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Coordinates: 90°S 180°E / 90°S 180°E / -90; 180

The Geographic South Pole. (The flag used on the flagpole is interchangeable.)

Image taken by NASA
NASA
showing Antarctica
Antarctica
and the South Pole
South Pole
in 2005.

South Geographic Pole South Magnetic Pole
South Magnetic Pole
(2007) South Geomagnetic Pole
South Geomagnetic Pole
(2005) South Pole
South Pole
of Inaccessibility

The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole
South Pole
or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface. It is the southernmost point on the surface of the Earth
Earth
and lies on the opposite side of the Earth
Earth
from the North Pole. Situated on the continent of Antarctica, it is the site of the United States Amundsen–Scott South Pole
South Pole
Station, which was established in 1956 and has been permanently staffed since that year. The Geographic South Pole
South Pole
is distinct from the South Magnetic Pole, the position of which is defined based on the Earth's magnetic field. The South Pole is at the center of the Southern Hemisphere.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Ceremonial South Pole 1.2 Historic monuments

2 Exploration

2.1 Pre-1900 2.2 1900–1950 2.3 1950–present

3 Climate and day and night 4 Time 5 Flora and fauna 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Geography[edit]

The Ceremonial South Pole
South Pole
in 1998.

The Ceremonial South Pole
South Pole
as of February 2008.

For most purposes, the Geographic South Pole
South Pole
is defined as the southern point of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface (the other being the Geographic North Pole). However, the Earth's axis of rotation is actually subject to very small "wobbles" (polar motion), so this definition is not adequate for very precise work. The geographic coordinates of the South Pole
South Pole
are usually given simply as 90°S, since its longitude is geometrically undefined and irrelevant. When a longitude is desired, it may be given as 0°. At the South Pole, all directions face north. For this reason, directions at the Pole are given relative to "grid north", which points northwards along the prime meridian.[1] Along tight latitude circles, clockwise is east, and counterclockwise is west, opposite to the North Pole. The Geographic South Pole
South Pole
is located on the continent of Antarctica (although this has not been the case for all of Earth's history because of continental drift). It sits atop a featureless, barren, windswept and icy plateau at an altitude of 2,835 metres (9,301 ft) above sea level, and is located about 1,300 km (800 mi) from the nearest open sea at Bay of Whales. The ice is estimated to be about 2,700 metres (9,000 ft) thick at the Pole, so the land surface under the ice sheet is actually near sea level.[2] The polar ice sheet is moving at a rate of roughly 10 metres per year in a direction between 37° and 40° west of grid north,[3] down towards the Weddell Sea. Therefore, the position of the station and other artificial features relative to the geographic pole gradually shift over time. The Geographic South Pole
South Pole
is marked by a stake in the ice alongside a small sign; these are repositioned each year in a ceremony on New Year's Day to compensate for the movement of the ice.[4] The sign records the respective dates that Roald Amundsen
Roald Amundsen
and Robert F. Scott reached the Pole, followed by a short quotation from each man, and gives the elevation as "9,301 FT.".[5][6] A new marker stake is designed and fabricated each year by staff at the site.[4] Ceremonial South Pole[edit] The Ceremonial South Pole
South Pole
is an area set aside for photo opportunities at the South Pole
South Pole
Station. It is located some meters from the Geographic South Pole, and consists of a metallic sphere on a short bamboo pole, surrounded by the flags of the original Antarctic
Antarctic
Treaty signatory states.[citation needed] Historic monuments[edit]

Argentinian soldiers saluting the flag after erecting the pole in 1965.

