is today marked with a blue plaque.[42] Heavy bombing of the Woolston factory in September 1940 destroyed it as well as homes in the vicinity, killing civilians and workers. World War II hit Southampton
Southampton
particularly hard because of its strategic importance as a major commercial port and industrial area. Prior to the Invasion of Europe, components for a Mulberry harbour
Mulberry harbour
were built here.[18] After D-Day, Southampton
Southampton
docks handled military cargo to help keep the Allied forces supplied,[18] making it a key target of Luftwaffe bombing raids until late 1944.[43] Southampton
Southampton
docks was featured in the television show 24: Live Another Day in Day 9: 9:00 p.m. – 10:00 p.m.[44] 630 people lost their lives as a result of the air raids on Southampton
Southampton
and nearly 2,000 more were injured, not to mention the thousands of buildings damaged or destroyed.[45] Pockets of Georgian architecture survived the war, but much of the city was levelled. There has been extensive redevelopment since World War II.[18] Increasing traffic congestion in the 1920s led to partial demolition of medieval walls around the Bargate
Bargate
in 1932 and 1938.[18] However, a large portion of those walls remain. A Royal Charter in 1952[18] upgraded University College at Highfield to the University of Southampton.[18] Southampton
Southampton
acquired city status, becoming the City of Southampton
Southampton
in 1964.[18] Governance[edit]

Southampton
Southampton
Civic Centre

After the establishment of Hampshire
Hampshire
County Council, following the act in 1888, Southampton
Southampton
became a county borough within the county of Hampshire, which meant that it had many features of a county, but governance was now shared between the Corporation in Southampton
Southampton
and the new county council. There is a great source of confusion in the fact that the ancient shire county, along with its associated assizes, was known as the County of Southampton[46] or Southamptonshire.[47] This was officially changed to Hampshire
Hampshire
in 1959 although the county had been commonly known as Hampshire
Hampshire
or Hantscire for centuries. Southampton
Southampton
became a non-metropolitan district in 1974. Southampton
Southampton
as a Port and city has had a long history of administrative independence of the surrounding County; as far back as the reign of King John the town and its port were removed from the writ of the King's Sheriff in Hampshire
Hampshire
and the rights of custom and toll were granted by the King to the burgesses of Southampton
Southampton
over the port of Southampton
Southampton
and the Port of Portsmouth;[48] this tax farm was granted for an annual fee of £200 in the charter dated at Orival on 29 June 1199. The definition of the port of Southampton
Southampton
was apparently broader than today and embraced all of the area between Lymington
Lymington
and Langstone. The corporation had resident representatives in Newport, Lymington
Lymington
and Portsmouth.[49] By a charter of Henry VI, granted on 9 March 1446/7 (25+26 Hen. VI, m. 32), the mayor, bailiffs and burgesses of the towns and ports of Southampton
Southampton
and Portsmouth
Portsmouth
became a County incorporate and separate from Hampshire. The status of the town was changed by a later charter of Charles I by at once the formal separation from Portsmouth
Portsmouth
and the recognition of Southampton
Southampton
as a county, In the charter dated 27 June 1640 the formal title of the town became 'The Town and County of the Town of Southampton'. These charters and Royal Grants, of which there were many, also set out the governance and regulation of the town and port which remained the 'constitution' of the town until the local government organisation of the later Victorian period which from about 1888 saw the setting up of County Councils across England
England
and Wales and including Hampshire
Hampshire
County Council who now took on some of the function of Government in Southampton
Southampton
Town. In this regime, The Town and County of the Town of Southampton
Southampton
became once more a county borough with responsibility for all aspects of local government. On 24 February 1964 the status changed again by a Charter of Elizabeth II, creating the City and County of the City of Southampton.[50] The city has undergone many changes to its governance over the centuries and once again became administratively independent from Hampshire
Hampshire
County as it was made into a unitary authority in a local government reorganisation on 1 April 1997, a result of the 1992 Local Government Act. The district remains part of the Hampshire
Hampshire
ceremonial county. Southampton City Council
Southampton City Council
consists of 48 councillors, 3 for each of the 16 wards. Council elections are held in early May for one third of the seats (one councillor for each ward), elected for a four-year term, so there are elections three years out of four. Since the 2016 council elections, the composition of the council is:

Constituencies[51]

Party Members

Labour 25

Conservative 19

Councillors Against Cuts 3

Independent 1

Total 48[52]

There are three members of parliament for the city: Royston Smith (Conservative) for Southampton
Southampton
Itchen, the constituency covering the east of the city; Dr. Alan Whitehead
Alan Whitehead
(Labour) for Southampton
Southampton
Test, which covers the west of the city; and Caroline Nokes
Caroline Nokes
(Conservative) for Romsey
Romsey
and Southampton
Southampton
North, which includes a northern portion of the city. The city has a Mayor and is one of the 16 cities and towns in England and Wales to have a ceremonial sheriff who acts as a deputy for the Mayor. The current and 795th Mayor of Southampton
Southampton
is Les Harris.[53] Stephen Barnes-Andrews is the current and 580th sherriff.[54] The town crier from 2004 until his death in 2014 was John Melody, who acted as master of ceremonies in the city and who possessed a cry of 104 decibels.[55] Southampton City Council
Southampton City Council
has developed twinning links with Le Havre
Le Havre
in France (since 1973),[56][57][58][59] Rems-Murr-Kreis
Rems-Murr-Kreis
in Germany (since 1991),[58] Trieste
Trieste
in Italy (since 2002); Hampton, Virginia
Hampton, Virginia
in USA,[60][61][62] Qingdao
Qingdao
in China (since 1998),[58] and Busan
Busan
in South Korea (since 1978).[63] Geography[edit] The geography of Southampton
Southampton
is influenced by the sea and rivers. The city lies at the northern tip of the Southampton
Southampton
Water, a deep water estuary, which is a ria formed at the end of the last Ice Age. Here, the rivers Test and Itchen converge.[64] The Test—which has salt marsh that makes it ideal for salmon fishing[65]—runs along the western edge of the city, while the Itchen splits Southampton
Southampton
in two—east and west. The city centre is located between the two rivers. Town Quay
Town Quay
is the original public quay, and dates from the 13th century. Today's Eastern Docks were created in the 1830s by land reclamation of the mud flats between the Itchen & Test estuaries. The Western Docks date from the 1930s when the Southern Railway Company commissioned a major land reclamation and dredging programme.[66] Most of the material used for reclamation came from dredging of Southampton
Southampton
Water,[67] to ensure that the port can continue to handle large ships. Southampton Water
Southampton Water
has the benefit of a double high tide, with two high tide peaks,[68] making the movement of large ships easier.[69] This is not caused as popularly supposed by the presence of the Isle of Wight, but is a function of the shape and depth of the English Channel. In this area the general water flow is distorted by more local conditions reaching across to France.[70] The city lies in the Hampshire
Hampshire
Basin, which sits atop chalk beds.[64] The River Test
River Test
runs along the western border of the city, separating it from the New Forest. There are bridges over the Test from Southampton, including the road and rail bridges at Redbridge in the south and the M27 motorway
M27 motorway
to the north. The River Itchen runs through the middle of the city and is bridged in several places. The northernmost bridge, and the first to be built,[71] is at Mansbridge, where the A27 road
A27 road
crosses the Itchen. The original bridge is closed to road traffic, but is still standing and open to pedestrians and cyclists. The river is bridged again at Swaythling, where Woodmill Bridge separates the tidal and non tidal sections of the river. Further south is Cobden Bridge
Cobden Bridge
which is notable as it was opened as a free bridge (it was originally named the Cobden Free Bridge), and was never a toll bridge. Downstream of the Cobden Bridge
Cobden Bridge
is the Northam Railway Bridge, then the Northam Road Bridge, which was the first major pre-stressed concrete bridge to be constructed in the United Kingdom.[72] The southernmost, and newest, bridge on the Itchen is the Itchen Bridge, which is a toll bridge. Areas and suburbs[edit]

