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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Majority: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Croatia
Croatia
, Macedonia , Montenegro
Montenegro
, Serbia
Serbia
, Slovenia
Slovenia
. Minority: Albania
Albania
, Greece
Greece
, Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
(disputed status ), Romania
Romania
, Germany
Germany
, Netherlands
Netherlands
, Turkey , Italy
Italy
, Poland
Poland
, Hungary
Hungary
, Slovakia
Slovakia
, Austria
Austria
, Russia
Russia
, Ukraine
Ukraine

LANGUAGES

East South Slavic languages: Bulgarian , Macedonian West South Slavic languages: Serbo-Croatian , Slovene

RELIGION

Orthodox Christianity
Orthodox Christianity
( Bulgarians
Bulgarians
, Serbs
Serbs
, Macedonians , and Montenegrins
Montenegrins
), Catholicism
Catholicism
( Slovenes
Slovenes
and Croats
Croats
), Islam
Islam
( Bosniaks
Bosniaks
, Pomaks , and Torbešis )

RELATED ETHNIC GROUPS

East Slavs
East Slavs

The SOUTH SLAVS are a subgroup of Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
who speak the South Slavic languages .

They inhabit a contiguous region in the Balkan Peninsula , the southern Pannonian Plain and the eastern Alps
Alps
, and are geographically separated from the body of West Slavic and East Slavic people by the Romanians
Romanians
, Hungarians
Hungarians
, and Austrians
Austrians
in between. The South Slavs include the Bosniaks
Bosniaks
, Bulgarians
Bulgarians
, Croats
Croats
, Macedonians , Montenegrins
Montenegrins
, Serbs
Serbs
and Slovenes
Slovenes
. They are the main population of the Eastern and Southeastern European countries of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Bosnia and Herzegovina , Croatia
Croatia
, Macedonia , Montenegro
Montenegro
, Serbia
Serbia
and Slovenia
Slovenia
.

In the 20th century, the country of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(lit. "South Slavia") united the regions inhabited by South Slavic nations – with the key exception of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
– into a single state. The concept of Yugoslavia, a single state for all South Slavic peoples, emerged in the late 17th century and gained prominence through the 19th century Illyrian movement
Illyrian movement
. The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Slovenes
Slovenes
, renamed to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in 1929, was proclaimed on 1 December 1918, following the unification of the State of Slovenes, Croats
Croats
and Serbs
Serbs
with the kingdoms of Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Early accounts * 1.2 Migrations and postulated homeland * 1.3 Interaction with the Balkan population * 1.4 Relationship with Byzantium

* 1.5 Slavic states

* 1.5.1 Carantania * 1.5.2 Bosnia * 1.5.3 Bulgaria
Bulgaria
* 1.5.4 Croatia
Croatia
* 1.5.5 Zachlumia
Zachlumia
* 1.5.6 Duklja
Duklja
(Zeta) * 1.5.7 Serbia
Serbia

* 1.6 Ottoman period

* 1.7 Modern era

* 1.7.1 Montenegro
Montenegro

* 2 South Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
* 3 Countries * 4 Cities * 5 Regional groups and other subdivisions * 6 Religion * 7 Language

* 8 Genetics

* 8.1 Protein and Blood group polymorphisms * 8.2 Analysis of segments identical by descent * 8.3 Y-DNA * 8.4 mtDNA * 8.5 Autosomal DNA

* 9 See also

* 10 References

* 10.1 Sources

HISTORY

EARLY ACCOUNTS

Main article: Early Slavs

Little is known about the Slavs
Slavs
before the 5th century. Their history prior to this can only be tentatively hypothesized via archeological and linguistic studies. Much of what we know about their history after the 6th century is from the works of Byzantine
Byzantine
historians. In his work De Bellis, Procopius
Procopius
portrays the Sclavini (supposed to be Slavs) as unusually tall and strong, with a tan complexion and reddish-blonde hair, living a rugged and primitive life. They lived in huts, often distant from one another and often changed their place of abode. They were not ruled by a single leader, but for a long time lived in a "democracy". John of Ephesus , in his Ecclesiastical History portrays the Slavs
Slavs
as extremely violent people. They probably believed in many Gods, but Procopius
Procopius
suggests they believed in one, perhaps supreme god. He has often been identified as Perun
Perun
, the creator of lightning. The Slavs
Slavs
went into battle on foot, charging straight at their enemy, armed with spears and small shields, but they did not wear armour.

This information is supplanted by Pseudo-Maurice's work Strategikon , describing the Slavs
Slavs
as a numerous but disorganised and leaderless people, resistant to hardship and not allowing themselves to be enslaved or conquered. The lack of understanding may be attributed to matrilineal succession practiced among Southern Slavs. Polities in South- Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
c. 520 AD

They made their homes in forests, by rivers and wetlands. Jordanes states that the Slavs
Slavs
"have their homelands on the Danube
Danube
, not far from the northern bank." Subsequent information about early Slavic states and the Slavs' interaction with the Greeks
Greeks
comes from De Administrando Imperio by Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus , the compilations of Miracles of Saint Demetrius , History by Theophylact Simocatta and the Royal Frankish Annals
Royal Frankish Annals
.

MIGRATIONS AND POSTULATED HOMELAND

Further information: Slavic settlement of the Eastern Alps
Alps

Scholars have traditionally placed the Slavic Urheimat in the Pripet marshes of Ukraine
Ukraine
, or alternatively between the Bug and the Dniepr
Dniepr
. In the 5th century Slavs
Slavs
are mentioned as living north of the Danube in the written sources from that era. From the 5th century, they supposedly spread outward in all directions. The Balkans
Balkans
was one of the regions which lay in the path of the expanding Slavs.

Regarding the Slavs
Slavs
mentioned by 6th-century Byzantine
Byzantine
chroniclers, Florin Curta states that their 'homeland' was north of the Danube
Danube
and not in the Belorussian-Ukrainian borderlands. He clarifies that their itinerant form of agriculture (they lacked the knowledge of crop rotation) "may have encouraged mobility on a micro regional scale". Material culture from the Danube
Danube
suggests that there was an evolution of Slavic society between the early 7th century and the 8th century. As the Byzantines re-asserted the Danubian defences in the mid 6th century, the Slavs' yield of pillaged goods dropped. As a reaction to this economic isolation, and external threats (e.g. from Avars and Byzantines ), political and military mobilisation occurred. Archeological sites from the late 7th century show that the earlier settlements which were merely a non-specific collection of hamlets began to evolve into larger communities with differentiated areas (e.g. designated areas for public feasts as well as an 'industrial' area for craftsmanship). As community elites rose to prominence, they came to "embody a collective interest and responsibility" for the group. "If that group identity can be called ethnicity, and if that ethnicity can be called Slavic, then it certainly formed in the shadow of Justinian's forts, not in the Pripet marshes."

The Byzantines broadly grouped the numerous Slav tribes into two groups: the Sclaveni and Antes . They are both first encountered in the lower Danube
Danube
region. Some, such as Bulgarian scholar Vasil Zlatarski , suggest that the first group settled the western Balkans, becoming one of the forerunners of the linguistic group that became the Bosnians, Serbs
Serbs
and Croats, whilst offshoots of the Antes settled the eastern regions (roughly speaking), becoming one of the ancestors of the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
. From the Danube, they commenced raiding the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire from the 520s, on an annual basis. They spread about destruction, taking loot and herds of cattle, seizing prisoners and taking fortresses. Often, the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire was stretched defending its rich Asian provinces from Arabs, Persians and Turks. This meant that even numerically small, disorganised early Slavic raids were capable of causing much disruption, but could not capture the larger, fortified cities.

Large scale Slavic settlement in the Balkans
Balkans
begins in the late 570s and early 580s. Menander, a late 6th-century historian, speaks of 100,000 Slavs
Slavs
pouring into Thrace
Thrace
(though likely with some exaggeration) and Illyricum , taking cities and settling down. These large scale population movements are associated with the arrival to the area of the Avars , a nomadic Turkic group that had lost a war against other nomads further east, and settled in the Carpathian basin, subjugating the many small Slavic tribes. They were also facilitated by the fact that the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire was embroiled in a series of wars with Sassanid Persia
Sassanid Persia
at the time and was unable to send troops to the Balkans.

