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SOUTH YORKSHIRE is a metropolitan county in England
England
. It is the southernmost county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region and had a population of 1.34 million in 2011. It has an area of 1,552 square kilometres (599 sq mi) and consists of four metropolitan boroughs , Barnsley
Barnsley
, Doncaster
Doncaster
, Rotherham and Sheffield
Sheffield
. South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
with Barnsley
Barnsley
as its county town.

Lying on the east side of the Pennines , South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
is landlocked, and borders Derbyshire
Derbyshire
to the west and south-west, West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
to the north-west, North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
to the north, the East Riding of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
to the north-east, Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
to the east and Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
to the south-east. The Sheffield
Sheffield
Urban Area is the tenth most populous conurbation in the UK , and dominates the western half of South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
with over half of the county's population living within it. South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
lies within the Sheffield
Sheffield
City Region with Barnsley
Barnsley
also being within the Leeds City Region, reflecting its geographical position midway between Yorkshire's two largest cities.

South Yorkshire County Council was abolished in 1986 and its metropolitan boroughs are now effectively unitary authorities , although the metropolitan county continues to exist in law. As a ceremonial county , South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff .

South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
was created from 32 local government districts of the West Riding of Yorkshire (the administrative county and four independent county boroughs ), with small areas from Derbyshire
Derbyshire
and Nottinghamshire.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Redcliffe-Maud Report * 1.2 After 1974

* 2 Geography * 3 Settlements * 4 Governance * 5 Economy * 6 Places of interest * 7 Notes * 8 External links

HISTORY

See also: History of Sheffield
Sheffield
and History of Yorkshire

Although the modern county of South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
was not created until 1974, the history of its constituent settlements and parts goes back centuries. Prehistoric
Prehistoric
remains include a Mesolithic "house" (a circle of stones in the shape of a hut-base) dating to around 8000 BC, found at Deepcar , in the northern part of Sheffield. Evidence of even earlier inhabitation in the wider region exists about 3 miles (5 km) over the county boundary at Creswell Crags
Creswell Crags
in Derbyshire
Derbyshire
, where artefacts and rock art found in caves have been dated by archaeologists to the late Upper Palaeolithic period, at least 12,800 years ago. The region was on the frontier of the Roman Empire during the Roman period.

The main settlements of South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
grew up around the industries of mining and steel manufacturing. The main mining industry was coal which was concentrated to the north and east of the county. There were also iron deposits which were mined in the area. The rivers running off the Pennines to the west of the county supported the steel industry that is concentrated in the city of Sheffield. The proximity of the iron and coal also made this an ideal place for steel manufacture.

Although Christian nonconformism was never as strong in South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
as in the mill towns of West Yorkshire, there are still many Methodist
Methodist
and Baptist
Baptist
churches in the area. Also, South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has a relatively high number of followers of spiritualism . It is the only county that counts as a full region in the Spiritualists\' National Union .

REDCLIFFE-MAUD REPORT

Further information: Redcliffe-Maud Report

The Local Government Commission for England
England
presented draft recommendations, in December 1965, proposing a new county— York
York
and North Midlands—roughly centred on the southern part of the West Riding of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and northern parts of Derbyshire
Derbyshire
and Nottinghamshire. The review was abolished in favour of the Royal Commission on Local Government before it was able to issue a final report.

The Royal Commission's 1969 report, known as the Redcliffe-Maud Report, proposed the removal of much of the then existing system of local government. The commission described the system of administering urban and rural districts separately as outdated, noting that urban areas provided employment and services for rural dwellers, and open countryside was used by town dwellers for recreation.

Redcliffe-Maud's recommendations were accepted by the Labour government in February 1970. Although the Redcliffe-Maud Report was rejected by the Conservative government after the 1970 general election , there was a commitment to local government reform, and the need for a metropolitan county of South Yorkshire.

