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South Stream
South Stream
(Russian: Южный Поток, Bulgarian: Южен поток, Serbian: Јужни ток/Južni tok, Slovene: Južni tok, Hungarian: Déli Áramlat, Italian: Flusso Meridionale) is an abandoned pipeline project to transport natural gas of the Russian Federation through the Black Sea
Black Sea
to Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and through Serbia, Hungary
Hungary
and Slovenia
Slovenia
further to Austria. The project created controversy due to non-compliance with European Union competition and energy legislation, in particular the Third Energy Package, which stipulates the separation of companies' generation and sale operations from their transmission networks.[1][2] It was seen as rival to the Nabucco pipeline
Nabucco pipeline
project.[3] Construction of the Russian onshore facilities for the pipeline started in December 2012.[4] The project was cancelled by Russia
Russia
in December 2014 following obstacles from Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and the EU, the 2014 Crimean crisis, and the imposition of European sanctions on Russia.[5][6][7] The project has been replaced by proposals of Turkish Stream
Turkish Stream
and Tesla Pipeline.[8]

Contents

1 History 2 Route 3 Technical description 4 Project companies 5 Implications

5.1 Nabucco pipeline
Nabucco pipeline
project 5.2 Conflict with Ukraine 5.3 Offer to Romano Prodi 5.4 Stroytransgaz contract