City Centre

Bassett

Bassett Green

Bevois
Bevois
Valley

Bitterne

Bitterne
Bitterne
Park

Bitterne
Bitterne
Manor

Freemantle

Harefield

Highfield

Lordshill

Lordswood

Mansbridge

Maybush

Midanbury

Millbrook

Nicholstown

Northam

Ocean Village

Peartree Green

Polygon

Portswood

Redbridge

Regents Park

Shirley

St Denys

St Mary's

Sholing

Swaythling

Thornhill

Townhill Park

Woolston

Weston

Suburbs of Southampton
Southampton
within the city boundary

See also: Category:Areas of Southampton Southampton
Southampton
is divided into council wards, suburbs, constituencies, ecclesiastical parishes, and other less formal areas. It has a number of parks and green spaces, the largest being the 148-hectare Southampton
Southampton
Common,[73] parts of which are used to host the annual summer festivals, circuses and fun fairs. The Common includes Hawthorns Urban Wildlife Centre[74] on the former site of Southampton Zoo, a paddling pool and several lakes and ponds. Council estates are in the Weston, Thornhill and Townhill Park districts. The city is ranked 96th most deprived out of all 354 Local Authorities in England.[75] In 2006/07, 1,267 residential dwellings were built in the city—the highest number for 15 years. Over 94 per cent of these properties were flats.[76] There are 16 Electoral Wards in Southampton, each consisting of longer-established neighbourhoods (see below). Settlements outside the city are sometimes considered suburbs of Southampton, including Chartwell Green, Chilworth, Nursling, Rownhams, Totton, Eastleigh
Eastleigh
and West End. The villages of Marchwood, Ashurst and Hedge End
Hedge End
may be considered exurbs of Southampton. Climate[edit] As with the rest of the UK, Southampton
Southampton
experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb). Its southerly, low-lying and sheltered location ensures it is among the warmer, sunnier cities in the UK. It has held the record for the highest temperature in the UK for June at 35.6 °C (96.1 °F) since 1976.[77][78]

Climate data for Southampton, elevation 3 metres (9.8 feet), 1981–2010

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 8.4 (47.1) 8.6 (47.5) 11.1 (52) 14.0 (57.2) 17.5 (63.5) 20.2 (68.4) 22.4 (72.3) 22.3 (72.1) 19.8 (67.6) 15.6 (60.1) 11.7 (53.1) 8.9 (48) 15.1 (59.2)

Average low °C (°F) 2.9 (37.2) 2.6 (36.7) 4.1 (39.4) 5.7 (42.3) 9.0 (48.2) 11.7 (53.1) 13.7 (56.7) 13.7 (56.7) 11.4 (52.5) 8.9 (48) 5.4 (41.7) 3.2 (37.8) 7.7 (45.9)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 81.4 (3.205) 58.3 (2.295) 60.0 (2.362) 50.7 (1.996) 49.0 (1.929) 50.4 (1.984) 42.0 (1.654) 50.4 (1.984) 60.4 (2.378) 93.8 (3.693) 94.0 (3.701) 89.2 (3.512) 779.4 (30.685)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12.2 9.2 10.1 8.8 8.2 7.7 7.4 7.7 8.7 11.5 11.5 11.8 114.7

Mean monthly sunshine hours 63.3 84.4 118.3 179.8 212.1 211.2 221.8 207.7 148.1 113.0 76.6 52.9 1,689.3

Source #1: Met Office
Met Office
(normals)[79]

Source #2: Calculated from Met Office
Met Office
Data[80]

Average sea temperature[81]

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

9.5 °C (49.1 °F) 9.0 °C (48.2 °F) 8.6 °C (47.5 °F) 9.8 °C (49.6 °F) 11.4 °C (52.5 °F) 13.5 °C (56.3 °F) 15.3 °C (59.5 °F) 16.8 °C (62.2 °F) 17.3 °C (63.1 °F) 16.2 °C (61.2 °F) 14.4 °C (57.9 °F) 11.8 °C (53.2 °F) 12.8 °C (55.0 °F)

Energy[edit]

Southampton's geothermal power station

The centre of Southampton
Southampton
is located above a large hot water aquifer that provides geothermal power to some of the city's buildings. This energy is processed at a plant in the West Quay region in Southampton city centre, the only geothermal power station in the UK. The plant provides private electricity for the Port of Southampton
Port of Southampton
and hot water to the Southampton District Energy Scheme
Southampton District Energy Scheme
used by many buildings including the Westquay
Westquay
shopping centre. In a 2006 survey of carbon emissions in major UK cities conducted by British Gas, Southampton
Southampton
was ranked as being one of the lowest carbon-emitting cities in the United Kingdom.[82] Demographics[edit] At the 2001 Census, 92.4 per cent of the city's populace were white—including one per cent white Irish—3.8 per cent were South Asian, 1.0 per cent black, 1.3 per cent Chinese or other ethnic groups, and 1.5 per cent were of mixed race.[83] Southampton
Southampton
had an estimated 236,900 people living within the city boundary in 2011.[84] There is a sizeable Polish population in the city, with estimates as high as 20,000.[85] There are 119,500 males within the city and 117,400 females.[84] The 20–24 age range is the most populous, with an estimated 32,300 people falling in this age range. Next largest is the 25–29 range with 24,700 people and then 30–34 years with 17,800.[84] By population, Southampton
Southampton
is the largest monocentric city in the South East England
England
region and the second-largest on the South Coast after Plymouth. Between 1996 and 2004, the population of the city increased by 4.9 per cent—the tenth-biggest increase in England.[86] In 2005 the Government Statistics stated that Southampton
Southampton
was the third most densely populated city in the country after London and Portsmouth, respectively.[87] Hampshire
Hampshire
County Council expects the city's population to grow by around a further two per cent between 2006 and 2013, adding around another 4,200 to the total number of residents.[88] The highest increases are expected among the elderly.[88] Economy[edit] In March 2007 there were 120,305 jobs in Southampton, and 3,570 people claiming job seeker's allowance, approximately 2.4 per cent of the city's population.[89] This compares with an average of 2.5 per cent for England
England
as a whole. In June 2006, 74.7 per cent of the city's population were classed as economically active.[89] Just over a quarter of the jobs available in the city are in the health and education sector. A further 19 per cent are property and other business and the third-largest sector is wholesale and retail, which accounts for 16.2 percent.[89] Between 1995 and 2004, the number of jobs in Southampton
Southampton
has increased by 18.5 per cent.[86] In January 2007, the average annual salary in the city was £22,267. This was £1,700 lower than the national average and £3,800 less than the average for the South East.[90]