Amundsen's Tent: The tent was erected by the Norwegian expedition led by Roald Amundsen
Roald Amundsen
on its arrival on 14 December 1911. It is currently buried beneath the snow and ice in the vicinity of the Pole. It has been designated a Historic Site or Monument (HSM 80), following a proposal by Norway
Norway
to the Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
Consultative Meeting.[7] The precise location of the tent is unknown, but based on calculations of the rate of movement of the ice and the accumulation of snow, it is believed, as of 2010, to lie between 1.8 and 2.5 km (1.1 and 1.6 miles) from the Pole at a depth of 17 m (56 ft) below the present surface.[8] Argentine Flagpole: A flagpole erected at the South Geographical Pole in December 1965 by the First Argentine Overland Polar Expedition has been designated a Historic Site or Monument (HSM 1) following a proposal by Argentina to the Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
Consultative Meeting.[9] Exploration[edit] See also: History of Antarctica, List of Antarctic
Antarctic
expeditions, Heroic Age of Antarctic
Antarctic
Exploration, and Farthest South Pre-1900[edit] In 1820, several expeditions claimed to have been the first to have sighted Antarctica, with the very first[clarification needed] being the Russian expedition led by Faddey Bellingshausen
Faddey Bellingshausen
and Mikhail Lazarev.[10] The first landing was probably just over a year later when American Captain John Davis, a sealer, set foot on the ice.[11] The basic geography of the Antarctic
Antarctic
coastline was not understood until the mid-to-late 19th century. American naval officer Charles Wilkes claimed (correctly) that Antarctica
Antarctica
was a new continent, basing the claim on his exploration in 1839–40,[12] while James Clark Ross, in his expedition of 1839–43, hoped that he might be able to sail all the way to the South Pole. (He was unsuccessful.)[13] 1900–1950[edit]

Amundsen's party at the South Pole, December 1911. From left to right: Amundsen, Hanssen, Hassel and Wisting (photo by fifth member Bjaaland).

British explorer Robert Falcon Scott
Robert Falcon Scott
on the Discovery Expedition
Discovery Expedition
of 1901–04 was the first to attempt to find a route from the Antarctic coastline to the South Pole. Scott, accompanied by Ernest Shackleton and Edward Wilson, set out with the aim of travelling as far south as possible, and on 31 December 1902, reached 82°16′ S.[14] Shackleton later returned to Antarctica
Antarctica
as leader of the British Antarctic Expedition (Nimrod Expedition) in a bid to reach the Pole. On 9 January 1909, with three companions, he reached 88°23' S – 112 miles (180 km) from the Pole – before being forced to turn back.[15] The first men to reach the Geographic South Pole
South Pole
were the Norwegian Roald Amundsen
Roald Amundsen
and his party on December 14, 1911. Amundsen named his camp Polheim
Polheim
and the entire plateau surrounding the Pole King Haakon VII Vidde in honour of King Haakon VII of Norway. Robert Falcon Scott returned to Antarctica
Antarctica
with his second expedition, the Terra Nova Expedition, initially unaware of Amundsen's secretive expedition. Scott and four other men reached the South Pole
South Pole
on January 17, 1912, thirty-four days after Amundsen. On the return trip, Scott and his four companions all died of starvation and extreme cold. In 1914 Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition
Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition
set out with the goal of crossing Antarctica
Antarctica
via the South Pole, but his ship, the Endurance, was frozen in pack ice and sank 11 months later. The overland journey was never made. US Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd, with the assistance of his first pilot Bernt Balchen, became the first person to fly over the South Pole
South Pole
on November 29, 1929. 1950–present[edit]

Amundsen–Scott South Pole
South Pole
Station. The ceremonial pole and flags can be seen in the background, slightly to the left of centre, below the tracks behind the buildings. The actual geographic pole is a few more metres to the left. The buildings are raised on stilts to prevent snow build up.