POST-1974 PRE-1974

METROPOLITAN COUNTY METROPOLITAN BOROUGH COUNTY BOROUGHS NON-COUNTY BOROUGHS URBAN DISTRICTS RURAL DISTRICTS

South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
is an amalgamation of 32 former local government districts, including four county boroughs. Barnsley
Barnsley
Barnsley
Barnsley
- Cudworth • Darfield • Darton
Darton
• Dearne • Dodworth
Dodworth
Hoyland
Hoyland
Nether • Penistone
Penistone
• Royston • Wombwell • Worsbrough • Hemsworth • Penistone
Penistone
• Wortley

Doncaster
Doncaster
Doncaster
Doncaster
- Adwick le Street
Adwick le Street
Bentley with Arksey
Bentley with Arksey
Conisbrough Mexborough
Mexborough
Tickhill
Tickhill
Doncaster
Doncaster
• East Retford (part) • Thorne • Worksop (part)

Rotherham Rotherham - Maltby • Swinton • Rawmarsh • Wath upon Dearne • Kiveton Park Rotherham

Sheffield
Sheffield
Sheffield
Sheffield
- Stocksbridge
Stocksbridge
Wortley

AFTER 1974

The Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
reformed local government in England
England
by creating a system of two-tier metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties and districts throughout the country. The act formally established South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
on 1 April 1974, although South Yorkshire County Council (SYCC) had been running since elections in 1973 . The leading article in The Times
The Times
on the day the Local Government Act came into effect noted that the "new arrangement is a compromise which seeks to reconcile familiar geography which commands a certain amount of affection and loyalty, with the scale of operations on which modern planning methods can work effectively".

South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
initially had a two tier structure of local government with a strategic-level county council and four districts providing most services.

In 1974, as part of the South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Structure Plan of the environment, conservation and land use, South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
County Council commissioned a public attitudes survey covering job opportunities, educational facilities, leisure opportunities, health and medical services, shopping centres and transport in the county.

In 1986, throughout England
England
the metropolitan county councils were abolished. The functions of the county council were devolved to the boroughs; joint-boards covering fire, police and public transport; and to other special joint arrangements. The joint boards continue to function and include the South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Passenger Transport Executive . The South Yorkshire Police and Crime Commissioner also oversees South Yorkshire Police .

Although the county council was abolished, South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
remains a metropolitan and ceremonial county with a Lord Lieutenant of South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and a High Sheriff .

GEOGRAPHY

The county borders Derbyshire
Derbyshire
, West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
, North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
, the East Riding of Yorkshire
East Riding of Yorkshire
, Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
and Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
. The metropolitan county lies largely on the carboniferous rocks of the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
coalfield which have produced a rolling landscape with hills, escarpments and broad valleys. In this landscape there is widespread evidence of both current and former industrial activity. There are numerous mine buildings, former spoil heaps and iron and steel plants. The scenery is a mixture of built up areas, industrial land with some dereliction, and farmed open country. Ribbon developments along transport routes including canal, road and rail are prominent features of the area although some remnants of the pre industrial landscape and semi-natural vegetation still survive. The west of the county is fringed by the Pennines and its foothills, most of which lie inside the Peak District National Park and also contain carboniferous rocks, with the underlying geology primarily being millstone grit sandstones rising from the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
coalfield. The Pennine range within the county is distinguished by the moorlands and plateaus of the Dark Peak while the Pennine fringes are distinguished by many steep valleys, and a transition from uplands and rural landscape to lowlands and urban landscape towards the east of the county.

Major rivers which cross the area are the Dearne , Rother and Don . To the east, in the Doncaster
Doncaster
area the landscape becomes flatter as the eastward dipping carboniferous rocks of the coalfield are overlain by the lacustrine deposits of the Humberhead Levels . There is very little evidence of glaciation in the area as it lies largely beyond the limit of the last glaciation.

SETTLEMENTS

See also: List of Settlements in South Yorkshire by population

The table below outlines many of the county's settlements, and is formatted according to their metropolitan borough.