Carnival House, Southampton, England. Corporate headquarters of Carnival UK

Southampton
Southampton
has always been a port, and the docks have long been a major employer in the city. In particular, it is a port for cruise ships; its heyday was the first half of the 20th century, and in particular the inter-war years, when it handled almost half the passenger traffic of the UK. Today it remains home to luxury cruise ships, as well as being the largest freight port on the Channel coast and fourth-largest UK port by tonnage,[91] with several container terminals. Unlike some other ports, such as Liverpool, London, and Bristol, where industry and docks have largely moved out of the city centres leaving room for redevelopment, Southampton
Southampton
retains much of its inner-city industry. Despite the still-active and expanding docklands to the west of the city centre, further enhanced with the opening of a fourth cruise terminal in 2009, parts of the eastern docks have been redeveloped; the Ocean Village development, which included a local marina and small entertainment complex, is a good example. Southampton
Southampton
is home to the headquarters of both the Maritime and Coastguard Agency and the Marine Accident Investigation Branch of the Department for Transport in addition to cruise operator Carnival UK.[92][93] During the latter half of the 20th century, a more diverse range of industry also came to the city, including aircraft and car manufacture, cables, electrical engineering products, and petrochemicals. These now exist alongside the city's older industries of the docks, grain milling and tobacco processing.[8] University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust is one of the city's largest employers. It provides local hospital services to 500,000 people in the Southampton
Southampton
area and specialist regional services to more than 3 million people across the South of England. The Trust owns and manages Southampton
Southampton
General Hospital, the Princess Anne Hospital and a palliative care service at Countess Mountbatten House, part of the Moorgreen Hospital
Moorgreen Hospital
site in the village of West End, just outside the city. Other major employers in the city include Ordnance Survey, the UK's national mapping agency, whose headquarters is located in a new building on the outskirts of the city, opened in February 2011.[94] The Lloyd's Register
Lloyd's Register
Group has announced plans to move its London marine operations to a specially developed site at the University of Southampton.[95]

Westquay
Westquay
Shopping Centre

Southampton's largest retail centre, and 35th-largest in the UK, is the Westquay
Westquay
Shopping Centre, which opened in September 2000 and hosts major high street stores including John Lewis and Marks and Spencer. The centre was Phase Two of the West Quay development of the former Pirelli
Pirelli
undersea cables factory; the first phase of this was the West Quay Retail Park, while the third phase (Watermark WestQuay) was put on hold due to the recession. Work resumed in 2015, with plans for this third stage including shops, housing, an hotel and a public piazza alongside the Town Walls on Western Esplanade.[96] Southampton has also been granted a licence for a large casino.[97] A further part of the redevelopment of the West Quay site resulted in a new store, opened on 12 February 2009, for Swedish home products retailer IKEA.[98] Marlands is a smaller shopping centre, built in the 1990s on the site of the former bus station and located close to the northern side of Westquay. In October 2014, the city council approved a follow-up from the Westquay
Westquay
park, WestQuay Watermark. Construction by Sir Robert McAlpine
Sir Robert McAlpine
commenced in January 2015.[99] Its owners, Hammerson, aim to have at least 1,550 people employed on site at year-end 2016.[100] Opened in 2016–2017, it has been renamed Westquay
Westquay
South. Southampton
Southampton
had two disused shopping centres: the 1970s Eaststreet mall, and the 1980s Bargate
Bargate
centre. Neither of these were ever commercially successful. The former was demolished and the site earmarked for redevelopment as a Morrison's supermarket. It was announced in January 2017 that the Bargate
Bargate
Centre is also scheduled for demolition, to be replaced by retail premises, student accommodation and apartments. Included are also proposals to open access to a section of the medieval city wall in that area.[101] There is also the East Street area which has been designated for speciality shopping, with the aim of promoting smaller retailers, alongside the chain store Debenhams. In 2007, Southampton
Southampton
was ranked 13th for shopping in the UK.[102] Southampton's strong economy is promoting redevelopment, and major projects are proposed, including the city's first skyscrapers on the waterfront. The three towers proposed will stand 23 storeys high and will be surrounded by smaller apartment blocks, office blocks and shops. There are also plans for a 15-storey hotel at the Ocean Village marina,[103] and a 21-storey hotel on the north eastern corner of the city centre, as part of a £100 m development.[104] According to 2004 figures, Southampton
Southampton
contributes around £4.2 bn to the regional economy annually. The vast majority of this is from the service sector, with the remainder coming from industry in the city. This figure has almost doubled since 1995.[105] Culture, media and sport[edit] Culture[edit]

Tudor House, City Centre

SeaCity Museum, Civic Centre

The city is home to the longest surviving stretch of medieval walls in England,[106] as well as a number of museums such as Tudor House Museum, reopened on 30 July 2011 after undergoing extensive restoration and improvement; Southampton
Southampton
Maritime Museum;[107] God's House Tower, an archaeology museum about the city's heritage and located in one of the tower walls; the Medieval Merchant's House; and Solent Sky, which focuses on aviation.[108] The SeaCity Museum
SeaCity Museum
is located in the west wing of the civic centre, formerly occupied by Hampshire
Hampshire
Constabulary and the Magistrates' Court, and focuses on Southampton's trading history and on the RMS Titanic. The museum received half a million pounds from the National Lottery in addition to interest from numerous private investors and is budgeted at £28 million. The annual Southampton Boat Show
Southampton Boat Show
is held in September each year, with over 600 exhibitors present.[109] It runs for just over a week at Mayflower
Mayflower
Park on the city's waterfront, where it has been held since 1968.[110] The Boat Show itself is the climax of Sea City, which runs from April to September each year to celebrate Southampton's links with the sea.[111] The largest theatre in the city is the 2,300-capacity Mayflower Theatre (formerly known as the Gaumont), which, as the largest theatre in Southern England
England
outside London, has hosted West End shows such as Les Misérables, The Rocky Horror Show
The Rocky Horror Show
and Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, as well as regular visits from Welsh National Opera
Welsh National Opera
and English National Ballet. There is also the Nuffield Theatre[112] based at the University of Southampton's Highfield campus, which is the city's primary producing theatre. It was awarded The Stage Award for Best Regional Theatre in 2015.[113] It also hosts touring companies and local performing societies (such as Southampton
Southampton
Operatic Society, the Maskers and the University Players). There are many innovative art galleries in the city. The Southampton City Art Gallery at the Civic Centre is one of the best known and as well as a nationally important Designated Collection, houses several permanent and travelling exhibitions. The Solent Showcase at Southampton
Southampton
Solent University, the John Hansard Gallery at Southampton University as well as smaller galleries including the Art House[114] in Above Bar Street provide a different view.[115] The city's Bargate is also an art gallery run by the arts organisation "a space". A space also run the Art Vaults project, which creatively uses several of Southampton's medieval vaults, halls and cellars as venues for contemporary art installations. In August 2009, work began on a significant project to create a Cultural Quarter in the city centre, on land adjacent to the Guildhall.[116] Music[edit]