It was not until 31 October 1956 that humans once again set foot at the South Pole, when a party led by Admiral George J. Dufek
George J. Dufek
of the US Navy landed there in an R4D-5L Skytrain (C-47 Skytrain) aircraft. The US Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station
Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station
was established by air over 1956–1957 for the International Geophysical Year
International Geophysical Year
and has been continuously staffed since then by research and support personnel.[2] After Amundsen and Scott, the next people to reach the South Pole overland (albeit with some air support) were Edmund Hillary
Edmund Hillary
(January 4, 1958) and Vivian Fuchs
Vivian Fuchs
(January 19, 1958) and their respective parties, during the Commonwealth Trans- Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition. There have been many subsequent expeditions to arrive at the South Pole
South Pole
by surface transportation, including those by Havola, Crary and Fiennes. First group of women to reach the pole were Pam Young, Jean Pearson, Lois Jones, Eileen McSaveney, Kay Lindsay and Terry Tickhill in 1969.[16] In 1978 Michele Eileen Raney becomes the first woman to winter at the South Pole.[17] Subsequent to the establishment, in 1987, of the logistic support base at Patriot Hills Base Camp, the South Pole
South Pole
became more accessible to non-government expeditions. On December 30, 1989, Arved Fuchs
Arved Fuchs
and Reinhold Messner
Reinhold Messner
were the first to traverse Antarctica
Antarctica
via the South Pole
South Pole
without animal or motorized help, using only skis and the help of wind.[18][19] Two women, Victoria E. Murden and Shirley Metz reached the pole by land on January 17, 1989.[20] The fastest unsupported journey to the Geographic South Pole
South Pole
from the ocean is 24 days and one hour from Hercules Inlet and was set in 2011 by Norwegian adventurer Christian Eide,[21] who beat the previous solo record set in 2009 by American Todd Carmichael
Todd Carmichael
of 39 days and seven hours, and the previous group record also set in 2009 of 33 days and 23 hours.[22] The fastest solo (female), unsupported and unassisted trek to the south pole was performed by Hannah McKeand from the UK in 2006. She made the journey in 39 days 9hrs 33mins. She started on the 19th November 2006 and finished on the 28 December 2006.[23] In the 2011/12 summer, separate expeditions by Norwegian Aleksander Gamme and Australians James Castrission and Justin Jones jointly claimed the first unsupported trek without dogs or kites from the Antarctic
Antarctic
coast to the South Pole
South Pole
and back. The two expeditions started from Hercules Inlet a day apart, with Gamme starting first, but completing according to plan the last few kilometres together. As Gamme traveled alone he thus simultaneously became the first to complete the task solo.[24][25][26] Climate and day and night[edit] See also: Climate of Antarctica, Midnight sun, and Polar night During the southern winter (March–September), the South Pole receives no sunlight at all, and from May 11 to August 1, between extended periods of twilight, it is completely dark (apart from moonlight). In the summer (September–March), the sun is continuously above the horizon and appears to move in a counter-clockwise circle. However, it is always low in the sky, reaching a maximum of 23.5° in December. Much of the sunlight that does reach the surface is reflected by the white snow. This lack of warmth from the sun, combined with the high altitude (about 2,800 metres (9,200 ft)), means that the South Pole
South Pole
has one of the coldest climates on Earth (though it is not quite the coldest; that record goes to the region in the vicinity of the Vostok Station, also in Antarctica, which lies at a higher elevation).[27] Temperatures at the South Pole
South Pole
are much lower than at the North Pole, primarily because the South Pole
South Pole
is located at altitude in the middle of a continental land mass, while the North Pole is at sea level in the middle of an ocean, which acts as a reservoir of heat. The South Pole
South Pole
is at an altitude of 9,300 feet (2,800 m) but feels like 11,000 feet (3,400 m).[28]. Centrifugal force from the spin of the planet pulls the atmosphere toward the equator. The South Pole is colder than the North Pole
North Pole
because of the elevation difference.[29] The North Pole
North Pole
is a few feet from sea level. In midsummer, as the sun reaches its maximum elevation of about 23.5 degrees, high temperatures at the South Pole
South Pole
in January average at −25.9 °C (−15 °F). As the six-month "day" wears on and the sun gets lower, temperatures drop as well: they reach −45 °C (−49 °F) around sunset (late March) and sunrise (late September). In midwinter, the average temperature remains steady at around −58 °C (−72 °F). The highest temperature ever recorded at the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station
Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station
was −12.3 °C (9.9 °F) on Christmas Day, 2011,[30] and the lowest was −82.8 °C (−117.0 °F) on June 23, 1982[31][32][33] (for comparison, the lowest temperature directly recorded anywhere on earth was −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) at Vostok Station
Vostok Station
on July 21, 1983, though −93.2 °C (−135.8 °F) was measured indirectly by satellite in East Antarctica
Antarctica
between Dome A
Dome A
and Dome F
Dome F
in August 2010[34]). The South Pole
South Pole
has a desert climate, receiving very little precipitation. Air humidity is near zero. However, high winds can cause the blowing of snowfall, and the accumulation of snow amounts to about 20 cm (8 in) per year.[35] The former dome seen in pictures of the Amundsen–Scott station is partially buried due to snow storms, and the entrance to the dome had to be regularly bulldozed to uncover it. More recent buildings are raised on stilts so that the snow does not build up against the sides of them.