By the 580s, as the Slav communities on the Danube
Danube
became larger and more organized, and as the Avars exerted their influence, raids became larger and resulted in permanent settlement. Most scholars consider the period of 581-584 as the beginning of large scale Slavic settlement in the Balkans. Around this time, the chronicle known as the Miracles of Saint Demetrius speaks of large-scale Slavic settlement in the area around Thessaloniki, although the Slavs
Slavs
never managed to take the city itself. In 591, the Byzantines ended their war with the Persians and a serious attempt to restore the northern border was made by the emperor Maurice , a skilled strategist. Although largely successful, Maurice did not manage to completely eliminate the Avars, and was eventually deposed and murdered in 602 (in part due to his refusal to ransom a large number of captives who were then slaughtered by the Avars). War with the Persians soon broke out again , and the northern border collapsed once more. The Iron Gate on the Serbo-Romanian border

The Avars arrived in Europe in the late 550s. Although their identity would not last, the Avars greatly impacted the events of the Balkans. They settled the Carpathian plain, west of the main Slavic settlements. They crushed the Gepid Kingdom (a Germanic tribe) and pushed the Lombards
Lombards
into Italy, essentially opening up the western Balkans. They asserted their authority over many Slavs, who were divided into numerous petty tribes. Many Slavs
Slavs
were relocated to the Avar base in the Carpathian basin and were galvanized into an effective infantry force. Other Slavic tribes continued to raid independently, sometime coordinating attacks as allies of the Avars. Others still spilled into Imperial lands as they fled from the Avars. The Avars and their Slavic allies tended to focus on the western Balkans, whilst independent Slavic tribes predominated in the east. Following the unsuccessful siege of Constantinople in 626, the Avars' reputation diminished, and the confederacy was troubled by civil wars between the Avars and their Bulgar and Slav clients. Their rule contracted to the region of the Carpathian basin. Archaeological evidence show that there was intermixing of Slavic, Avar and even Gepid cultures, suggesting that the later Avars were an amalgamation of different peoples. The Avar Khanate finally collapsed after ongoing defeats at the hands of Franks
Franks
, Bulgars
Bulgars
and Slavs
Slavs
(c. 810), and the Avars ceased to exist. What remained of the Avars was absorbed by the Slavs
Slavs
and Bulgars.

In "De Administrando Imperio", Byzantine
Byzantine
emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus mentions the White Croatia
Croatia
(originally Βελοχρωβάτοι i Χρωβάτοι) as the place from which, in the 7th century, part of Croatian tribes started their journey to Balkans
Balkans
(more specific, today's Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and Bosnia-Herzegovina) after they were invited there by the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire (emperor Flavius Heraclius
Heraclius
Augustus) to protect its borders.The earliest Croatian state was the Principality of Dalmatia. Prince Trpimir of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was called Duke
Duke
of Croats
Croats
in 852. In 925 Croatian Duke
Duke
of Dalmatia Tomislav of Trpimir united all Croats
Croats
and elevated Croatia
Croatia
into kingdom. He organized a state by annexing the Principality of Pannonia as well as maintaining close ties with Pagania and Zahumlje
Zahumlje
.

By 700 AD, Slavs
Slavs
had settled in most of the Central and Southeast Europe, from Austria
Austria
even down to the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
of Greece, and from the Adriatic to the Black Seas, with the exception of the coastal areas and certain mountainous regions of the Greek peninsula. The settlement pattern was far from uniform however, with major routes (such as the Morava valley ) experiencing greater settlement. Far fewer numbers of Slavs
Slavs
appear to have settled in those parts of Greece where Slavs
Slavs
did settle, and in remote mountainous regions such as Bosnia, Herzegovina and Montenegro. However, archaeological traces of Slavic penetration into the Balkans
Balkans
is scant, especially in the period prior to the 8th century. This has led scholars to cast doubt on the accuracy of the historical sources, often describing large scale settlements by the Slavs
Slavs
throughout the Balkans, including southern Greece.

INTERACTION WITH THE BALKAN POPULATION

Prior to the advent of Roman rule, a number of native or autochthonous populations had lived in the Balkans
Balkans
since ancient times. South of the Jireček line were the Greeks
Greeks
. To the north, there were Illyrians
Illyrians
in the western portion (Illyricum ), Thracians in Thrace
Thrace
(modern Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and eastern Macedonia), and Dacians
Dacians
in Moesia (northern Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and northeastern Serbia) and Dacia
Dacia
(modern Romania). They were mainly tribalistic and generally lacked awareness of any greater ethno-political affiliations. Over the classical ages, they were at times invaded, conquered and influenced by Celts
Celts
, Greeks and Romans . Roman influence, however, was initially limited to cities later concentrated along the Dalmatian coast, later spreading to a few scattered cities inside the Balkan interior particularly along the river Danube
Danube
( Sirmium
Sirmium
, Belgrade
Belgrade
, Niš ). Roman citizens from throughout the empire settled in these cities and in the adjacent countryside. The vast hinterland was still populated by indigenous peoples who likely retained their own tribalistic character.

Following the fall of Rome
Rome
and numerous barbarian raids, the population in the Balkans
Balkans
dropped, as did commerce and general standards of living. Many people were killed, or taken prisoner by invaders. This demographic decline was particularly attributed to a drop in the number of indigenous peasants living in rural areas. They were the most vulnerable to raids and were also hardest hit by the financial crises that plagued the falling empire. However, the Balkans were not desolate; considerable numbers of indigenous people simply remained. Only certain areas tended to be affected by the raids (e.g. lands around major land routes, such as the Morava corridor). The pre-Slavic inhabitants sought refuge inside fortified cities and islands, whilst others fled to remote mountains and forests, joining their non-Romanized kin and adopting a transhumant pastoral lifestyle. The larger cities were able to persevere, even flourish, through the hard times. Archaeological evidence suggests that the culture in the cities changed whereby Roman-style forums and large public buildings were abandoned and cities were modified (i.e. built on top of hills or cliff-tops and fortified by walls). The centerpiece of such cities was the church. This transformation from a Roman culture to a Byzantine culture was paralleled by a rise of a new ruling class: the old land-owning aristocracy gave way to rule by military elites and the clergy.

In addition to the autochthons, there were remnants of previous invaders such as " Huns
Huns
" and various Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
when the Slavs arrived. Sarmatian tribes (such as the Iazyges
Iazyges
) are recorded to have still lived in the Banat
Banat
region of the Danube.

As the Slavs
Slavs
spread south into the Balkans, they interacted with the numerous peoples and cultures already there. Since their lifestyle revolved around agriculture, they preferentially settled rural lands along the major highway networks which they moved along. Whilst they could not take the larger fortified towns, they looted the countryside and captured many prisoners. In his Strategikon, Pseudo-Maurice noted that it was commonplace for Slavs
Slavs
to accept newly acquired prisoners into their ranks. Despite Byzantine
Byzantine
accounts of "pillaging" and "looting", it is possible that many indigenous peoples voluntarily assimilated with the Slavs. The Slavs
Slavs
lacked an organised, centrally ruled organisation which actually hastened the process of willful Slavicisation. The strongest evidence for such a co-existence is from archaeological remains along the Danube
Danube
and Dacia
Dacia
known as the Ipoteşti-Cândeşti culture. Here, the villages dating back to the 6th century represent a continuity with the earlier Slavic Pen\'kovka culture ; modified by admixture with Daco -Getic , Daco-Roman and/or Byzantine
Byzantine
elements within the same village. Such interactions awarded the pre-Slavic populace protection within the ranks of a dominant, new tribe. In return, they contributed to the genetic and cultural development the South Slavs. This phenomenon ultimately led to an exchange of various loan-words. For example, the Slavic name for "Greeks", Grci, is derived from the Latin Graecus presumably encountered through the local Romanised populace. Conversely, the Vlachs borrowed many Slavic words, especially pertaining to agricultural terms. Whether any of the original Thracian or Illyrian culture and language remained by the time Slavs
Slavs
arrived is a matter of debate. It is a difficult issue to analyse because of the overriding Greek and Roman influence in the region. However, what is certain is that the Thracian and Illyrian identities disappear from history during this period.