6 See also 7 References 8 External links

History[edit] The South Stream
South Stream
pipeline project was announced on 23 June 2007, when the Chief Executive Officer of the Italian energy company Eni
Eni
Paolo Scaroni and the Vice-Chairman of Russian Gazprom
Gazprom
Alexander Medvedev signed in Rome
Rome
a memorandum of understanding for construction of the pipeline.[9] On 22 November 2007, Gazprom
Gazprom
and Eni
Eni
signed in Moscow
Moscow
an agreement on establishing a joint project company for the commissioning of the marketing and technical feasibility studies of the project.[10] The preliminary agreement between Russia
Russia
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
on Bulgaria's participation in the project was signed on 18 January 2008. It was agreed to set up an equally owned company to build and operate the Bulgarian section of the pipeline.[11] The agreement was ratified by Bulgarian Parliament on 25 July 2008.[12] The first agreement between Russia
Russia
and Serbia
Serbia
was signed even before the announcement of the South Stream project. On 20 December 2006, Gazprom
Gazprom
and Serbian state-owned gas company Srbijagas
Srbijagas
agreed to conduct a study on building a gas pipeline running from Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to Serbia.[13] On 25 January 2008, Russia
Russia
and Serbia
Serbia
signed an agreement to route a northern line of South Stream
South Stream
through Serbia
Serbia
and to create a joint company to build the Serbian section of the pipeline and a gas storage facility near Banatski Dvor.[14][15] On the same day, Russia
Russia
and Hungary
Hungary
agreed to set up an equally owned joint company to build and operate the Hungarian section.[16][17] On 29 April 2008, Russia
Russia
and Greece signed an intergovernmental agreement on cooperation in construction and operation of the Greek section.[18] On 15 May 2009, in Sochi, in presence of the Prime Minister of Russia Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and the Prime Minister of Italy
Italy
Silvio Berlusconi, the gas companies of Russia, Italy, Bulgaria, Serbia
Serbia
and Greece signed an agreement on construction of South Stream.[19][20] On 6 August 2009, the Prime Minister of Russia
Russia
Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and the Prime Minister of Turkey
Turkey
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
in attendance of the Prime Minister of Italy
Italy
Silvio Berlusconi
Silvio Berlusconi
signed a protocol routing the pipeline through the Turkish territorial waters.[21] On 14 November 2009, followed the talks between Slovenian Prime Minister Borut Pahor
Borut Pahor
and Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, the agreement to run a part of the pipeline through Slovenia
Slovenia
to Northern Italy
Italy
was signed by Russian Energy Minister Sergei Shmatko
Sergei Shmatko
and Slovenian Economy Minister Matej Lahovnik in Moscow.[22][23] As per earlier 2008 agreement between two countries, on 17 November 2009, Russian Gazprom
Gazprom
and Serbian Srbijagas created South Stream
South Stream
Serbia
Serbia
AG in Bern, Switzerland. The joint company was responsible for design, financing, construction and operation of the Serbia
Serbia
section.[24] On 2 March 2010, Russian Energy Minister Sergei Shmatko
Sergei Shmatko
and Croatian Economy, Labor and Entrepreneurship Minister Djuro Popijac in the presence of the Prime Minister of Russia
Russia
Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and Prime Minister of Croatia
Croatia
Jadranka Kosor
Jadranka Kosor
signed an agreement on linking Croatia
Croatia
with South Stream.[25][26] On 19 June 2010, Gazprom, Eni, and Électricité de France
Électricité de France
published a joint press release confirming that EDF will join the project.[27] On 21 March 2011, Slovenia
Slovenia
and Russia
Russia
signed an agreement regarding the establishment of a joint venture South Stream
South Stream
Slovenia.[28] The joint venture South Stream
South Stream
AG, equally owned by Gazprom
Gazprom
and Eni, was registered on 18 January 2008 in Switzerland.[29] However, on 16 September 2011, a shareholders' agreement was signed between Gazprom, Eni, Électricité de France
Électricité de France
and Wintershall
Wintershall
to establish the new project company South Stream
South Stream
Transport AG for the Black Sea
Black Sea
section of the pipeline.[30] The company was incorporated on 3 October 2011 in Zug, Switzerland. On December 28, 2011 Turkey
Turkey
issued its final agreement for allowing the pipeline to pass through its territorial waters.[31][32] The final investment decision for the Serbian section was signed on 29 October 2012, for the Hungarian section on 2 November 2012, for the Slovenian section on 13 November 2012, and for the Bulgarian section on 15 November 2012.[4][33][34][35] On 15 November 2012, shareholders of South Stream
South Stream
Transport AG signed the final investment decision on the offshore section.[4] The ground-breaking ceremony marking start of construction of the Russian onshore facilities was held on 7 December 2012 at the Russkaya compressor station near Anapa.[4][36][37] On 25 July 2013, the Vice Premier Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
Zoran Stavreski signed the agreement on linking section through Republic of Macedonia with South Stream.[38] In March and April 2014, the contracts for laying the first and second lines of the offshore section were awarded to Saipem
Saipem
and Allseas.[39][40] Contracts for the third and fourth line were to be signed in December 2014 and January 2015.[41] On 17 April 2014, amid Russia's annexation of Crimea, the European Parliament adopted a non-binding resolution opposing the South Stream gas pipeline and recommending a search for alternative sources of gas supplies for the European Union.[42] On 29 April 2014 a memorandum on the implementation of the Austrian section was signed in Moscow. Commissioning of the Austrian section is scheduled by January 2018.[43] In June 2014, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
temporarily stopped construction due to the European Commission's infringement procedure against Bulgaria for non-compliance with European rules on energy competition public procurements.[44] In April 2014 Russia
Russia
filed a complaint at the World Trade Organization against the European Union's energy market laws that were enacted in 2009, claiming that they violate international rules. These laws ban suppliers from owning transit facilities such as gas pipelines, and would force Gazprom
Gazprom
to allow third-party gas producers to use the South Stream
South Stream
pipeline.[45] On 1 December 2014, during a state visit to Turkey, president Putin announced that Russia
Russia
was withdrawing from the project, blaming Western sanctions and lack of construction permits in the territory of the European Union.[5][46] Russia
Russia
has started to build a pipeline through Turkey
Turkey
known as Turkish Stream.[47][48] Along with additional supplied to Turkey, Russian gas, according to Putin, “will be retargeted to other regions of the world, which will be achieved, among other things, through the promotion and accelerated implementation of projects involving liquefied natural gas.”. In 2015, the supply of Russian gas to Turkey
Turkey
will be raised by 3 billion cubic meters via the already operating Blue Stream
Blue Stream
pipeline. Later a new undersea pipeline to Turkey, with an annual capacity around 60 billion cubic metres (bcm) will be built. That will allow Turkey
Turkey
to resell Russian gas to Europe.[citation needed] Route[edit]

Major existing and planned natural gas pipelines supplying Russian gas to Europe.