Climate data for The South Pole

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) −14.4 (6.1) −20.6 (−5.1) −26.7 (−16.1) −27.8 (−18) −25.1 (−13.2) −28.8 (−19.8) −33.9 (−29) −32.8 (−27) −29.3 (−20.7) −25.1 (−13.2) −18.9 (−2) −12.3 (9.9) −12.3 (9.9)

Average high °C (°F) −26.0 (−14.8) −37.9 (−36.2) −49.6 (−57.3) −53.0 (−63.4) −53.6 (−64.5) −54.5 (−66.1) −55.2 (−67.4) −54.9 (−66.8) −54.4 (−65.9) −48.4 (−55.1) −36.2 (−33.2) −26.3 (−15.3) −45.8 (−50.4)

Daily mean °C (°F) −28.4 (−19.1) −40.9 (−41.6) −53.7 (−64.7) −57.8 (−72) −58.0 (−72.4) −58.9 (−74) −59.8 (−75.6) −59.7 (−75.5) −59.1 (−74.4) −51.6 (−60.9) −38.2 (−36.8) −28.0 (−18.4) −49.5 (−57.1)

Average low °C (°F) −29.6 (−21.3) −43.1 (−45.6) −56.8 (−70.2) −60.9 (−77.6) −61.5 (−78.7) −62.8 (−81) −63.4 (−82.1) −63.2 (−81.8) −61.7 (−79.1) −54.3 (−65.7) −40.1 (−40.2) −29.1 (−20.4) −52.2 (−62)

Record low °C (°F) −41.1 (−42) −58.9 (−74) −71.1 (−96) −75.0 (−103) −78.3 (−108.9) −82.8 (−117) −80.6 (−113.1) −79.3 (−110.7) −79.4 (−110.9) −72.0 (−97.6) −55.0 (−67) −41.1 (−42) −82.8 (−117)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.3 (0.012) 0.6 (0.024) 0.2 (0.008) 0.1 (0.004) 0.2 (0.008) 0.1 (0.004) Trace Trace 0.1 (0.004) 0.1 (0.004) 0.1 (0.004) 0.3 (0.012) 2.3 (0.091)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 1.6

Average snowy days 22.0 19.6 13.6 11.4 17.2 17.3 18.2 17.5 11.7 16.7 16.9 20.6 203.0

Mean monthly sunshine hours 406.1 497.2 195.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 34.1 390.6 558.0 616.9 2,698.2

Mean daily sunshine hours 13.1 17.6 6.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 12.6 18.6 19.9 7.4

Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net (temperatures, 1981–2010, extremes 1957–present)[36]

Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Deutscher Wetterdienst
(precipitation 1957–1988 and sun 1978–1993),[37] NOAA (snowy days data, 1961–1988)[38]

Time[edit] In most places on Earth, local time is determined by longitude, such that the time of day is more-or-less synchronised to the position of the sun in the sky (for example, at midday the sun is roughly at its highest). This line of reasoning fails at the South Pole, where the sun rises and sets only once per year, and all lines of longitude, and hence all time zones, converge. There is no a priori reason for placing the South Pole
South Pole
in any particular time zone, but as a matter of practical convenience the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station
Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station
keeps New Zealand Time
New Zealand Time
(UTC+12). This is because the US flies its resupply missions ("Operation Deep Freeze") out of McMurdo Station, which is supplied from Christchurch, New Zealand. Flora and fauna[edit] Due to its exceptionally harsh climate, there are no native resident plants or animals at the South Pole. Remarkably, though, off-course south polar skuas and snow petrels are occasionally seen there.[39] In 2000 it was reported that microbes had been detected living in the South Pole
South Pole
ice.[40] See also[edit]

Antarctica
Antarctica
portal

List of Antarctic
Antarctic
expeditions North Pole South Pole
South Pole
Telescope

References[edit]

^ "Moving the South Pole" Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine., NASA
NASA
Quest ^ a b Amundsen–Scott South Pole
South Pole
Station, National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs ^ "Where is the real Pole really?". Retrieved 2008-03-25.  ^ a b "Marker makes annual move", page 6, Antarctic
Antarctic
Sun. January 8, 2006; McMurdo Station, Antarctica. ^ "Sign at the (ever moving) actual geographical South Pole
South Pole
(a few feet away from the Ceremonial Pole)". Pierre R. Schwob Physics/Astronomy. Retrieved 2013-05-25.  ^ Kiefer, Alex (January 1994). " South Pole
South Pole
Marker". Retrieved 2008-03-24.  ^ "List of Historic Sites and Monuments approved by the ATCM (2012)" (PDF). Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
Secretariat. 2012. Retrieved 2014-01-07.  ^ [1] Polar Record / Volume 47 / Issue 03 / July 2011 ^ "List of Historic Sites and Monuments approved by the ATCM (2012)" (PDF). Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
Secretariat. 2012. Retrieved 2013-10-04.  ^ Armstrong, Terence (1971). "Bellingshausen and the discovery of Antarctica". Polar Record. 15 (99): 887–889. doi:10.1017/S0032247400062112.  ^ Hurtigruten. "General Information". hurtigruten.com/us/. Hurtigruten. Retrieved 2014-10-23.  ^ Van Doren, Charles Lincoln; McHenry, Robert (1971). Webster's Guide to American History: A Chronological, Geographical, and Biographical Survey and Compendium. Merriam-Webster. p. 1326. ISBN 978-0-87779-081-5.  ^ Berkman, Paul Arthur (2002). Science Into Policy: Global Lessons from Antarctica. Academic Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-12-091560-6.  ^ Berkman, Paul Arthur (2002). Science Into Policy: Global Lessons from Antarctica. Academic Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-12-091560-6.  ^ Simpson-Housley, Paul (2002). Antarctica: Exploration, Perception and Metaphor. Taylor & Francis. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-203-03602-0.  ^ "First Women at Pole". South Pole
South Pole
Station. Retrieved 24 August 2016.  ^ "Famous Firsts". The Antarctic
Antarctic
Sun. United States
United States
Antarctic
Antarctic
Program. 13 November 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2016.  ^ "Südtirol – Diese Seite existiert nicht". Suedtirol.info. Archived from the original on March 10, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-13.  ^ "Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2012-08-13. [dead link] ^ " Antarctic
Antarctic
Firsts". Antarctic
Antarctic
Circle. 4 October 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2016.  ^ Explorersweb (2011-01-13). "Breaking news: Christian Eide bags the South Pole
South Pole
solo speed ski world record". explorersweb.com. Retrieved 2011-01-13.  ^ "Canadians break speed record trekking to South Pole". Toronto Star. The Canadian Press. 2009-01-07. Retrieved 2010-02-10.  ^ Glenday, Craig (2013). Guinness World Records 2014. The Jim Patison Group. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-908843-15-9.  ^ "Ice Trek Expeditions". Retrieved 2013-05-25.  ^ "Crossing the Ice". Retrieved 2013-05-25.  ^ "Wilson, nå er vi framme!". Retrieved 2013-05-25.  ^ Science question of the week, Goddard Space Flight Center. ^ "The USAP Portal: Science and Support in Antarctica
Antarctica
- Course Material". www.usap.gov.  ^ "Why is the South Pole
South Pole
colder than the North Pole?".  ^ Matthew A. Lazzara (2011-12-28). "Preliminary Report: Record Temperatures at South Pole
South Pole
(and nearby AWS sites…)". Retrieved 2011-12-28.  ^ Your stay at Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station
Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station
Archived 2006-02-02 at the Wayback Machine., National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs ^ "How cold is the Antarctic?". NIWA. Retrieved 2012-08-13.  ^ " Antarctic
Antarctic
Weather". Retrieved 2013-05-25.  ^ "NASA-USGS Landsat 8 Satellite Pinpoints Coldest Spots on Earth", NASA, December 9, 2013 ^ Initial environmental evaluation – development of blue-ice and compacted-snow runways, National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, April 9, 1993 ^ "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Amundsen–Scott" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 5 April 2017.  ^ "Klimatafel von Amundsen - Scott / Südpol-Station (USA) / Antarktis" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 5 April 2017.  ^ "Amundsen–Scott Climate Normals 1961−1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 5 April 2017.  ^ Mark Sabbatini, "Non-human life form seen at Pole", The Antarctic Sun, 5 January 2003. ^ "Snow microbes found at South Pole", BBC News, 10 July 2000