Over time, due to the larger number of Slavs, the descendants of most of the indigenous populations of the Balkans
Balkans
were Slavicized, an exception being Greece, where the smaller number Slavs
Slavs
scattered there came to be Hellenized over succeeding centuries (aided in time by more Greeks
Greeks
returning to Greece
Greece
in the 9th century and the role of the church and administration). The Romance speakers within the fortified Dalmatian cities managed to retain their culture and language for a long time, as Dalmatian Romance was spoken until the high Middle Ages. However, they too were eventually assimilated into the body of Slavs. In contrast, the Romano- Dacians
Dacians
in Wallachia managed to maintain their Latin-based language, despite much Slavic influence. After centuries of peaceful co-existence, the groups fused to form the Romanians
Romanians
. "There exist two kinds of Slavic people. First kind are people of swarthy complexion and dark hair. They live near the coast of the Sea. The other kind are fair people, who live inland." (Ibn al-Faqih )

RELATIONSHIP WITH BYZANTIUM

Further information: Sclaviniae

Byzantine
Byzantine
literary accounts (i.e., John of Ephesus , etc.) mention the Slavs
Slavs
raiding areas of Greece
Greece
during the 580s. According to later sources such as The Miracles of Saint Demetrius , the Drougoubitai , Sagoudatai , Belegezitai , Baiounetai , and Berzetai laid siege to Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
in 614–616. However, this particular event was in actuality of local significance. A combined effort of the Avars and Slavs
Slavs
two years later also failed to take the city. In 626, a combined Avar , Bulgar and Slav army besieged Constantinople . The siege was broken, which had repercussions upon the power and prestige of the Avar khanate. Slavic pressure on Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
ebbed after 617/618, until the Siege of Thessalonica (676–678) by a coalition of Rynchinoi , Sagoudatai, Drougoubitai and Stroumanoi attacked. This time, the Belegezites also known as the Velegeziti did not participate and in fact supplied the besieged citizens of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
with grain.

A number of medieval sources attest to the presence of Slavs
Slavs
in Greece. While en route to the Holy Land
Holy Land
in 732, Willibald "reached the city of Monemvasia
Monemvasia
, in the land of Slavinia ". This particular passage from the Vita Willibaldi is interpreted as an indication of a Slavic presence in the hinterland of the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
. In reference to the plague of 744–747, Constantine VII
Constantine VII
wrote during the 10th century that "the entire country was Slavonized". Another source for the period, the Chronicle of Monemvasia
Monemvasia
speaks of Slavs
Slavs
overrunning the western Peloponnese, but of the eastern Peloponnese, together with Athens, remaining in Byzantine
Byzantine
hands throughout this period. However, such sources are far from ideal, and their reliability is debated. For example, while the Byzantinist Peter Charanis believes the Chronicle of Monemvasia
Monemvasia
to be a reliable account, other scholars point out that it greatly overstates the impact of the Slavic and Avar raids of Greece
Greece
during this time.

Max Vasmer
Max Vasmer
, a prominent linguist and Indo-Europeanist, complements late medieval historical accounts by listing 429 Slavic toponyms from the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
alone. To what extent the presence of these toponyms reflects compact Slavic settlement is a matter of some debate, and might represent an accumulative strata of toponyms rather than being attributed to the earliest settlement phase

Though medieval chroniclers attest to Slavic "hordes" occupying Byzantine
Byzantine
territories, archaeological evidence of actual Slavic presence and its dating is today debated. Florin Curta points out that evidence of substantial Slavic presence does not appear before the 7th century and remains qualitatively different from the "Slavic culture" found north of the Danube
Danube
. Some authors point to the rapid adoption of local Balkanic cultures by early Slav-speaking groups in specific areas such as Dalmatia
Dalmatia
. There, investigations of burial graves and cemetery types indicate an uninterrupted continuity of traditions from late antiquity , reflecting a contiguous demographic spread that chronologically matches with the arrival of Slavic-speaking groups. Furthermore, when medieval sources speak of places "going to the Slavs", this could primarily mean that Byzantine
Byzantine
authority disappeared, not that these regions had witnessed large-scale migration; doubtless many local people simply governed themselves. Indeed, in the wake of Roman collapse, communities in the Balkan interior and hinterland essentially "became Slavs" by creating new identities and adopting a new language, oriented toward east-central Europe rather than the Graeco-Mediterranean world. As Timothy Gregory surmises: "It is now generally agreed that the people who lived in the Balkans
Balkans
after the Slavic "invasions" were probably for the most part the same as those who had lived there earlier, although the creation of new political groups and arrival of small immigrants caused people to look at themselves as distinct from their neighbours, including the Byzantines". T E Gregory, A History of Byzantium. Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Pg 169

Relations between the Slavs
Slavs
and Greeks
Greeks
were probably peaceful apart from the (supposed) initial settlement and intermittent uprisings. Being agriculturalists, the Slavs
Slavs
probably traded with the Greeks inside towns. Furthermore, the Slavs
Slavs
surely did not occupy the whole interior or eliminate the Greek population; some Greek villages continued to exist in the interior, probably governing themselves, possibly paying tribute to the Slavs. Some villages were probably mixed, and quite possibly some degree of Hellenization
Hellenization
of the Slavs
Slavs
by the Greeks
Greeks
of the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
had already begun during this period, before re- Hellenization
Hellenization
was completed by the Byzantine
Byzantine
emperors.

When the Byzantines were not fighting in their eastern territories, they were able to slowly regain imperial control. This was achieved through its theme system , referring to an administrative province on which an army corps was centered, under the control of a strategos ("general"). The theme system first appeared in the early 7th century, during the reign of the Emperor Heraclius , and as the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire recovered, it was imposed on all areas that came under Byzantine
Byzantine
control. The first Balkan theme created was that in Thrace
Thrace
, in 680 AD. By 695, a second theme, that of "Hellas " (or "Helladikoi"), was established, probably in eastern central Greece
Greece
. Subduing the Slavs
Slavs
in these themes was simply a matter of accommodating the needs of the Slavic elites and providing them with incentives for their inclusion into the imperial administration.

It was not until 100 years later that a third theme would be established. In 782–784, the eunuch general Staurakios campaigned from Thessaloniki, south to Thessaly and into the Peloponnese. He captured many Slavs
Slavs
and transferred them elsewhere, mostly Anatolia (these Slavs
Slavs
were dubbed Slavesians ). However it is not known whether any territory was restored to imperial authority as result of this campaign, though it is likely some was. Sometime between 790 and 802, the theme of Macedonia was created, centered on Adrianople
Adrianople
(i.e., east of the actual geographic entity ). A serious and successful recovery began under Nicephorus I (802–811). In 805, the theme of the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
was created. According to the Chronicle of Monemvasia in 805 the Byzantine
Byzantine
governor of Corinth went to war with the Slavs, obliterated them, and allowed the original inhabitants to claim their own; the city of Patras was recovered and the region re-settled with Greeks. In the 9th century, new themes continued to arise, although many were small and were carved out of original, larger themes. New themes in the 9th century included those of Thessalonica , Dyrrhachium , Strymon , and Nicopolis . From these themes, Byzantine
Byzantine
laws and culture flowed into the interior. By the end of the 9th century most of Greece
Greece
was culturally and administratively Greek again, with the exception of a few small Slavic tribes in the mountains such as the Melingoi and Ezeritai . Although they were to remain relatively autonomous until Ottoman times, such tribes were the exception rather than the rule. Saints Methodius and Cyril, are credited with devising the Glagolitic alphabet
Glagolitic alphabet
, the first alphabet used to transcribe the Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic
language.