The Mayflower
Mayflower
Theatre

Southampton
Southampton
has two large live music venues, the Mayflower
Mayflower
Theatre (formerly the Gaumont Theatre) and the Guildhall. The Guildhall has seen concerts from a wide range of popular artists including Pink Floyd,[117] David Bowie,[117] Delirious?,[118] Manic Street Preachers,[117] The Killers,[117] The Kaiser Chiefs,[117] Amy Winehouse, Lostprophets, The Midnight Beast, Modestep
Modestep
and All Time Low.[117] It also hosts classical concerts presented by the Bournemouth
Bournemouth
Symphony Orchestra,[119] City of Southampton Orchestra,[120] Southampton
Southampton
Concert Orchestra,[121] Southampton Philharmonic Choir[122] and Southampton
Southampton
Choral Society.[123] The city also has several smaller music venues, including the Brook,[124] The Talking Heads,[125] The Soul Cellar,[126] The Joiners[127] and Turner Sims,[128] as well as smaller "club circuit" venues like Hampton's and Lennon's, and a number of public houses including the Platform tavern, the Dolphin, the Blue Keys and many others. The Joiners has played host to such acts as Oasis, Radiohead, Green Day, Suede, PJ Harvey, the Manic Street Preachers, Coldplay, the Verve, the Libertines and Franz Ferdinand, while Hampton's and Lennon's have hosted early appearances by Kate Nash, Scouting for Girls and Band of Skulls. The nightclub, Junk, has been nominated for the UK's best small nightclub, and plays host to a range of dance music's top acts. The city is home or birthplace to a number of contemporary musicians such as R'n'B singer Craig David, Coldplay
Coldplay
drummer Will Champion, former Holloways singer Rob Skipper, 1980s popstar Howard Jones as well as Grammy Award-winning popstar Foxes. Several rock and metal bands were formed in Southampton, including Band of Skulls, The Delays, Bury Tomorrow, Heart in Hand, Thomas Tantrum
Thomas Tantrum
(disbanded in 2011), Kids Can't Fly
Kids Can't Fly
(disbanded in 2014), and Creeper. Media[edit] Local media include the Southern Daily Echo
Southern Daily Echo
newspaper based in Redbridge and BBC South, which has its regional headquarters in the city centre opposite the civic centre. From there the BBC broadcasts South Today, the local television news bulletin and BBC Radio Solent. The local ITV franchise is Meridian, which has its headquarters in Whiteley, around nine miles (14 kilometres) from the city. Until December 2004, the station's studios were located in the Northam area of the city on land reclaimed from the River Itchen. That's Solent
That's Solent
is a local television channel that began broadcasting in November 2014, which will be based in and serve Southampton
Southampton
and Portsmouth. Southampton
Southampton
also has 4 community FM radio stations, the Queens Award-winning Unity 101 Community Radio (www.unity101.org) broadcasting full-time on 101.1 FM since 2006 to the Asian and ethnic communities, and Voice FM (http://www.voicefmradio.co.uk) located in St Mary's, which has been broadcasting full-time on 103.9 FM since September 2011, playing a wide range of music from Rock to Dance music and Top 40. A third station, Awaaz FM (www.awaazfm.co.uk), broadcasts on DAB digital to South Hampshire
Hampshire
and will begin broadcasting on the FM dial (99.8 FM) to Southampton
Southampton
in 2018. It caters for the Asian and ethnic community. The fourth community station is Fiesta FM. This station is due to go On Air by mid 2018 on 95 FM As of November 2017, the most popular commercial radio station is the adult contemporary regional radio station Wave 105 (11.6% listening share in its total survey area[129]) followed by the hit music station Capital South Coast
Capital South Coast
(7%) a networked station from London with local breakfast and drive shows. Other stations include Heart Hampshire
Hampshire
and The Breeze (2.2%), and 106 Sam FM (2.7%) (http://www.samfm.co.uk/southcoast/). In addition, Southampton University has a radio station called SURGE, broadcasting on AM band as well as through the web. Sport[edit]

St. Mary's Stadium

Southampton
Southampton
is home to Southampton
Southampton
Football Club—nicknamed "The Saints"—the club plays in the Premier League
Premier League
at St Mary's Stadium, having relocated in 2001 from their 103-year-old former stadium, "The Dell". They reached the top flight of English football (First Division) for the first time in 1966, staying there for eight years. They lifted the FA Cup
FA Cup
with a shock victory over Manchester
Manchester
United in 1976, returned to the top flight two years later, and stayed there for 27 years (becoming founder members of the Premier League
Premier League
in 1992) before they were relegated in 2005. The club was promoted back to the Premier League
Premier League
in 2012 following a brief spell in the third tier and severe financial difficulties. In 2015, "The Saints" finished 7th in the Premier League, their highest league finish in 30 years, after a remarkable season under new manager Ronald Koeman. Their highest league position came in 1984 when they were runners-up in the old First Division. They were also runners-up in the 1979 Football League Cup final and 2003 FA Cup
FA Cup
final. Notable former managers include Ted Bates, Lawrie McMenemy, Chris Nicholl, Ian Branfoot and Gordon Strachan. There is a strong rivalry between Portsmouth
Portsmouth
F.C. ("South Coast derby") which is located only about 20 miles (30 km) away. The two local Sunday Leagues in the Southampton
Southampton
area are the City of Southampton
Southampton
Sunday Football League and the Southampton
Southampton
and District Sunday Football League. Hampshire
Hampshire
County Cricket Club play close to the city, at the Rose Bowl in West End, after previously playing at the County Cricket Ground and the Antelope Ground, both near the city centre. There is also the Southampton
Southampton
Evening Cricket League. The city hockey club, Southampton
Southampton
Hockey Club, founded in 1938, is now one of the largest and highly regarded clubs in Hampshire, fielding 7 senior men's and 5 senior ladies' teams on a weekly basis along with boys' and girls' teams from 6 upwards. The city is also well provided for in amateur men's and women's rugby with a number of teams in and around the city, the oldest of which is Trojans RFC who were promoted to London South West 2 division in 2008/9. A notable former player is Anthony Allen, who played with Leicester
Leicester
Tigers as a centre. Tottonians are also in London South West division 2 and Southampton
Southampton
RFC are in Hampshire
Hampshire
division 1 in 2009/10, alongside Millbrook RFC and Eastleigh
Eastleigh
RFC. Many of the sides run mini and midi teams from under sevens up to under sixteens for both boys and girls. The city provides for yachting and water sports, with a number of marinas. From 1977 to 2001 the Whitbread Around the World Yacht Race, which is now known as the Volvo Ocean Race
Volvo Ocean Race
was based in Southampton's Ocean Village marina.