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to South Pole.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for South Pole.

NOAA South Pole
South Pole
Webcam 360° Panoramas of the South Pole Images of this location are available at the Degree Confluence Project South Pole
South Pole
Photo Gallery Poles by the Australian Antarctic
Antarctic
Division The Antarctic
Antarctic
Sun – Online news source for the U.S. Antarctic Program Big Dead Place UK team makes polar trek history – BBC News article on first expedition to Pole of Inaccessibility
Pole of Inaccessibility
without mechanical assistance Listen to Ernest Shackleton
Ernest Shackleton
describing his 1908 South Pole
South Pole
Expedition, and read more about the recording on [australianscreen online]. The recording describing Shackleton's 1908 South Pole
South Pole
Expedition was added to the National Film and Sound Archive's Sounds of Australia registry in 2007

v t e

Polar exploration

Arctic

Ocean History Expeditions Research stations

Farthest North North Pole

Barentsz Hudson Marmaduke Carolus Parry North Magnetic Pole

J. Ross J. C. Ross Abernethy Kane Hayes

Polaris

Polaris C. F. Hall

British Arctic
Arctic
Expedition

HMS Alert Nares HMS Discovery Stephenson Markham

Lady Franklin Bay Expedition

Greely Lockwood Brainard

1st Fram
Fram
expedition

Fram Nansen Johansen Sverdrup

Jason

Amedeo

F. Cook Peary Sedov Byrd Airship Norge

Amundsen Nobile Wisting Riiser-Larsen Ellsworth

Airship Italia Nautilus

Wilkins

ANT-25

Chkalov Baydukov Belyakov

"North Pole" manned drifting ice stations NP-1

Papanin Shirshov E. Fyodorov Krenkel

NP-36 NP-37 Sedov

Badygin Wiese

USS Nautilus USS Skate Plaisted Herbert NS Arktika Barneo Arktika 2007

Mir submersibles Sagalevich Chilingarov

Iceland Greenland

Pytheas Brendan Papar Vikings Naddodd Svavarsson Arnarson Norse colonization of the Americas Ulfsson Galti Erik the Red Christian IV's expeditions