Apart from military expeditions against Slavs, the re-Hellenization process begun under Nicephorus I involved (often forcible) transfer of peoples. Many Slavs
Slavs
were moved to other parts of the empire, such as Anatolia
Anatolia
and made to serve in the military. In return, many Greeks from Sicily and Asia Minor were brought to the interior of Greece, to increase the number of defenders at the Emperor's disposal and dilute the concentration of Slavs. Even non- Greeks
Greeks
were transferred to the Balkans, such as Armenians
Armenians
. As more of the peripheral territories of the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire were lost in the following centuries, e.g., Sicily, southern Italy
Italy
and Asia Minor, their Greek-speakers made their own way back to Greece. That the re- Hellenization
Hellenization
of Greece
Greece
through population transfers and cultural activities of the Church was successful suggests Slavs
Slavs
found themselves in the midst of many Greeks. It is doubtful that such large number could have been transplanted into Greece
Greece
in the 9th century; thus there surely had been many Greeks
Greeks
remaining in Greece
Greece
and continuing to speak Greek throughout the period of Slavic occupation. The success of re- Hellenization
Hellenization
also suggests the number of Slavs
Slavs
in Greece
Greece
was far smaller than the numbers found in the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and Bulgaria. For example, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
could not be Hellenized when Byzantine administration was established over the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
in 1018 to last for well over a century, until 1186.

Eventually, the Byzantines recovered the imperial border north all the way to today's region of Macedonia (which would serve as the northern border of the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire until 1018), although independent Slavic villages remained. As the Slavs
Slavs
supposedly occupied the entire Balkan interior, Constantinople was effectively cut off from the Dalmatian cities under its (nominal) control. Thus Dalmatia came to have closer ties with the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
, because of ability to maintain contact by sea (however, this too, was troubled by Slavic pirates). Additionally, Constantinople was cut off from Rome
Rome
, which contributed to the growing cultural and political separation between the two centers of European Christendom
Christendom
.

Control of the Slavic tribes was nominal, as they retained their own culture and language. However, the Slavic tribes of Macedonia never formed their own empire or state, and the area often switched between Greek (Byzantine), Bulgarian , Serbian and temporarily even Norman control. The Byzantines were unable to completely Hellenize Macedonia because their progress north was blocked by the Bulgarian Empire, and later by the Serbian Kingdom, which were both Slavic states. However, Byzantine
Byzantine
culture nonetheless flowed further north, seen to this day as Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
, and Serbia
Serbia
are part of the Orthodox world. Even in Dalmatia, where Byzantine
Byzantine
influence was supplanted by Venice and Rome
Rome
, the influence of Byzantine
Byzantine
culture persists.

SLAVIC STATES

Carantania

Borders of the Slav territories under King Samo
Samo
's rule in 631

Slavs
Slavs
had begun to penetrate the Eastern Alps
Alps
even before the departure of the Lombards
Lombards
into Italy
Italy
in 568 AD. By 600, the Christian dioceses which had heretofore still persisted in Noricum
Noricum
throughout the Migration Period had been extinguished, which Slovene historians take as an indication of Slavic settlement in the region. The pagan Slavs
Slavs
then contended with the Lombards
Lombards
for control over the Drava valley and Friuli
Friuli
until they were defeated by the Lombards
Lombards
at Lauriana in 720, which secured Friuli
Friuli
for the Lombard Kingdom and for Christendom. But the Slavs, too, were able to consolidate the territory that they managed to seize: in 623, unified Slav tribes rebelled against Avars who were weakened by defeat at Constantinople, under the rule of the first historically known Slavic polity - Samo
Samo
's Tribal Union. Within a generation of Samo's death, the inhabitants of Carantania had established an elective duchy in modern-day southern Austria
Austria
centered around the Roman ruin of Virunum , which finally lost its independence in 745 due to a renewed Avar threat, pledging fealty both to Bavaria and the Bishopric of Salzburg. Soon after, in 788, Carantania within Bavaria was incorporated into the semifeudal Frankish Empire
Frankish Empire
. Some Carantanians participated in Ljudevit 's rebellion of 819, around which time Carantania began to be increasingly integrated into Bavaria proper and the local Slavic dukes finally disappeared from history. However, some of the privileges and traditions of the Carantanians survived into the late Middle Ages.

Bosnia

The Charter of Ban Kulin is the oldest document of its kind among the South Slavic languages
South Slavic languages
and is currently in a Saint Petersburg museum.

Modern knowledge of the political situation in Western Balkans
Balkans
during the Early Middle Ages is unclear. Upon their arrival, the Slavs brought with them a tribal social structure which probably fell apart and gave way to feudalism only with Frankish penetration into the region in the late 9th century. It was also around this time that the Slavs
Slavs
were Christianized. Bosnia and Herzegovina, because of its geographic position and terrain, was probably one of the last areas to go through this process, which presumably originated from the urban centers along the Dalmatian coast.

The High Middle Ages political circumstance led to the area of Bosnia being contested between the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
and the Byzantine Empire. Following another shift of power between the two in the early 12th century, Bosnia found itself outside the control of both and emerged as an independent state under the rule of local bans.

Kulin , though a nominal vassal of Hungary, was the first Bosnian ruler who was de facto sovereign. Kulin's rule was marked the start of a controversy with the Bosnian Church
Bosnian Church
. In response to Hungarian attempts to use church politics regarding the issue as a way to reclaim sovereignty over Bosnia, Kulin held a council of local church leaders to renounce the heresy and embraced Catholicism
Catholicism
in 1203. Despite this, Hungarian ambitions remained unchanged long after Kulin's death in 1204, waning only after an unsuccessful invasion in 1254. Map showing the expansion of the Bosnian Kingdom
Bosnian Kingdom

Bosnian history from then until the early 14th century was marked by the power struggle between the Šubić and Kotromanić families. This conflict came to an end in 1322, when Stephen II Kotromanić became Ban. By the time of his death in 1353, he was successful in annexing territories to the north and west, as well as Zahumlje
Zahumlje
and parts of Dalmatia. He was succeeded by his nephew Tvrtko who, following a prolonged struggle with nobility and inter-family strife, gained full control of the country in 1367. On 26 October 1377 Tvrtko I of Bosnia crowned himself King of "Serbia, Bosnia, Pomorje , and the Western lands". Based on archaeological evidence, he was crowned in the Mile near Visoko in the church which was built in the time of Stephen II Kotromanić's reign, where he was also buried alongside his uncle Stjepan II. Following his death in 1391 however, Bosnia fell into a long period of decline. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
had already started its conquest of Europe and posed a major threat to the Balkans
Balkans
throughout the first half of the 15th century. Finally, after decades of political and social instability, the Kingdom of Bosnia ceased to exist in 1463.

Bulgaria

Further information: First Bulgarian Empire and Second Bulgarian Empire

Following the collapse of Old Great Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Asparukh 's Bulgars arrived in Scythia Minor
Scythia Minor
in 680 and allied with the local Slavic population to form Bulgaria. The Slavs
Slavs
accepted as their rulers the Bulgar Khans but retained significant autonomy. Both peoples had to protect the country from the Byzantines to the south and the Avar Khanate to the north-west. The Byzantines were aware of this new threat but were completely defeated in the Battle of Ongal and in 681 officially recognized Bulgaria
Bulgaria
as a sovereign country, known nowadays as the First Bulgarian Empire . By the mid 9th century Bulgaria expanded into much of the Slavic-populated areas of the Balkan peninsula in Thrace, Moesia, Macedonia and Dacia. Khan Omurtag (814–831) made an administrative reform which aimed the centralization of the country and deprived the Slavs
Slavs
of their autonomy. As a result, some Slavic tribes to the north-west rebelled but they were quickly subjugated. Balkans, latter half of 9th century

Following the Christianization of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and the creation of the Glagolitic and Cyrillic alphabets and the formation of a literary Bulgarian language
Bulgarian language
, the Bulgars
Bulgars
and Slavs
Slavs
finally merged into the Bulgarian people. In 927 the Byzantines also had to recognize the Imperial title of the Bulgarian rulers (in Bulgarian цар – Tsar
Tsar
) and the Bulgarian Patriarchate . Bulgaria
Bulgaria
became the cultural center of the Slavic Orthodox world in the 9th and 10th centuries. Following the destruction of the First Bulgarian Empire by the Byzantine
Byzantine
Emperor Basil II
Basil II
in 1018, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
came under Byzantine
Byzantine
rule in 1018. The Second Bulgarian Empire secured its independence from Byzantium in 1185, lasting until 1396 when it was conquered by the Ottomans.