The Rose Bowl hosting a Twenty20 International

The city also has the Southampton
Southampton
Sports Centre which is the focal point for the public's sporting and outdoor activities and includes an Alpine Centre, theme park and athletics centre which is used by professional athletes. With the addition of 11 other additional leisure ventures which are currently operate by the Council leisure executives. However these have been sold the operating rights to "Park Wood Leisure."[130] Southampton
Southampton
was named "fittest city in the UK" in 2006 by Men's Fitness magazine. The results were based on the incidence of heart disease, the amount of junk food and alcohol consumed, and the level of gym membership.[131] In 2007, it had slipped one place behind London, but was still ranked first when it came to the parks and green spaces available for exercise and the amount of television watched by Sotonians was the lowest in the country. Thousands enter and run the Southampton
Southampton
Marathon in April every year. [132] Speedway and racing took place at Banister Court Stadium in the pre-war era. It returned in the 1940s after WW2 and the Saints operated until the stadium closed down at the end of 1963. A training track operated in the 1950s in the Hamble area. Greyhound racing was also held at the stadium from 1928 to 1963. Southampton
Southampton
is also home to one of the most successful college American football
American football
teams in the UK, the Southampton
Southampton
Stags, who play at the Wide Lane Sports Facility in Eastleigh. The world's oldest surviving bowling green is the Southampton
Southampton
Old Bowling Green, which was first used in 1299.[133] Emergency services[edit]

Southampton
Southampton
Central Police Station

Southampton's police service is provided by Hampshire
Hampshire
Constabulary. The main base of the Southampton
Southampton
operation is a new, eight-storey purpose-built building which cost £30 million to construct. The building, located on Southern Road, opened in 2011 and is near to Southampton
Southampton
Central railway station.[134] Previously, the central Southampton
Southampton
operation was located within the west wing of the Civic Centre; however, the ageing facilities and the plans of constructing a new museum in the old police station and magistrates court necessitated the move. There are additional police stations at Portswood, Banister Park and Shirley as well as a British Transport Police station at Southampton
Southampton
Central railway station. Southampton's fire cover is provided by Hampshire
Hampshire
Fire and Rescue Service. There are three fire stations within the city boundaries at St Mary's, Hightown and Redbridge. The ambulance service is provided by South Central Ambulance Service. The national headquarters of the Maritime and Coastguard Agency
Maritime and Coastguard Agency
is located in Commercial Road. Crime[edit] According to Hampshire
Hampshire
Constabulary figures, Southampton
Southampton
is currently safer than it has ever been before, with dramatic reductions in violent crime year on year for the last three years. Data from the Southampton
Southampton
Safer City Partnership shows there has been a reduction in all crimes in recent years and an increase in crime detection rates.[135] According to government figures Southampton
Southampton
has a higher crime rate than the national average.[136] There is some controversy regarding comparative crime statistics due to inconsistencies between different police forces recording methodologies. For example, in Hampshire
Hampshire
all reported incidents are recorded and all records then retained. However, in neighbouring Dorset crimes reports withdrawn or shown to be false are not recorded, reducing apparent crime figures.[137] In the violence against the person category, the national average is 16.7 per 1,000 population while Southampton
Southampton
is 42.4 per 1,000 population. In the theft-from-a-vehicle category, the national average is 7.6 per 1,000 compared to Southampton's 28.4 per 1,000. Overall, for every 1,000 people in the city, 202 crimes are recorded.[136] Hampshire
Hampshire
Constabulary's figures for 2009/10 show fewer incidents of recorded crime in Southampton
Southampton
than the previous year.[138] Education[edit] See also: List of schools in Southampton

The National Oceanography
Oceanography
Centre, Southampton

The George Thomas building at the University of Southampton

The city has a strong higher education sector. The University of Southampton
Southampton
and Southampton Solent University
Southampton Solent University
together have a student population of over 40,000. The University of Southampton, which was founded in 1862 and received its Royal Charter as a university in 1952, has over 22,000 students.[139] The university is ranked in the top 100 research universities in the world in the Academic Ranking of World Universities 2010. In 2010, the THES - QS World University Rankings positioned the University of Southampton
University of Southampton
in the top 80 universities in the world. The university considers itself one of the top 5 research universities in the UK.[139][140][141] The university has a global reputation for research into engineering sciences,[142] oceanography, chemistry, cancer sciences, sound and vibration research,[143] computer science and electronics and optoelectronics. It is also home to the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton
National Oceanography Centre, Southampton
(NOCS), the focus of Natural Environment Research Council-funded marine research. Southampton Solent University
Southampton Solent University
has 17,000[144] students and its strengths are in the training, design, consultancy, research and other services undertaken for business and industry.[145] It is also host to the Warsash Maritime Academy, which provides training and certification for the international shipping and off-shore oil industries. In addition to state school sixth forms at St Anne's and Bitterne
Bitterne
Park School and an independent sixth form at King Edward's, there are two sixth-form colleges: Itchen College
Itchen College
and Richard Taunton Sixth Form College, and a further education college, Southampton
Southampton
City College. A number of Southampton
Southampton
pupils travel outside the city, for example to Barton Peveril College.[citation needed] There are 79 state-run schools in Southampton, comprising:

1 nursery school (The Hardmoor Early Years Centre in Bassett Green) 21 infant schools (ages 4 – 7) 16 junior schools (ages 7 – 11) 24 primary schools (ages 4 – 11) 8 secondary schools (ages 11 – 16) 2 secondary schools with sixth forms (ages 11–18) 2 academies ( Oasis Academy Mayfield
Oasis Academy Mayfield
and Oasis Academy Lord's Hill) 5 special schools[146]

There are also independent schools, including The Gregg School, King Edward VI School and St Mary's Independent School. Transport[edit]

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Main article: History of Southampton
History of Southampton
§ Transport History Road[edit] Southampton
Southampton
is a major UK port which has good transport links with the rest of the country. The M27 motorway, linking places along the south coast of England, runs just to the north of the city. The M3 motorway links the city to London and also, via a link to the A34 (part of the European route E05) at Winchester, with the Midlands and North. The M271 motorway
M271 motorway
is a spur of the M27, linking it with the Western Docks and city centre. Rail[edit]