The pipeline was to consist of the Russian onshore pipeline, the Black Sea section and pipelines in the South- East Europe. The Russian onshore section would have run from the Pochinki compressor station to the Russkaya compressor station near Anapa.[37] The 931-kilometre (578 mi) long offshore section was to run from the Russkaya compressor station through the Black Sea
Black Sea
to Galata near Varna, Bulgaria.[41] Because of the Russia– Ukraine
Ukraine
gas disputes, the pipeline was to be routed through Turkey's waters to avoid the exclusive economic zone of Ukraine.[21][49][50] At the same time Russia's 2014 annexation of Crimea
Crimea
would have allowed more direct route through the Crimean waters.[51] The 1,455-kilometre (904 mi) long onshore section was to start from Varna
Varna
and run to Pleven.[4][52] From there, the original southwestern route was to continue through Greece and Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
to southern Italy.[52] However, this route was abandoned.[49] The newer northwestern route would have continued from Pleven
Pleven
to Serbia. In Serbia, then running through Zaječar
Zaječar
and Paraćin
Paraćin
to Čenta. From Čenta
Čenta
the main pipeline would have continued in direction of Gospođinci
Gospođinci
while branch-off line would run to Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[4] Srbijagas
Srbijagas
planned to construct along Sava river a 480-kilometre (300 mi) long branch pipeline with a capacity of 1.2 billion cubic metres (42 billion cubic feet) to Banja Luka
Banja Luka
and Sarajevo.[53] It was also surmised that Montenegro could have connected to the pipeline.[54] Before reaching Gospođinci, the main line was to split. One route would continue through Serbia
Serbia
and Hungary
Hungary
to Baumgarten an der March in Austria. Another route would have continued through Gospođinci
Gospođinci
and Bački Breg
Bački Breg
also to Hungary
Hungary
with branch-off to Croatia.[4] In Hungary it would have gone through Hercegszántó
Hercegszántó
and Tornyiszentmiklós
Tornyiszentmiklós
to Slovenia
Slovenia
and further in direction of Tarvisio
Tarvisio
to supply northern Italy.[28][55][56][57] Technical description[edit] The feasibility study of the offshore section was conducted by Saipem, a subsidiary of Eni.[58][59] Planning was done by INTECSEA, a subsidiary of WorleyParsons. Giprospetsgas, an affiliate of Gazprom, has been appointed as a general design contractor.[60] The offshore pipeline is planned to carry 63 billion cubic metres (2.2 trillion cubic feet) of natural gas per year.[3] It will have four parallel lines with capacity of 15.75 billion cubic metres (556 billion cubic feet) each.[4] The offshore pipeline will use pipes with a diameter of 32 inches (810 mm), designed for 27.73 megapascals (4,022 psi) of working pressure and having the pipe wall thickness of 39 millimetres (1.5 in).[61][62] The first line should be ready by the end of 2015, the second and third lines by the end of 2016, and the fourth line by the end of 2017. The offshore section is expected to cost €10 billion.[4][63] Pipeline sections in Bulgaria, Serbia, Hungary, and Slovenia
Slovenia
will have capacity at least 10 billion cubic metres (350 billion cubic feet) per year.[23] The onshore pipeline will have eight compressor stations and it is expected to cost €6 billion.[4][63] At least two gas storage facilities would be constructed of which one would be an underground storage facility in Hungary
Hungary
with capacity of minimum 1 billion cubic metres (35 billion cubic feet) and another one in Banatski Dvor, Serbia
Serbia
with capacity of 3.2 billion cubic metres (110 billion cubic feet).[64][65] Hungarian oil and gas company MOL Group
MOL Group
has offered its empty natural gas field at Pusztaföldvár
Pusztaföldvár
as a 9 billion cubic metres (320 billion cubic feet) storage facility.[66] British Melrose Resources is planning to convert the Galata offshore field in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to a gas storage facility with initial capacity of 1.7 billion cubic metres (60 billion cubic feet) by 2009.[67] There are also allegations that the South Stream
South Stream
pipeline will be connected to the Wingas-owned Haidach gas storage. Project companies[edit] The pipeline will be built and operated by several project companies. For the construction and operation of the offshore section of South Stream originally two companies were established, both in Zug
Zug
in Switzerland with the share capital of 100,000 CHF.[68][69][70] South Stream
South Stream
AG, a joint venture between Gazprom
Gazprom
and Eni
Eni
was incorporated on 18 January 2008, and South Stream
South Stream
Transport AG, a joint company of Gazprom, Eni, Électricité de France, and Wintershall
Wintershall
was incorporated on 3 October 2011.[30][69][70] Head of South Stream
South Stream
Transport AG is Marcel Kramer, former chief executive officer of the gas transportation company Gasunie.[68][71] Executive director is Oleg Aksyutin.[41] Gazprom
Gazprom
owns 50% of shares of South Stream Transport AG, Eni
Eni
20%, and Électricité de France
Électricité de France
and Wintershall
Wintershall
15% both.[30] In November 2012, it was decided to incorporate South Stream
South Stream
Transport B.V., the current project company, in Amsterdam.[72] Earlier Eni
Eni
had registered in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
a company named South Stream
South Stream
BV, but in February 2012 it was renamed Eni
Eni
JPDA 11-106 BV.[68][73] The Bulgarian section of the pipeline will be built and operated by a joint venture of Gazprom
Gazprom
and Bulgargaz and the Serbian section by the joint venture of Gazprom
Gazprom
and Srbijagas.[15][74][75][76] The Hungarian section will be built and operated by the equally owned joint venture between Gazprom
Gazprom
and the state-owned Hungarian Development Bank MFB, which will buy the elaborated feasibility study of Hungarian section from SEP Co., a joint venture of Gazprom
Gazprom
and MOL.[64][77] The Slovenia section will be built and operated by an equally owned joint venture of Gazprom
Gazprom
and Geoplin Plinovodi.[23] For construction of the Croatian section a 50-50 Russian-Croatian joint company will be established.[26] Implications[edit] Nabucco pipeline
Nabucco pipeline
project[edit]