Croatia

Further information: Origin hypotheses of the Croats
Croats
and Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
(medieval)

The Duchy of Croatia
Croatia
or "Littoral Croatia" was defined by the struggles between the western Frankish empire
Frankish empire
and the eastern Byzantine
Byzantine
empire . The Duchy managed to break free from Frankish vassal ship somewhere in the 850s and in 879 the Duchy under Branimir received papal recognition as a state. The Duchy and Pannonia Croatia
Croatia
were united under Tomislav I
Tomislav I
to create the kingdom .

Zachlumia

Further information: Zachlumia
Zachlumia
and Duchy of Saint Sava

Duklja
Duklja
(Zeta)

Further information: Duklja
Duklja
and Principality of Zeta

Serbia

Further information: Serbian Principality (medieval) , Kingdom of Serbia
Serbia
(medieval) , and Serbian Empire
Serbian Empire

Archaeological evidence suggests that Serbs
Serbs
were part of the 5-6th-centuries wave of Slavs. According to Byzantine
Byzantine
sources, White Serbs
Serbs
settled lands of present-day Serbia
Serbia
, Montenegro
Montenegro
and Bosnia and Herzegovina during the rule of Emperor Heraclius (610-641). The Serbs became foederati to the Byzantines and held the frontiers as vassalage (initially Sclaviniae, later Župas), subsequently receiving greater autonomy with Višeslav I (fl. 768-814) and full independence with Vlastimir (836-850). Serbia
Serbia
was a Byzantine
Byzantine
ally throughout most of the Middle Ages and secured its independence with great diplomacy with Byzantium. In the 14th century, the Serbian state under Stefan Dušan rose to prominence in the southern Balkans, becoming the Serbian Empire . It declined following the Battle of Kosovo
Battle of Kosovo
in 1389 against the Ottomans .

OTTOMAN PERIOD

So long as the non-Slavic Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire was strong it served as an effective buffer to Ottoman incursions into southeastern Europe and in turn the lands of the South Slavs. Eventually its power waned in the face of conquests by other powers, and the rising Turkish Empire found one weakness after another in southeastern Europe.

The Ottomans captured Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
from the Venetians in 1387. The Ottoman victory at Kosovo
Kosovo
in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, making possible the Ottoman expansion into Europe. Stefan Lazarević of Serbia
Serbia
became a vassal of the Ottoman Empire. The Battle of Nicopolis
Battle of Nicopolis
in 1396, widely regarded as the last large-scale crusade of the Middle Ages, failed to stop the advance of the victorious Ottoman Turks and put an end to the Second Bulgarian Empire .

MODERN ERA

Montenegro

Further information: Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro
Montenegro
, Principality of Montenegro
Montenegro
, and Kingdom of Montenegro
Montenegro

THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (September 2011)

SOUTH SLAVIC PEOPLES

South Slavs
Slavs
are divided along linguistic lines into two groups: eastern (Bulgarian, Macedonian, Slavs
Slavs
of Greece) and western (Slovenes, Croats, Bosniaks, Serbs, Montenegrins). The Torlakian dialect is transitional and encompasses both sectors at the joining point. There are an estimated 35 million South Slavs
Slavs
and their descendants living worldwide.

List of the South Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
and ethnic groups:

MAJOR

* Serbs
Serbs
* Bulgarians
Bulgarians
* Croats
Croats
(including Bunjevci and Šokci ) * Bosniaks
Bosniaks
* Slovenes
Slovenes
* Macedonians * Montenegrins
Montenegrins

MINOR

* Yugoslavs * Muslims by nationality * Macedonian Muslims (known as Torbeshi) * Pomaks * Gorani and others

COUNTRIES

There are seven countries in which South Slavs
Slavs
are the main population:

* Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(76.9% Bulgarians
Bulgarians
) * Serbia
Serbia
(83.3% Serbs
Serbs
, 2.3% Bosniaks
Bosniaks
, 0.8% Croats
Croats
, 0.5% Montenegrins
Montenegrins
, 0.3% Macedonians , 0.3% Bulgarians
Bulgarians
) * Croatia
Croatia
(90.4% Croats
Croats
, 4.4% Serbs
Serbs
, 0.9% Bosniaks
Bosniaks
, 0.2% Slovenes
Slovenes
, 0.1 Montenegrins
Montenegrins
, 0.1 Macedonians ) * Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(50.1% Bosniaks
Bosniaks
, 30.8% Serbs
Serbs
, 15.4% Croats
Croats
) * Macedonia (64.2% Macedonians , 1.8% Serbs
Serbs
, 0.9% Bosniaks
Bosniaks
, 0.1% Croats
Croats
, 0.1% Bulgarians
Bulgarians
, 0.02 Slovenes) * Slovenia
Slovenia
(83.1% Slovenes
Slovenes
, 2% Serbs
Serbs
, 1.8% Croats
Croats
, 1.1% Bosniaks , 0.2% Macedonians , 0.1% Montenegrins
Montenegrins
) * Montenegro
Montenegro
(45% Montenegrins
Montenegrins
, 28.7% Serbs
Serbs
, 8.7% Bosniaks
Bosniaks
, 3.3% Muslims
Muslims
by nationality, 0.9% Croats
Croats
, 0.1 Macedonians , 0.1 Slovenes)

In addition, there are local South Slavic minorities in non-South Slavic neighbouring countries such as:

* Albania
Albania
: ( Bulgarians
Bulgarians
, Macedonians , Serbs
Serbs
, Montenegrins
Montenegrins
) * Austria
Austria
: ( Croats
Croats
, Slovenes
Slovenes
)* * Greece
Greece
: ( Slavic-speakers of Greek Macedonia , Pomaks ) * Hungary
Hungary
: ( Croats
Croats
, Serbs
Serbs
, Slovenes
Slovenes
, Bulgarians
Bulgarians
) * Italy
Italy
: ( Slovenes
Slovenes
, Croats
Croats
) * Moldova
Moldova
: ( Bulgarians
Bulgarians
) * Romania
Romania
: ( Croats
Croats
, Bulgarians
Bulgarians
, Serbs
Serbs
, Macedonians ), * Turkey
Turkey
: ( Bulgarians
Bulgarians
, Bosniaks
Bosniaks
, Montenegrins
Montenegrins
, Macedonians ) * Ukraine
Ukraine
: ( Bulgarians
Bulgarians
)

CITIES

CITIES WITH SOUTH SLAVIC MAJORITY (100,000+ RESIDENTS)

CITY POPULATION METROPOLITAN AREA SOURCE IMAGE

Sofia
Sofia
1,260,120 1,681,666 (Census Bureau of Bulgaria; 2015)

Belgrade
Belgrade
1,233,796 1,659,440 (Census Bureau of Serbia; 2011 )

Zagreb
Zagreb
792,875 1,113,111 (Census Bureau of Croatia; 2015)

Plovdiv
Plovdiv
338,153 675,586 (Census Bureau of Bulgaria; 2015)

Skopje
Skopje
510,000 668,518 (Census Bureau of the Republic of Macedonia; 2006)

Varna
Varna
334,870 473,804 (Census Bureau of Bulgaria; 2011)