Southampton
Southampton
Central railway station

Southampton
Southampton
is also served by the rail network, which is used both by freight services to and from the docks and passenger services as part of the national rail system. The main station in the city is Southampton
Southampton
Central. Rail routes run east towards Portsmouth, north to Winchester, the Midlands and London, and westwards to Bournemouth, Poole, Dorchester, Weymouth, Salisbury, Bristol
Bristol
and Cardiff. The route to London was opened in 1840 by what was to become the London and South Western Railway Company. Both this and its successor, Southern Railway, played a significant role in the creation of the modern port following their purchase and development of the town's docks. Local train services operate in the city and are operated by South Western Railway, with stations at Swaythling, St Denys, Millbrook, Redbridge, Bitterne, Sholing
Sholing
and Woolston. Plans were announced by Hampshire
Hampshire
County Council in July 2009 for the introduction of tram-train running from Hythe (on what is now a freight-only line to Fawley) via Totton
Totton
to Southampton
Southampton
Central Station and on to Fareham via St. Denys, and Swanwick.[147] The proposal follows a failed plan to bring light rail to the Portsmouth
Portsmouth
and Gosport
Gosport
areas in 2005. The town was the subject of an attempt by a separate company, the Didcot, Newbury and Southampton
Southampton
Railway, to open another rail route to the North in the 1880s and some building work, including a surviving embankment, was undertaken in the Hill Lane area.[148] Air[edit] Southampton Airport
Southampton Airport
is a regional airport located in the town of Eastleigh, just north of the city. It offers flights to UK and near European destinations, and is connected to the city by a frequent rail service from Southampton Airport
Southampton Airport
Parkway railway station, and by bus services. Cruise shipping[edit]

RMS Queen Mary 2 in the Southampton
Southampton
Dock

Southampton's tradition of luxury cruising began in the 1840s, one of the pioneers being P&O who advertised tours to Egypt.[149] Many of the world's largest cruise ships can regularly be seen in Southampton
Southampton
water, including record-breaking vessels from Royal Caribbean and Carnival Corporation & plc. The latter has headquarters in Southampton, with its brands including Princess Cruises, P&O Cruises and Cunard Line. The city has a particular connection to Cunard Line
Cunard Line
and their fleet of ships. This was particularly evident on 11 November 2008 when the Cunard liner RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 departed the city for the final time amid a spectacular fireworks display after a full day of celebrations.[150] Cunard ships are regularly launched in the city, for example Queen Victoria was named by HRH The Duchess of Cornwall
Cornwall
in December 2007, and the Queen named Queen Elizabeth in the city during October 2011. The Duchess of Cambridge
Duchess of Cambridge
performed the naming ceremony of Royal Princess on 13 June 2013. At certain times of the year, the Queen Mary 2, Queen Elizabeth and Queen Victoria may all visit Southampton
Southampton
at the same time, in an event commonly called 'Arrival of the Three Queens'. The importance of Southampton
Southampton
to the cruise industry was indicated by P&O Cruises' 175th-anniversary celebrations, which included all seven of the company's liners visiting Southampton
Southampton
in a single day. Adonia, Arcadia, Aurora, Azura, Oceana, Oriana and Ventura all left the city in a procession on 3 July 2012.[151] Ferry[edit] While Southampton
Southampton
is no longer the base for any cross-channel ferries, it is the terminus for three internal ferry services, all of which operate from terminals at Town Quay. Two of these, a car ferry service and a fast catamaran passenger ferry service, provide links to East Cowes
Cowes
and Cowes, respectively, on the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
and are operated by Red Funnel. The third ferry is the Hythe Ferry, providing a passenger service to Hythe on the other side of Southampton
Southampton
Water. Southampton
Southampton
used to be home to a number of ferry services to the continent, with destinations such as San Sebastian, Lisbon, Tangier and Casablanca. A ferry port was built during the 1960s.[152] However, a number of these relocated to Portsmouth
Portsmouth
and by 1996, there were no longer any car ferries operating from Southampton
Southampton
with the exception of services to the Isle of Wight. The land used for Southampton
Southampton
Ferry Port was sold off and a retail and housing development was built on the site. The Princess Alexandra Dock was converted into a marina. Reception areas for new cars now fill the Eastern Docks where passengers, dry docks and trains used to be. Bus[edit] Buses now provide the majority of local public transport. The main bus operators are First Southampton, Bluestar, Xelabus
Xelabus
and Wheelers. The other large service provider is the Unilink
Unilink
bus service (running from early in the morning to midnight), which was commissioned by the University of Southampton
University of Southampton
to provide transport from the university to the town. Previously run by Enterprise, it is now run by Bluestar. Free buses were provided by City-link',[153] but the subsidy provided by Southampton City Council
Southampton City Council
was pulled in 2014 and the service now charges passengers £1 flat-rate single fare, with Red Funnel
Red Funnel
ticket holders continuing to travel free.[154] The service was rebranded as QuayConnect in May 2016, with a red and white livery on the bus instead of blue. It runs from the Red Funnel
Red Funnel
ferry terminals at Town Quay to Central station via Westquay
Westquay
and is operated by Bluestar.[155] There is also a door-to-door minibus service called Southampton
Southampton
Dial a Ride, for residents who cannot access public transport. This is funded by the council and operated by SCA Support Services. There are two main termini for bus services. First uses stops around Pound Tree Road and Vincent's Walk, except the X4 to Portsmouth
Portsmouth
and X5 to Gosport, which start and end their journeys from Westquay. This leaves the other terminal of West Quay available for other operators. Unilink
Unilink
passes West Quay in both directions, and the Salisbury
Salisbury
Reds X7 service to Salisbury
Salisbury
drops passengers off and pick them up there, terminating at a series of bus stands along the road. Certain Bluestar services also do this, while others stop at Bargate
Bargate
and some loop round West Quay, stopping at Hanover Buildings. There was a tram system from 1879 to 1949. Notable people[edit] See also: Category:People from Southampton

Craig David
Craig David
was brought up on the Holyrood estate in the city centre

People hailing from Southampton
Southampton
are called Sotonians.[9] The city has produced a large number of musicians throughout its history, ranging from hymn writer Isaac Watts, who was born in Southampton
Southampton
in 1674[156] and whose composition O God, Our Help in Ages Past is played by the bells of Southampton
Southampton
Civic Centre,[157] to more recent musical acts such as singer Craig David, who grew up on the Holyrood estate,[158] Coldplay
Coldplay
drummer Will Champion[159] and solo popstar Foxes. Television personalities from Southampton
Southampton
include comedian Benny Hill[160] and naturalist Chris Packham,[161] and in recent years the city has also produced a number of competitive reality television winners such as Matt Cardle
Matt Cardle
(The X Factor, 2010)[162] and Shelina Permalloo (MasterChef, 2012), who operates a Mauritian restaurant named Lakaz Maman in Bedford Place.[163] Radio personality Scott Mills was also born in Southampton.[164] Novelist Jane Austen
Jane Austen
lived in Southampton
Southampton
for a number of years[165] and the city has also been home to a number of artists, including Edward John Gregory,[166] Hubert von Herkomer[167] and John Everett Millais.[168] Sportspeople born in Southampton
Southampton
include rugby union player Mike Brown[169] and Australian tennis player Wally Masur.[170] Being a port city, Southampton
Southampton
has been home to a number of seafarers including Charles Fryatt, who rammed a German U-boat with his civilian ship during World War I;[171] John Jellicoe, who served as Admiral of the Fleet during the same war and later became Governor-General of New Zealand;[172] and the last survivor of the RMS Titanic, Millvina Dean.[173] Richard Aslatt Pearce, the first deaf-mute Anglican clergyman, was born in Portswood, Southampton.[174] References[edit]