J. Hall Cunningham Lindenov C. Richardson

Danish colonization

Egede

Scoresby Jason

Nansen Sverdrup

Peary Rasmussen

Northwest Passage Northern Canada

Cabot G. Corte-Real M. Corte-Real Frobisher Gilbert Davis Hudson Discovery

Bylot Baffin

Munk I. Fyodorov Gvozdev HMS Resolution

J. Cook

HMS Discovery

Clerke

Mackenzie Kotzebue J. Ross HMS Griper

Parry

HMS Hecla

Lyon

HMS Fury

Hoppner

Crozier J. C. Ross Coppermine Expedition Franklin Back Dease Simpson HMS Blossom

Beechey

Franklin's lost expedition

HMS Erebus HMS Terror

Collinson Rae–Richardson Expedition

Rae J. Richardson

Austin McClure Expedition

HMS Investigator McClure HMS Resolute Kellett

Belcher Kennedy Bellot Isabel

Inglefield

2nd Grinnell Expedition

USS Advance Kane

Fox

McClintock

HMS Pandora

Young

Fram

Sverdrup

Gjøa

Amundsen

Rasmussen Karluk

Stefansson Bartlett

St. Roch

H. Larsen

Cowper

North East Passage Russian Arctic

Pomors Koch boats Willoughby Chancellor Barentsz Mangazeya Hudson Poole Siberian Cossacks Perfilyev Stadukhin Dezhnev Popov Ivanov Vagin Permyakov Great Northern Expedition

Bering Chirikov Malygin Ovtsyn Minin V. Pronchishchev M. Pronchishcheva Chelyuskin Kh. Laptev D. Laptev

Chichagov Lyakhov Billings Sannikov Gedenschtrom Wrangel Matyushkin Anjou Litke Lavrov Pakhtusov Tsivolko Middendorff Austro-Hungarian Expedition

Weyprecht Payer

Vega Expedition

A. E. Nordenskiöld Palander

USS Jeannette

De Long

Yermak

Makarov

Zarya

Toll Kolomeitsev Matisen Kolchak

Sedov Rusanov Kuchin Brusilov Expedition

Sv. Anna Brusilov Albanov Konrad

Wiese Nagórski Taymyr / Vaygach

Vilkitsky

Maud

Amundsen

AARI

Samoylovich

Begichev Urvantsev Sadko

Ushakov

Glavsevmorput

Schmidt

Aviaarktika

Shevelev

Sibiryakov

Voronin

Chelyuskin Krassin Gakkel Nuclear-powered icebreakers

NS Lenin Arktika class

Antarctic

Continent History Expeditions

Southern Ocean

Roché Bouvet Kerguelen HMS Resolution

J. Cook

HMS Adventure

Furneaux

Smith San Telmo Vostok

Bellingshausen

Mirny

Lazarev

Bransfield Palmer Davis Weddell Morrell Astrolabe

Dumont d'Urville

United States
United States
Exploring Expedition

USS Vincennes Wilkes

USS Porpoise

Ringgold

Ross expedition

HMS Erebus (J. C. Ross Abernethy) HMS Terror (Crozier)

Cooper Challenger expedition

HMS Challenger Nares Murray

Jason

C. A. Larsen

"Heroic Age"

Belgian Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Belgica de Gerlache Lecointe Amundsen Cook Arctowski Racoviță Dobrowolski

Southern Cross

Southern Cross Borchgrevink

Discovery

Discovery Discovery Hut

Gauss

Gauss Drygalski

Swedish Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Antarctic O. Nordenskjöld C. A. Larsen