Novi Sad
Novi Sad
277,522 341,625 (Census Bureau of Serbia; 2011)

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
275,524 576,742 (Census Bureau of Bosnia and Herzegovina; 2013)

Ljubljana
Ljubljana
272,220 537,712 (Census Bureau of Slovenia; 2011)

Burgas
Burgas
200,271 212,902 (Census Bureau of Bulgaria; 2011)

Niš 187,544 260,237 (Census Bureau of Serbia; 2011)

Split 165,883 349,314 (Census Bureau of Croatia; 2011)

Maribor
Maribor
157,947

(Census Bureau of Slovenia; 2010)

Podgorica
Podgorica
151,312

(Census Bureau of Montenegro; 2011)

Kragujevac
Kragujevac
150,835 179,417 (Census Bureau of Serbia; 2011)

Ruse 149,642

(Census Bureau of Bulgaria; 2011)

Banja Luka
Banja Luka
138,963 185,042 (Census Bureau of Bosnia and Herzegovina; 2013)

Stara Zagora
Stara Zagora
138,272

(Census Bureau of Bulgaria; 2011)

Rijeka
Rijeka
127,498

(Census Bureau of Croatia; 2011)

Pleven
Pleven
106,954

(Census Bureau of Bulgaria; 2011)

Subotica
Subotica
105,681 141,554 (Census Bureau of Serbia; 2011)

REGIONAL GROUPS AND OTHER SUBDIVISIONS

Please note that some of the subdivisions remain debatable, particularly for smaller groups and national minorities in former Yugoslavia.

Besides ethnic groups, South Slavs
Slavs
often identify themselves with the geographical region in which they live. Some of the major regional South Slavic groups include: Zagorci , Istrani , Dalmatinci , Slavonci , Bosanci , Hercegovci , Posavljaci , Krajišnici , Semberci , Srbijanci , Šumadinci , Mačvani , Moravci , Vojvođani , Sremci , Bačvani , Banaćani , Sandžaklije , Kosovci , Brđani , Bokelji , Zećani , Torlatsi , Shopi , Pelagonci , Tikvešjani , Trakiytsi , Dobrudzhantsi , Macedonians , Balkandzhii , Aegean Macedonians , Mijaks , Mariovans , Miziytsi , Pirintsi , Rodoptsi , Bessarabians , Carinthians , Styrians , Carniolans , Prekmurje Slovenes
Slovenes
, Venetians , Palćene , Burgenlanders , Janjevci
Janjevci
, Molisans , Krashovans
Krashovans
, Šokci , Resians , and many others.

RELIGION

The religious and cultural diversity of the region the South Slavs inhabit has had a considerable influence on their religion. Originally a polytheistic pagan people, the South Slavs
Slavs
have also preserved many of their ancient rituals and traditional folklore, often intermixing and combining it with the religion they later converted to.

Today, the majority of South Slavs
Slavs
are Orthodox Christians - the most Bulgarians
Bulgarians
, Macedonians , Serbs
Serbs
and Montenegrins
Montenegrins
, whilst most Slovenes
Slovenes
and Croats
Croats
are Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
. Bosniaks
Bosniaks
, other minor ethnic groups (Gorani , Muslims by nationality ) and sub-groups ( Torbesh
Torbesh
and Pomaks ) are Muslims
Muslims
. Some South Slavs
Slavs
are atheist , agnostic and/or non-religious .

South Slavic ethnic groups by religion:

* Mainly Orthodox Christians

* Bulgarians
Bulgarians
* Serbs
Serbs
* Macedonians * Montenegrins
Montenegrins

* Mainly Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics

* Croats
Croats
* Slovenes
Slovenes

* Mainly Muslims
Muslims

* Bosniaks
Bosniaks
* Pomaks * Gorani of the Gora region * Torbesh
Torbesh

LANGUAGE

Main article: South Slavic languages
South Slavic languages

South Slavic standard languages are:

* Bosnian * Bulgarian * Croatian * Macedonian * Montenegrin * Serbian * Slovene

In addition, there are also other South Slavic languages
South Slavic languages
which do not constitute official status in any republic, but have recognised standard formats and are widely used by their speakers. The most common of these is Bunjevac . In addition, the Šokac language was formerly listed in the census conducted during the Austro-Hungarian administration. Today, Montenegrin is also in the accelerated process of being codified in Montenegro
Montenegro
. It is slowly being revised, embracing local speech, following the lines taken for Bosnian following the independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
from Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
.

The division of standard languages is orthogonal to the division based on genetic -dialectological criteria. Naming local dialects is made difficult by the fact that Slovenes
Slovenes
from Austria
Austria
and Italy
Italy
are linked with their most remote South Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
- the Pomaks and Bulgarians
Bulgarians
of European Turkey
Turkey
- by a historical dialect continuum. In the 9th century all Slavic dialects formed one dialect continuum, which was subsequently broken after the arrival of Magyars in the area of middle Danube; the subsequent spread of the Germanic, Greek and Romance speakers separated the South Slavic group from West and East Slavic groups leaving it roughly its present-day areal distribution.

Furthermore, as a result of migrations caused by the invasion of Ottoman Turks, dialect continuum was broken in numerous places especially in the so-called "Central South Slavic" area, where some Slavic dialects like Čakavian and Kajkavian were suppressed at the expense of Štokavian , and some "transitional" dialects like Torlakian
Torlakian
, originally belonging to West South Slavic group, but having experienced numerous shared innovations with Bularo-Macedonian dialects belonging to East South Slavic.

Major Slavic dialectal groupings are

* Kajkavian - named after the interrogative "kaj", the local word for "what", this dialect is spoken in Croatia
Croatia
and is closely related to the Slovene language
Slovene language
(also a "kaj" language). * Čakavian - named after the interrogative ča, the local word for "what", also an exclusively Croatian dialect * Štokavian - the largest and most complex dialect chain, named after "što" - the local word for "what" - itself varies with increased distance. Its subdialect, Neoštokavian, is used as the base for standard Serbian , Croatian , Bosnian , Montenegrin and Bunjevac , though in a bit different form (in yat reflex, cf. below) * Torlakian
Torlakian
- a non-standard dialect chain separating Western South Slavic and Eastern South Slavic language groups with radical differences, spoken in southern Serbia
Serbia
(including Kosovo), northern Macedonia and north-western Bulgaria, and by all Slavic ethnic groups local to the region, its features include a mixture of the western and eastern linguistic trends. It is also spoken by the Krashovan community in Romania, reflecting their previous geographical settlement. * Macedonian - spoken across most of Macedonia. The standard Macedonian is based on the West-central subdialect. Several regional dialects exist. * Shop dialect - a western Bulgarian dialect group bordering with Torlakian
Torlakian
areas to its northwest, with Macedonian to its southwest and East Bulgarian to its east. * East Bulgarian - the standard language of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
based on the central regions. Several regional dialects exist. * Slavic (Greece) - spoken by the Slavic population of Greece, most notably by the Pomaks of Thrace. Often disputed as to whether belonging to Macedonian or Bulgarian, this non-standard language has its dialects sparse but varied according to geographical distribution; with the dialects of Thrace
Thrace
(Trakiya) being closer to Bulgarian, and the dialects of Florina
Florina
(Lerin) and Edessa (Voden) being closer to Macedonian.

The dialects are often further subclassified on arbitrary isoglosses, such as the reflex of Common Slavic yat phoneme which had various reflexes in various Slavic dialects. Yat reflex is noted as a major distinction between Serbian and Croatian - while the former has two distinct variants, based on so-called Ekavian /e/ and Ijekavian /ie̯/ reflexes, the standard Croatian is based exclusively on the Ijekavian reflex /ie̯/.

GENETICS

Various methods have been employed for population affinities and consequently produced slightly different results. "Molecular anthropology" can reveal patterns of prehistoric demographic expansions in addition to analysing the "genetic relatedness" between extant population groups.