^ a b "City statistics and research". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 16 November 2013.  ^ a b "2011 Census – Built-up areas". ONS. Retrieved 20 July 2013.  ^ a b "British urban pattern: population data" (PDF). ESPON project 1.4.3 Study on Urban Functions. European Union – European Spatial Planning Observation Network. March 2007. pp. 120–121. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2011.  ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "Lead View Table". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2009.  ^ a b "Global city GDP 2014". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2014.  ^ https://distancecalculator.globefeed.com/UK_Distance_Result.asp?fromplace=London%2C%20UK&toplace=Southampton%2C%20UK&dt1=ChIJdd4hrwug2EcRmSrV3Vo6llI&dt2=ChIJCSkVvleJc0gR8HHaTGpajKc ^ https://distancecalculator.globefeed.com/UK_Distance_Result.asp?fromplace=Southampton%2C%20UK&toplace=Portsmouth%2C%20UK&dt1=ChIJCSkVvleJc0gR8HHaTGpajKc&dt2=ChIJ6fEUGKRCdEgReTs3A-qDtkU ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica. "Southampton". Retrieved 27 September 2017.  ^ a b Visit Southampton. "Famous Sotonians". Archived from the original on 2 April 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.  ^ Southampton
Southampton
City Council. "Southampton's Titanic Story". Retrieved 27 September 2017.  ^ Solent Sky
Solent Sky
Museum. http://www.solentskymuseum.org. Retrieved 27 September 2017.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ BBC Online (8 June 2007). "Solent Ship Spotting". Retrieved 19 October 2009.  ^ a b c d Southampton
Southampton
Museum of Archeology. God's House Tower, Southampton. ^ Southampton
Southampton
Through the Ages: A Short History by Elsie M. Sandell (revised 1980) ^ British Archaeology Magazine (August 2002). "Great Sites: Hamwic". Archived from the original on 22 July 2009. Retrieved 19 October 2009. Hamwic, which is described as a commercial port (mercimonium). Hamwic (also known as Hamtun) must have possessed considerable administrative importance as by the middle of the 8th century it had given its name to the shire – Hamtunscire.  ^ Southampton
Southampton
City Council. "Saxon Southampton". Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2009.  ^ a b Southampton
Southampton
City Council. "Medieval Southampton". Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2009.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Rance, Adrian (1986). Southampton. An Illustrated History. ISBN 0-903852-95-0.  ^ Rance, Adrian (1986). Southampton. An Illustrated History. p. 34. ISBN 0-903852-95-0.  ^ British Archaeology Magazine (August 2002). "Great Sites: Hamwic". Archived from the original on 22 July 2009. Retrieved 19 October 2009. The economic motor driving trade [was] larger-scale trade in relatively low value commodities such as wool, timber and quernstones.  ^ a b Alwyn A. Ruddock, The Greyfriars in Southampton, Papers & Proceedings of the Hampshire
Hampshire
Field Club & Archaeological Society, 16:2 (1946), pp. 137–47 ^ a b c Rev. J. Silvester Davies, A History of Southampton
History of Southampton
Partly From the Ms. Of Dr Speed In The Southampton
Southampton
Archives, 1883, pp. 114–19 ^ Internet Archive. " Monaco
Monaco
and Monte Carlo". Retrieved 19 October 2009.  ^ a b c d BBC Online. " Southampton
Southampton
Town Walls and Castle". Retrieved 19 October 2009.  ^ a b Southampton
Southampton
City Council. "God's House Tower: A History of the Museum". Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2009.  ^ Rance, Adrian (1986). Southampton. An Illustrated History. p. 45. ISBN 0-903852-95-0.  ^ Southern Daily Echo
Southern Daily Echo
(2 April 2008). "Red Lion Plot". Archived from the original on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2009.  ^ Rance, Adrian (1986). Southampton. An Illustrated History. p. 48. ISBN 0-903852-95-0.  ^ Culture24. " God's House Tower
God's House Tower
Museum of Archaeology, Southampton". Retrieved 19 October 2009.  ^ "Museum of archaeology (God's House Tower)". Southampton
Southampton
City Council. 27 September 2011. Archived from the original on 12 July 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ Southampton
Southampton
City Council. "Medieval Southampton". Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2009.  ^ Rance, Adrian (1986). Southampton. An Illustrated History. p. 59. ISBN 0-903852-95-0.  ^ Percy G. Stone, A Vanished Castle, Papers & Proceedings of the Hampshire
Hampshire
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Southampton.

Southampton
Southampton
travel guide from Wikivoyage Southampton City Council
Southampton City Council
and CityWeb Southampton
Southampton
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Southampton
Southampton
skyline webcam Southampton's Medieval Defences on Google Maps

v t e

Areas and suburbs of Southampton

City of Southampton
Southampton
electoral wards (and their neighbourhoods) listed by constituency — sources: 1 2

Southampton
Southampton
Itchen

Bargate
Bargate
Ward City Centre Holyrood estate Ocean Village The Polygon St Mary's Bitterne
Bitterne
Ward Bitterne Thornhill Bitterne
Bitterne
Park Ward Bitterne
Bitterne
Park Bitterne
Bitterne
Manor Midanbury Townhill Park Harefield Ward Harefield Peartree Ward Peartree Green Sholing
Sholing
Ward Sholing Woolston Ward Itchen Ferry village Woolston Weston

Southampton
Southampton
Test

Bevois
Bevois
Ward Bevois
Bevois
Valley Inner Avenue Nicholstown Northam Coxford Ward Lordshill Lordswood Freemantle
Freemantle
Ward Freemantle Millbrook Ward Millbrook Regents Park Portswood
Portswood
Ward Portswood Highfield St Denys Redbridge Ward Redbridge Maybush Shirley Ward Shirley Southampton
Southampton
Common

Romsey
Romsey
and Southampton
Southampton
North

Bassett Ward Bassett Bassett Green Swaythling
Swaythling
Ward Swaythling Mansbridge