Map of the planned Nabucco and South Stream
South Stream
pipelines.

The South Stream
South Stream
project was seen as a rival to the Nabucco pipeline project.[3] Some experts like Alan Riley from London City University were claiming that the South Stream
South Stream
pipeline is a political project to counter Nabucco and to expand Russian presence in the region.[78] CEO of Eni
Eni
Paolo Scaroni
Paolo Scaroni
proposed to merge Nabucco and South Stream projects to "reduce investments, operational costs and increase overall returns".[79][80] This proposal was rejected by energy minister of Russia
Russia
Sergei Shmatko
Sergei Shmatko
saying that " South Stream
South Stream
is more competitive than Nabucco" and that "Nabucco and South Stream
South Stream
are far from being competitors".[81] Also OMV, a partner in both projects, has said that there were no ongoing discussions about merging the projects.[82] Conflict with Ukraine[edit] South Stream
South Stream
has been seen as diverting some gas transported through Ukraine, instead of providing a new source of gas for Europe.[78] To avoid Ukraine's exclusive economic zone, the pipeline was re-routed through Turkish waters.[21] Offer to Romano Prodi[edit] Before stepping down from the premiership, Italian Prime Minister Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
received an offer from Gazprom
Gazprom
to become the Chairman of South Stream
South Stream
AG. This move was compared with the appointment of the former Chancellor of Germany Gerhard Schröder
Gerhard Schröder
to lead Nord Stream
Nord Stream
AG, a consortium operating the Nord Stream
Nord Stream
pipeline. Prodi has declined this offer.[83] According to the Prodi's spokesman "Prodi was extremely flattered, but reiterated that he wants to take some time off to ponder after leaving Italian politics."[84] Stroytransgaz contract[edit] In May 2014, it was disclosed that the contract for construction of the Bulgarian section was awarded to Stroytransgaz, a company controlled by Gennady Timchenko
Gennady Timchenko
though his Volga Group. Earlier Timchenko was included in the sanctions list in the wake of the annexation of Crimea
Crimea
by Russia
Russia
due to his close ties with President Putin.[85] See also[edit]

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
portal Russia
Russia
portal Engineering portal Transport portal Economy portal Energy portal

Turkish Stream Blue Stream Nord Stream Trans-Adriatic Pipeline Turkey-Greece pipeline Greece- Italy
Italy
pipeline Nabucco Pipeline Persian Pipeline Energy in Bulgaria Trans-Anatolian gas pipeline

References[edit]

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Can Use West-European Partners in South Stream
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Project". Eurasia Daily Monitor. 9 (156). Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 2012-09-15.  ^ " South Stream
South Stream
project gets new momentum in Bulgaria". The Southeast European Times. 2010-10-18. Retrieved 2010-10-18.  ^ Shchedrov, Oleg; Tzortzi, Ellie (2008-02-25). " Russia
Russia
and Serbia firm up gas pipeline deal". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-02-25.  ^ MacDonald, Neil (2008-02-25). "Medvedev shows support for Serbia". Financial Times. Retrieved 2008-02-26.  ^ "Budapest does South Stream
South Stream
sums". Upstream Online. NHST Media Group. 2008-02-28. (subscription required). Retrieved 2008-03-01.  ^ a b "Energy security: South Stream
South Stream
vs. Nabucco gas pipelines". The Southeast European Times. 2008-02-14. Retrieved 2008-02-27.  ^ "ENI calls for South Stream, Nabucco links". United Press International. 2010-03-11. Retrieved 2010-03-20.  ^ Martinez, Andres R.; Resnick-Ault, Jessica (2010-03-10). "Europe Needs to Push Gas
Gas
Infrastructure Spending, Scaroni Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2010-03-20.  ^ Shiryaevskaya, Anna (2010-03-15). " Russia
Russia
Rejects Eni
Eni
Call to Merge Europe Gas
Gas
Pipelines". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2010-03-20.  ^ Grove, Thomas (2010-03-18). " OMV
OMV
says no ongoing talks to merge rival pipelines". Reuters. Retrieved 2010-03-20.  ^ Dempsey, Judy (2008-04-28). " Gazprom
Gazprom
courts Prodi as pipeline chief". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-10-14.  ^ Di Leo, Luca; Moloney, Liam (2008-04-28). "Outgoing Italian Premier Turns Down Top Job for South Stream". Downstream Today. Dow Jones Newswires. Retrieved 2008-05-10.  ^ "Sanctioned Russian Tycoon Wins Bulgaria's South Stream
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to South Stream.