Scottish Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Bruce Scotia

Orcadas Base Nimrod Expedition

Nimrod

French Antarctic
Antarctic
Expeditions

Pourquoi-Pas Charcot

Japanese Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Shirase

Amundsen's South Pole
South Pole
expedition

Fram Amundsen Framheim Polheim

Terra Nova

Terra Nova Scott Wilson E. R. Evans Crean Lashly

Filchner Australasian Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

SY Aurora Mawson

Far Eastern Party Imperial Trans- Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Endurance Ernest Shackleton Wild

James Caird Ross Sea
Ross Sea
party

Mackintosh

Shackleton–Rowett Expedition

Quest

IPY · IGY Modern research

Christensen Byrd BANZARE BGLE

Rymill

New Swabia

Ritscher

Operation Tabarin

Marr

Operation Highjump Captain Arturo Prat Base British Antarctic
Antarctic
Survey Operation Windmill

Ketchum

Ronne Expedition

F. Ronne E. Ronne Schlossbach

Operation Deep Freeze McMurdo Station Commonwealth Trans- Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Hillary V. Fuchs

Soviet Antarctic
Antarctic
Expeditions

1st

Somov Klenova Mirny

2nd

Tryoshnikov

3rd

Tolstikov

Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
System Transglobe Expedition

Fiennes Burton

Lake Vostok Kapitsa

Farthest South South Pole

HMS Resolution

J. Cook

HMS Adventure

Furneaux

Weddell HMS Erebus

J. C. Ross

HMS Terror

Crozier

Southern Cross

Borchgrevink

Discovery

Barne

Nimrod

Shackleton Wild Marshall Adams

South Magnetic Pole

Mawson David Mackay

Amundsen's South Pole
South Pole
expedition

Fram Amundsen Bjaaland Helmer Hassel Wisting Polheim

Terra Nova

Scott E. Evans Oates Wilson Bowers

Byrd Balchen McKinley Dufek Amundsen–Scott South Pole
South Pole
Station Hillary V. Fuchs Pole of Cold

Vostok Station

Pole of inaccessibility

Pole of Inaccessibility
Pole of Inaccessibility
Station Tolstikov

Crary A. Fuchs Messner

v t e

Historic Sites and Monuments in Antarctica

South Pole

South Pole

Coats Land

Belgrano II Station

Queen Maud Land

Dakshin Gangotri Humboldt Mountains Schirmacher Oasis Showa Station

Enderby Land

Proclamation Island

Kemp Land

Pole of Inaccessibility

Mac. Robertson Land

Cape Bruce

Princess Elizabeth Land

Tryne Islands Vostok Station Walkabout Rocks

Queen Mary Land

Buromskiy Island Mirny Station

Wilkes Land

A.B. Dobrowolski Station

Adélie Land

Débarquement Rock Petrel Island Port Martin

George V Land

Cape Denison

Victoria Land

Cape Adare Cape Geology Cape Wadworth Foyn Island Hells Gate Moraine Inexpressible Island Mount Dockery

Ross Sea

Cape Crozier Cape Evans Cape Royds Discovery Hut Hut Point Peninsula Lewis Bay McMurdo Station Mount Betty Mount Erebus Observation Hill Scott Base Scott's Hut

Edward VII Land

Scott Nunataks

Graham Land

Bernardo O'Higgins Station Damoy Point Detaille Island Esperanza Station Hope Bay Horseshoe Island Lambda Island Megalestris Hill Metchnikoff Point Paradise Harbor Paulet Island Port Charcot Port Lockroy San Martin Station Seymour Island Snow Hill Island Stonington Island Waterboat Point Winter Island

South Shetlands

Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
Monument Arturo Prat Station Great Wall Station Half Moon Beach Henryk Arctowski
Henryk Arctowski
Station Lame Dog Hut Maxwell Bay Pendulum Cove Point Wild Potter Cove Whalers Bay Yankee Harbour

South Orkneys

Scotia Bay

Stonington Island

East Base

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 315128

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