METROPOLITAN COUNTY METROPOLITAN BOROUGH CENTRE OF ADMINISTRATION OTHER PLACES

SOUTH YORKSHIRE Barnsley
Barnsley
(borough)

Barnsley
Barnsley
(town) Billingley
Billingley
, Birdwell , Cudworth , Darfield , Darton
Darton
, Dodworth
Dodworth
, Great Houghton , Grimethorpe , Hoyland
Hoyland
Nether , Royston , Penistone
Penistone
, Thurnscoe , Wombwell , Worsbrough
Worsbrough

Doncaster
Doncaster
(borough)

Doncaster
Doncaster
(town) Adwick le Street
Adwick le Street
, Armthorpe
Armthorpe
, Askern , Auckley
Auckley
, Balby , Barnby Dun , Bawtry , Bentley , Bessacarr , Braithwell
Braithwell
, Branton , Cantley , Carcroft , Conisbrough , Cusworth Denaby
Denaby
, Dunscroft
Dunscroft
, Dunsville
Dunsville
, Edenthorpe
Edenthorpe
, Edlington
Edlington
, Finningley
Finningley
, Fishlake
Fishlake
, Hatfield , Hyde Park , Intake , Kirk Sandall , Loversall
Loversall
, Marr , Mexborough
Mexborough
, Micklebring , Moorends , Scawsby , Scawthorpe , Skellow , Stainforth , Rossington , Sykehouse
Sykehouse
, Norton , Thorne , Tickhill
Tickhill
, Wadworth
Wadworth
, Warmsworth
Warmsworth
, Wheatley , Wheatley Hills

Rotherham (borough)

Rotherham (town) Anston , Aughton , Brinsworth
Brinsworth
, Dinnington , Harthill , Kiveton Park , Maltby , Rawmarsh , Scholes , Swinton , Thorpe Hesley
Thorpe Hesley
, Todwick , Treeton
Treeton
, Thurcroft
Thurcroft
, Wales , Wath-upon-Dearne , Bolton-upon-Dearne , Woodsetts
Woodsetts
, Whiston

City of Sheffield
Sheffield

Sheffield
Sheffield
City Centre Beighton
Beighton
, Chapeltown , Highlane , Mosborough
Mosborough
, Oughtibridge , Stocksbridge
Stocksbridge
, Wharncliffe Side

Of these settlements above, South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has three main urban areas: the Dearne Valley which covers Barnsley
Barnsley
and surrounding area; the Sheffield
Sheffield
urban area which covers Sheffield, Rotherham and surrounding area; and the Doncaster
Doncaster
urban area which covers Doncaster and surrounding area.

GOVERNANCE

See also: List of civil parishes in South Yorkshire
List of civil parishes in South Yorkshire
The coat of arms of the former South Yorkshire County Council .

The South Yorkshire County Council was abolished and its districts became unitary authorities; they are the City of Sheffield
Sheffield
, the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster
Doncaster
, the Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley
Barnsley
and the Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham .

In 1986, throughout England
England
the metropolitan county councils were abolished. The functions of the county council were devolved to the boroughs. In practice many functions are jointly administered by joint authorities containing representatives of the four councils. The joint authorities cover fire, police and public transport.

In the case of South Yorkshire, these authorities are:

* South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Authority * South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive (the Sheffield
Sheffield
City Region Combined Authority is the transport authority) * South Yorkshire Pensions Authority * South Yorkshire Police and Crime Panel

These authorities are supported by the South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Joint Secretariat based in Barnsley
Barnsley
. South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
is the only metropolitan county in the UK that has established a formal joint secretariat.

The Sheffield City Region Combined Authority was established in 2014 to bring the leaders of the four councils that make up South Yorkshire together on a statutory basis.

Although the county council was abolished, South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
remains a metropolitan and ceremonial county with a Lord Lieutenant of South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and a High Sheriff .

ECONOMY

As one of the least prosperous areas in Western Europe, South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has been targeted for funding from the European Regional Development Fund . This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
at current basic prices with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

YEAR REGIONAL GROSS VALUE ADDED AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY SERVICES

1995 £10,453 £67 £3,690 £6,696

2000 £13,187 £53 £4,181 £8,954

2003 £15,799 £57 £4,772 £10,971

PLACES OF INTEREST

KEY

Abbey/Priory/Cathedral

Accessible open space

Amusement/Theme Park

Castle

Country Park

English Heritage
English Heritage

Forestry Commission

Heritage railway

Historic House

Museum (free/not free)