South Stream
South Stream
official Web site South Stream
South Stream
AG Projected Gas
Gas
Routes to Europe Croatia
Croatia
Agrees To Join South Stream Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
Agrees To Join South Stream

v t e

Pipeline systems of Russia
Russia
by year of launch

Gas
Gas
pipelines

Saratov–Moskva pipeline (1946) Northern Lights (1975–1994) Urengoy–Pomary–Uzhgorod pipeline
Urengoy–Pomary–Uzhgorod pipeline
(1983) Yamal–Europe pipeline
Yamal–Europe pipeline
(1997) Blue Stream
Blue Stream
(2003) Dzuarikau–Tskhinvali pipeline
Dzuarikau–Tskhinvali pipeline
(2009) Baku–Novo Filya pipeline (2010) Bovanenkovo–Ukhta (2011) Nord Stream
Nord Stream
(2011–2012) Sakhalin–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok pipeline
Sakhalin–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok pipeline
(2011–2012) Central Asia–Center (1960–1988; 2011–2012) Altai gas pipeline South Stream
South Stream
(cancelled) TurkStream
TurkStream
(2019) Power of Siberia
Power of Siberia
(2019)

Petrol
Petrol
pipelines

Grozny–Tuapse oil pipeline
Grozny–Tuapse oil pipeline
(1928) Tikhoretsk–Tuapse pipeline (1962) Druzhba pipeline
Druzhba pipeline
(1964) Uzen–Atyrau–Samara pipeline (1971) Baku–Novorossiysk pipeline
Baku–Novorossiysk pipeline
(1997) Baltic Pipeline System
Baltic Pipeline System
(2001) Caspian Pipeline Consortium
Caspian Pipeline Consortium
(2004) Eastern Siberia–Pacific Ocean oil pipeline
Eastern Siberia–Pacific Ocean oil pipeline
(2010) Baltic Pipeline System-II
Baltic Pipeline System-II
(2012–2013) Murmansk Pipeline (unknown date)

Other pipelines

Ammonia: Togliatti–Odessa pipeline

See also: Water pipe

v t e

Black Sea
Black Sea
Energy

Oil
Oil
fields

A-T Anastasievsko-Troitskoye B-T C-T Cobza D-T Delta IV Delta VI Eugenia Eugenia South Gîsca Irina Lebăda Est Lebăda Vest Midia SE Mihaela Olimpiysky Pescăruș Prykerchenske Sinoe Subbotinske Tuapse Tyulenovo Val Shatsky

Natural gas
Natural gas
fields

A-E Akçakoca Ana Anca Arkhangelske Balaur Bezimenne Bianca Chaika Clara Cobălcescu Doina Domino Durusu East Cobălcescu Florina Foroska Galata Gina Holitsynske Ioana Izgrev Kaliakra Kaliakra East Kamchia Lira Luceafărul Maria Miorița Muridava Nadia Obzor Odeske Pallas Paula Pelican South Pivdenno-Holitsynske Ropotamo Shmidtivske Shtormove Skifska South Cobălcescu

Pipelines

AGRI AMBO Baku–Batumi Baku–Novorossiysk Baku–Supsa Blue Stream BRUA Burgas–Alexandroupoli Caspian Pipeline Consortium Grozny–Tuapse Odessa–Brody PEOP Samsun–Ceyhan Serbian Stream South Stream Tesla Turkish Stream White Stream

Refineries:

LUKOIL Neftochim Petromidia

Oil
Oil
terminals:

Kulevi Midia N

.