PROTEIN AND BLOOD GROUP POLYMORPHISMS

The earliest studies looked at 'classical markers', i.e. protein and blood group polymorphisms. Such work, e.g. that of Luca Cavali-Sforza and his team, showed that Europeans might cluster into several groups: (1) "Germanic" (Germans, Austrians, Western Slavic) (2) "Scandinavian" (Swedes, Norwegians) (3) "Celtic" (Irish, Scottish) (4) south-western European (Spanish, French, Italian) (5) eastern European (Russian, Central/East Ukrainian). The analyses found that Yugoslavs did not group into any of the above clusters, but formed a group of their own; a result he attributed to their internal heterogeneity. Bulgarians were not tested in his study.

ANALYSIS OF SEGMENTS IDENTICAL BY DESCENT

"Taken together, analysis of ibd segments reveals similar patterns of ibd sharing for Muslim and non-Muslim Western Balkan populations with populations of Middle East, providing thereby little support to a gene flow scenario during the conversion to Islam
Islam
(15–19 cc AD) in the Balkans."

Y-DNA

According to a 2006 Bosch study, aggregated results of Y-DNA (e.g. by way of Principal Component Analysis
Principal Component Analysis
(PCA)) have tended to show that most Southern Slavs
Slavs
(i.e. Serbians, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Bosnians, Bulgarians, etc.) cluster tightly together (characterised by high frequencies of I2a). Northern and western Croats
Croats
and Slovenians are usually not within this tight South Slavic cluster (due to comparatively higher R1a and R1b levels) and are genetically closer and frequently clustered with neighboring Central European (particularly Western Slavic (Polish , Czech and Slovak ) and Hungarian populations). The non-Slavic Romanians
Romanians
also cluster with the South Slavic group in the 2006 Bosch study.

A more recent genetic study from 2014 by PLOS One, using more precise tools, determined that "Western Balkan populations are closest to their Slavic-speaking neighbours both according to maternal (Czechs and Belarusians, Figure S13A) and paternal (Slovaks, Figure S13B) but it has to be noted that the pooled sample is biased towards northern populations of Western Balkan (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia) and thus represents mostly the variation of this part of the study region."

MTDNA

In comparison, mtDNA haplogroups show far more uniform frequency distributions throughout Europe. For example, a study by Bosch et al. showed that mtDNA samples from all southern Slavs
Slavs
as well as Romanians, and Albanians, clustered together, and separately from those of Turkish groups. Nevertheless, higher resolution studies have detected that South Slavs
Slavs
can be differentiated from their Albanian and Greek neighbors.

AUTOSOMAL DNA

Network of 29 populations constructed with the Neighbor-net approach from FST distances based on the variation of autosomal SNPs.

Whilst useful in postulating population migrations and expansions, mtDNA and Y -DNA do not demonstrate the totality of "genetic make-up", but rather a very small portion of it, namely, a single line of patrilineage (Y-DNA) and matrilineage (mtDNA). Moreoever, given its propensity to drift, population expansions in more recent prehistory can completely overwrite previous patterns. However, the majority of genetic history lies in the thousands of "classical markers" (blood group systems, protein polymorphisms), as well as non-coding single nucleotide polymorphism and STR sequences in autosomal DNA (atDNA), which is representative of the one's entire ancestry . Several loci, such as the β-globin gene, have been dated to 800, 000 years ago. By contrast, the coalescence time of all mtDNA and Y-DNA haplogroups reaches back to a maximum of 200, 000 years

Most of the larger sequences in atDNA undergo recombination , thus direct information about ancestral inheritance is difficult to ascertain. However, inferences on the overall genetic substructure and relatedness between populations is best achieved by analysing the hundreds of thousands of loci within atDNA. One recent study by two research teams has shown that:

* There are no clear clusters or groups within the European population * Except for "genetic outliers" such as Saami, Finns, Basques and Sardinians, Europeans are somewhat genetically homogeneous * Individual population groups are often closely related to their immediate neighbours (irrespective of language or ethnicity) * There is a southern to northern genetic cline, and populations in southern Europe are older and more genetically diverse than those in northern Europe.

"In autosomal analysis , The Croatians and Bosnians
Bosnians
are more close to Central European populations and largely overlap with West Slavs ( Poles
Poles
. Czechs , and Slovaks ) and Hungarians
Hungarians
from Central Europe, while Macedonians cluster closer to Bulgarians, Romanians
Romanians
and Gagauzes. Serbians and Montenegrins
Montenegrins
have an intermediate position on PCA plot and on Fst –based network among other Western Balkan populations (Figures 3 5 and S2, S3)"

SEE ALSO

* Haplogroup I-M438 * List of medieval Slavic tribes * Yugoslavs * North Slavs
North Slavs