Map

City Centre

Bassett

Bassett Green

Bevois
Bevois
Valley

Bitterne

Bitterne
Bitterne
Park

Bitterne
Bitterne
Manor

Freemantle

Harefield

Highfield

Lordshill

Lordswood

Mansbridge

Maybush

Midanbury

Millbrook

Nicholstown

Northam

Ocean Village

Peartree Green

Polygon

Portswood

Redbridge

Regents Park

Shirley

St Denys

St Mary's

Sholing

Swaythling

Thornhill

Townhill Park

Woolston

Weston

Suburbs of Southampton
Southampton
within the city boundary

Areas of Greater Southampton
Southampton
outside the City boundary include:

Allbrook and North Boyatt Ashurst Bishopstoke Botley Bursledon Chandler's Ford Chartwell Green Chilworth Fair Oak Hamble-le-Rice Hedge End Horton Heath Hound Netley Netley
Netley
Marsh Nursling Rownhams Eastleigh Totton West End

v t e

Districts of South East England

Berkshire

Bracknell Forest Reading Slough West Berkshire Windsor and Maidenhead Wokingham

Buckinghamshire

Aylesbury Vale Chiltern Milton Keynes South Bucks Wycombe

East Sussex

Brighton and Hove Eastbourne Hastings Lewes Rother Wealden

Hampshire

Basingstoke
Basingstoke
and Deane East Hampshire Eastleigh Fareham Gosport Hart Havant New Forest Portsmouth Rushmoor Southampton Test Valley Winchester

Isle of Wight

Isle of Wight

Kent

Ashford Canterbury Dartford Dover Gravesham Maidstone Medway Sevenoaks Folkestone and Hythe Swale Thanet Tonbridge and Malling Tunbridge Wells

Oxfordshire

Cherwell Oxford South Oxfordshire Vale of White Horse West Oxfordshire

Surrey

Elmbridge Epsom and Ewell Guildford Mole Valley Reigate and Banstead Runnymede Spelthorne Surrey
Surrey
Heath Tandridge Waverley Woking

West Sussex

Adur Arun Chichester Crawley Horsham Mid Sussex Worthing

v t e

Ceremonial county of Hampshire

Hampshire
Hampshire
Portal

Unitary authorities

City of Portsmouth City of Southampton

Boroughs or districts

Borough of Basingstoke
Basingstoke
and Deane District of East Hampshire Borough of Eastleigh Borough of Fareham Borough of Gosport District of Hart Borough of Havant District of New Forest Borough of Rushmoor Borough of Test Valley City of Winchester

Major settlements

Aldershot Alton Andover Basingstoke Bishop's Waltham Blackwater Bordon Eastleigh Emsworth Fareham Farnborough Fleet Fordingbridge Gosport Havant Hedge End Hook Hythe Lee-on-the-Solent Lymington New Alresford New Milton Petersfield Portsmouth Ringwood Romsey Southampton Stockbridge Tadley Totton
Totton
and Eling Waterlooville Whitchurch Winchester Yateley See also: List of civil parishes in Hampshire

Rivers

Avon Beaulieu Hamble Itchen Meon Test Wallington Wey

Topics

Parliamentary constituencies Places Population of major settlements SSSIs Country houses Grade I listed buildings Grade II* listed buildings South Coast Plain South Downs History Schools Further education Museums Lord Lieutenants High Sheriffs

v t e

Cities of the United Kingdom

England

Bath Birmingham Bradford Brighton and Hove Bristol Cambridge Canterbury Carlisle Chelmsford Chester Chichester Coventry Derby Durham Ely Exeter Gloucester Hereford Kingston upon Hull Lancaster Leeds Leicester Lichfield Lincoln Liverpool London Manchester Newcastle upon Tyne Norwich Nottingham Oxford Peterborough Plymouth Portsmouth Preston Ripon St Albans Salford Salisbury Sheffield Southampton Stoke-on-Trent Sunderland Truro Wakefield Wells Westminster Winchester Wolverhampton Worcester York

Scotland

Aberdeen Dundee Edinburgh Glasgow Inverness Perth Stirling

Wales

Bangor Cardiff Newport St Asaph St Davids Swansea

Northern Ireland

Armagh Belfast Derry Lisburn Newry

v t e

Unitary authorities of England

Districts

Bath and North East Somerset Bedford Blackburn with Darwen Blackpool Bournemouth Bracknell Forest Brighton and Hove Bristol Central Bedfordshire Cheshire East Cheshire West and Chester Cornwall County Durham Darlington Derby East Riding of Yorkshire Halton Hartlepool Herefordshire Isle of Wight Kingston upon Hull Leicester Luton Medway Middlesbrough Milton Keynes North East Lincolnshire North Lincolnshire North Somerset Northumberland Nottingham Peterborough Plymouth Poole Portsmouth Reading Redcar and Cleveland Rutland Shropshire Slough Southampton Southend-on-Sea South Gloucestershire Stockton-on-Tees Stoke-on-Trent Swindon Telford and Wrekin Thurrock Torbay Warrington West Berkshire Wiltshire Windsor and Maidenhead Wokingham York

Councils

Bath and North East Somerset Bedford Blackburn with Darwen Blackpool Bournemouth Bracknell Forest Brighton and Hove Bristol Central Bedfordshire Cheshire East Cheshire West and Chester Cornwall Derby Durham Darlington East Riding of Yorkshire Halton Hartlepool Herefordshire Isle of Wight Kingston upon Hull Leicester Luton Medway Middlesbrough Milton Keynes North East Lincolnshire North Lincolnshire North Somerset Northumberland Nottingham Peterborough Plymouth Poole Portsmouth Reading Redcar and Cleveland Rutland Shropshire Slough Southampton Southend-on-Sea South Gloucestershire Stockton-on-Tees Stoke-on-Trent Swindon Telford and Wrekin Thurrock Torbay Warrington West Berkshire Wiltshire Windsor and Maidenhead Wokingham York

Local elections

Bath and North East Somerset Bedford Blackburn with Darwen Blackpool Bournemouth Bracknell Forest Brighton and Hove Bristol Central Bedfordshire Cheshire East Cheshire West and Chester Cornwall County Durham Darlington Derby East Riding of Yorkshire Halton Hartlepool Herefordshire Isle of Wight Kingston upon Hull Leicester Luton Medway Middlesbrough Milton Keynes North East Lincolnshire North Lincolnshire North Somerset Northumberland Nottingham Peterborough Plymouth Poole Portsmouth Reading Redcar and Cleveland Rutland Shropshire Slough Southampton Southend-on-Sea South Gloucestershire Stockton-on-Tees Stoke-on-Trent Swindon Telford and Wrekin Thurrock Torbay Warrington West Berkshire Wiltshire Windsor and Maidenhead Wokingham York

v t e

Associated British Ports

Ayr Barrow Barry Cardiff Fleetwood Garston Goole Port of Grimsby Hams Hall
Hams Hall
Distribution Park Port of Hull Port of Immingham Ipswich Dock King's Lynn Lowestoft Newport Plymouth Port Talbot Tilbury Container Services Silloth Port of Southampton Swansea Teignmouth Troon

Coordinates: 50°54′N 1°24′W / 50.9°N 1.4°W

.