National Trust

Theatre

Zoo

See also: Culture of Sheffield
Sheffield

* Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet
Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet
, Sheffield
Sheffield
* Brodsworth Hall
Brodsworth Hall
and Gardens * Cannon Hall Museum, Park & Gardens, Barnsley
Barnsley
* Chapel of Our Lady of Rotherham Bridge ("Chapel on the Bridge"), Rotherham * Clifton Park Museum
Clifton Park Museum
, Rotherham * Conisbrough Castle * Cusworth Hall * Doncaster
Doncaster
Mansion House * Elsecar Steam Railway
Elsecar Steam Railway
* Howden Moors * Kelham Island Museum , Sheffield
Sheffield
* Magna Science Adventure Centre
Magna Science Adventure Centre
* Meadowhall Centre
Meadowhall Centre
, Sheffield * Monk Bretton Priory * Pot House Hamlet * Sheffield
Sheffield
Winter Gardens * Roche Abbey
Roche Abbey
* Rother Valley Country Park
Rother Valley Country Park
* RSPB Old Moor Wetland Centre * Ulley Reservoir
Ulley Reservoir
& Country park * Wentworth Castle & Gardens, Barnsley
Barnsley
* Wentworth Woodhouse * Weston Park Museum -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ "South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
2017/2018". High Sheriffs association. Retrieved 10 June 2017. * ^ Archived 2 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Office of the Deputy Prime Minister . "Local Government Finance Statistics England
England
No.16". local.odpm.gov.uk. Retrieved 21 February 2008. * ^ Arnold-Baker, C., Local Government Act 1972, (1973)

* ^ Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
. "Gazetteer of the old and new geographies of the United Kingdom" (PDF). statistics.gov.uk. p. 48. Retrieved 6 March 2008. • Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
(17 September 2004). "Beginners\' Guide to UK Geography: Metropolitan Counties and Districts". statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 6 March 2008. •" Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Humberside – Electoral Commission". The Electoral Commission. Retrieved 14 January 2009. * ^ Radley, J.; Mellars, P. (1964). "A Mesolithic structure at Deepcar, Yorkshire, England
England
and the affinities of its associated flint industry". Proceedings of the Prehistoric
Prehistoric
Society. 30: 1–24. * ^ Pike, Alistair W.G.; Gilmour, Mabs; Pettitt, Paul; Jacobid, Roger; Ripoll, Sergio; Bahn, Paul; Muñoz, Francisco (2005). "Verification of the age of the Palaeolithic cave art at Creswell Crags, UK". Journal of Archaeological Science. 32 (11): 1649–1655. doi :10.1016/j.jas.2005.05.002 . * ^ Rob Cooke/University of Sheffield. "A History of Roman South Yorkshire". * ^ Churches and Centres Affiliated to the SNU South Yorkshire District * ^ Redcliffe-Maud et al. (June 1969), pp. 219–235. * ^ Redcliffe-Maud and Wood (1975), pp. 46–7, 56, 157. * ^ HMSO. Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
. 1972 c.70 * ^ "British Local Election Database, 1889-2003". AHDS – Arts and Humanities data service. 28 June 2006. Retrieved 5 March 2008. * ^ "All change in local affairs". The Times
The Times
. 1 April 1974. * ^ Redcliffe-Maud Field, J. (1975). "South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
structure plan: public attitude survey". * ^ Kingdom, J., Local Government and Politics in Britain, (1991) * ^ South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Passenger Transport Executive * ^ "NCA Profile: 38. Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire
Derbyshire
and Yorkshire Coalfield (NE402)". publications.naturalengland.org.uk. Retrieved 21 June 2016. * ^ "Dark Peak". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 21 June 2016.

* ^ "NCA Profile: 37 Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Southern Pennine Fringe (NE490)". publications.naturalengland.org.uk. Retrieved 21 June 2016. * ^ "Humberhead Levels". www.countryside.gov.uk. Retrieved 6 October 2008. * ^ Vision of Britain - Components of South Yorkshire * ^ Southyorks.gov.uk Archived 2 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Regional Gross Value Added" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. 21 December 2005. pp. 240–253. Retrieved 6 October 2008.

* ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding * ^ includes hunting and forestry * ^ includes energy and construction * ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

EXTERNAL LINKS

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