REFERENCES

* ^ John of Ephesus, Ecclesiastical History, VI. 25, 6th century AD: "That same year, being the third after the death of king Justin, was famous also for the invasion of an accursed people, called Slavonians, who overran the whole of Greece, and the country of the Thessalonians, and all Thrace, and captured the cities, and took numerous forts, and devastated and burnt, and reduced the people to slavery, and made themselves masters of the whole country, and settled in it by main force, and dwelt in it as though it had been their own without fear. And four years have now elapsed, and still, because the king is engaged in the war with the Persians, and has sent all his forces to the East, they live at their ease in the land, and dwell in it, and spread themselves far and wide as far as God permits them, and ravage and burn and take captive. And to such an extent do they carry their ravages, that they have even ridden up to the outer wall of the city, and driven away all the king's herds of horses, many thousands in number, and whatever else they could find. And even to this day, being the year 895 (AD 584), they still encamp and dwell there, and live in peace in the Roman territories, free from anxiety and fear, and lead captive and slay and burn..." * ^ Aron, Albert J. iTraces of Matriarchy in Germanic Hero-lore. pp. 13–14. * ^ French, Marilyn (2002). From Eve to Dawn: A History of Women in the World. McArthur. * ^ Fouracre, Paul. The Cambridge Medieval History, Volume I. * ^ A B Fine (1983), p. 25 * ^ Curta 2006, p. 56: "The Slavic "homeland," at least for the sixth-century authors who wrote about the Slavs, was north of the Lower Danube, not in the Belorussian-Ukrainian borderlands." * ^ Curta 2006, p. 61 * ^ A B Hupchick, Dennis P. The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism. Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. ISBN 1-4039-6417-3 * ^ Robert Donia; John VA Fine (2005). Bosnia and Hercegovina: A Tradition Betrayed. Columbia University Press. Retrieved 30 October 2012. , p. 14-16, 1995, * ^ Fine 1983, p. 26 * ^ A B C D Fine, 1983, p. 29 * ^ A B C Fine 1983, p. 31 * ^ A B C D Fine 1983, p. 30 * ^ Fine, 1983, p. 32 * ^ A B Fine 1983, p. 33 * ^ Fine 1983, p. 43 * ^ Fine 1983, p. 36 * ^ A B C D E F Fine 1983, p. 37 * ^ A B C D E Fine 1983, p. 64 * ^ A B Fine 1983, p. 38 * ^ Curta 2001, pp. 307-308: "Furthermore, the archaeological evidence discussed in this chapter does not match any long-distance migratory pattern. Assemblages in the Lower Danube
Danube
area, both east and south of the Carpathian mountains, antedate those of the alleged Slavic Urheimat in the Zhitomir Polesie, on which Irina Rusanova based her theory of the Prague-Korchak-Zhitomir type." * ^ Fine 1983, p. 9 * ^ Fine 1983, p. 10 * ^ A B Fine 1983, p. 12 * ^ A B C Curta 2006, p. * ^ Fine 1983, p. 57 * ^ Fine 1983, p. 27 * ^ Fine 1983, p. 41 * ^ Fine 1983, p. 35 * ^ Fine 1991, p. 41: "Between 614 and 616, at the same time that the Avars were leading their major offensive against Dalmatia, The Miracles of Saint Demetrius describes the attacks by five Slavic tribes by sea in small boats along the coasts of Thessaly, western Anatolia, and various Greek islands. They then decided to capture Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
in a combined land and sea attack. Under the walls of the city they camped with whole families. They were led by a chief (the Greek title used is exarch ) named Chatzon." * ^ Curta 2001, p. 108: "I suggest therefore that in describing a local event – the attack of the Drugubites, Sagudates, Belegezites, Baiunetes, and Berzetes on Thessalonica – of relatively minor significance, the author of Book II framed it against a broader historical and administrative background, in order to make it appear as of greater importance. When all the other provinces and cities were falling, Thessalonica alone, under the protection of St Demetrius, was capable of resistance." * ^ A B C Fine 1983, p. 62 * ^ Davis, Jack L. and Alcock, Susan E. Sandy Pylos: An Archaeological History from Nestor to Navarino. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998, p. 215. * ^ A B C Fine 1983, p. 61 * ^ Mee, Christopher; Patrick, Michael Atherton; Forbes, Hamish Alexander (1997). A Rough and Rocky Place: The Landscape and Settlement History of the Methana Peninsula, Greece: Results of the Methana Survey Project, sponsored by the British School at Athens and the University of Liverpool. Liverpool, United Kingdom: Liverpool University Press. * ^ Max Vasmer
Max Vasmer
(1941). "Die Slaven in Griechenland". Berlin: Verlag der Akademie der Wissenschaften. * ^ Vacalopoulos, Apostolos E. (translated by Ian Moles). Origins of the Greek Nation: The Byzantine
Byzantine
Period, 1204–1461. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1970, p. 6. * ^ A B Curta 2001, p. 308 * ^ Ante Milošević. O kontinuitetu kasnoantičkih proizvoda u materijalnoj kulturi ranoga srednjeg vijeka na prostoru Dalmacije, Starohrvatska spomenička baština. Rađanje prvog hrvatskog kulturnog pejzaža. Exegi monumentum, Znanstvena izdanja 3, Zagreb, 1996, UDK 930.85(497.5), ISBN 953-6100-25-8 . p. 39. * ^ A B Fine 1983, p. 63 * ^ Danijel Dzino. Becoming Slav, Becoming Croat. Pg 218 * ^ Hupchick, Dennis. The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism. Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. ISBN 1-4039-6417-3 * ^ A B C D Fine 1983, p. 70 * ^ A B C D E Fine 1983, p. 79 * ^ A B Fine 1983, p. 80 * ^ A B Fine 1983, p. 82 * ^ A B C D Fine 1983, p. 83 * ^ Fine, 1983, p. 81 * ^ Fine 1983, p. 66 * ^ A B C Fine 1983, p. 65 * ^ Liotta, P.H. (2001). Dismembering the State: The Death of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and Why It Matters. Lexington Books. p. 27. ISBN 0-7391-0212-5 . * ^ Global Multiculturalism: Comparative Perspectives on Ethnicity, Race, and Nation, p. 259 * ^ Singleton 1985 , p. 496. * ^ "Komisija za očuvanje nacionalnih spomenika" (in Bosnian). 2003. Retrieved 2014-09-20. * ^ Anđelić Pavao, Krunidbena i grobna crkva bosanskih vladara u Milima (Arnautovićima) kod Visokog. Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja XXXIV/1979., Zemaljski muzej Bosne i Hercegovine, Sarajevo, 1980,183–247 * ^ John Van Antwerp Fine: The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, 1991, p. 261 * ^ Maddalena Betti: The Making of Christian Moravia (858-882), 2013, p. 130 * ^ Mile Nedeljković. Leksikon naroda Sveta. Beograd, 2001. * ^ "The World Factbook". cia.gov. * ^ Sarajevo, juni 2016. CENZUS OF POPULATION, HOUSEHOLDS AND DWELLINGS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA, 2013 FINAL RESULTS (PDF). BHAS. Retrieved 30 June 2016. * ^ "Population on 1 January by broad age group, sex and metropolitan regions". Eurostat. * ^ Statistical Officeof the Republic of Serbia
Serbia
page 32 * ^ Kovacevic, Lejla; Tambets, Kristiina; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Kushniarevich, Alena; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Solnik, Anu; Bego, Tamer; Primorac, Dragan; Skaro, Vedrana (2014-08-22). "Standing at the Gateway to Europe - The Genetic Structure of Western Balkan Populations Based on Autosomal and Haploid Markers". PLOS ONE. 9 (8): e105090. ISSN 1932-6203 . PMC 4141785  . PMID 25148043 . doi :10.1371/journal.pone.0105090 . * ^ Rębała et al. 2007. * ^ A B Kovacevic, Lejla; Tambets, Kristiina; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Kushniarevich, Alena; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Solnik, Anu; Bego, Tamer; Primorac, Dragan; Skaro, Vedrana (2014-08-22). "Standing at the Gateway to Europe - The Genetic Structure of Western Balkan Populations Based on Autosomal and Haploid Markers". PLOS ONE. 9 (8): e105090. ISSN 1932-6203 . PMC 4141785  . PMID 25148043 . doi :10.1371/journal.pone.0105090 . * ^ Novembre J, Johnson T, Bryc K; et al. (November 2008), "Genes mirror geography within Europe", Nature, 456 (7218): 98–101, Bibcode :2008Natur.456...98N, PMC 2735096  , PMID 18758442 , doi :10.1038/nature07331 CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link ) * ^ Lao O, Lu TT, Nothnagel M, et al. (August 2008), "Correlation between genetic and geographic structure in Europe", Curr. Biol., 18 (16): 1241–8, PMID 18691889 , doi :10.1016/j.cub.2008.07.049 , retrieved 2009-07-22

SOURCES

Wikimedia Commons has media related to SOUTH SLAVS .

* Fine, John Van Antwerp (1983), The Early Medieval Balkans, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 0-472-08149-7 * Fine, John Van Antwerp (1991), The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 978-0-472-08149-3 * Curta, Florin (2001). The Making of the Slavs: History and Archaeology of the Lower Danube
Danube
Region, c. 500–700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe
Southeastern Europe
in the Middle Ages, 500–1250. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Alexander F. Tsvirkun The history of western and southern Slavs. Kharkov., 2008 * Живковић, Тибор (2002). Јужни Словени под византијском влашћу 600-1025 (South Slavs under the Byzantine
Byzantine
Rule 600-1025). Београд: Историјски институт САНУ, Службени гласник. * Živković, Tibor (2008). Forging unity: The South Slavs
Slavs
between East and West 550-1150. Belgrade: The Institute of History, Čigoja štampa.

* v * t * e

Slavic ethnic groups

EAST SLAVS

* Belarusians
Belarusians

* Litvins * Poleshuks

* Russians
Russians

* Albazinians
Albazinians
* Don Cossacks
Don Cossacks
* Lipovans * Pomors

* Ukrainians
Ukrainians

* Zaporozhians

* Tavria Zaporozhians * Black Sea Zaporozhians

* Slobozhanians * Volynians * Podolyans * Dniprians * Siverians * Poleshuks

* Galicians

* Boykos * Hutsuls
Hutsuls
* Lemkos

* Rusyns
Rusyns

* Boykos * Hutsuls
Hutsuls
* Lemkos * Pannonian Rusyns
Rusyns

WEST SLAVS

* Czechs

* Moravians
Moravians

* Kashubians

* Poles
Poles

* Masovians * Masurians
Masurians
* Kociewiacy * Krakowiacy * Warmiak

* Silesians
Silesians
* Slovaks * Sorbs

SOUTH SLAVS

* Bosniaks
Bosniaks

* Bulgarians
Bulgarians

* Pomaks * Macedonians

* Croats
Croats

* Bunjevci * Burgenland Croats
Croats
* Janjevci
Janjevci
* Krashovani * Molise Croats
Croats
* Šokci

* Macedonians

* Torbeš

* Montenegrins
Montenegrins
* Serbs
Serbs
* Gorani * Slovenes
Slovenes
* Yugoslavs * Slavic speakers of Greek Macedonia

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* GND :

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