SOUTH MORAVA or in the past BULGARIAN MORAVA (Serbian and
Macedonian : Јужна Морава, Serbian Latin : Južna Morava;
pronounced ; Albanian : Lumi Morava; Bulgarian : Българска
Морава, Balgarska Morava) is a river in eastern
Serbia , which represents the shorter headwater of Great
Morava . Today, it is 295 km long. It flows generally in the south to
north direction, from Macedonian border to
Kosovo and onwards to
Serbia , where it meets
West Morava at
Stalać , to create
Great Morava .
* 1 Sources
* 2 Geography
* 3 Tributaries
* 4 Economy
* 5 See also
* 6 Notes and references
* 7 External links
The river rises in the
Skopska Crna Gora
Skopska Crna Gora mountain in Macedonia, north
Skopje . Streams of Ključevska reka and Slatinska reka join together
to form the river Golema, which is, after passing the
Macedonian-Serbian border, known as
Binačka Morava . After 49 km it
meets Preševska Moravica at
Bujanovac , and for the remaining of 246
km flows as South Morava.
South Morava belongs to the
Black Sea drainage basin, and its own
drainage area is 15,469 km², out of which 1,237 is in Bulgaria
(through its right tributary Nišava ). Its average discharge at the
mouth is 100 m³/s and it is not navigable.
South Morava has a composite valley, which means it consists of
series of gorges and valleys in this order:
Gnjilane valley –
Končulj gorge –
Vranje valley – Grdelica gorge – Leskovac
Niš valley –
Aleksinac valley –
Stalać gorge. After
breaking through the last,
Stalać gorge, it meets West Morava.
South Morava in
In macro-geological point of view,
South Morava connects Aegean basin
with Pannonian basin. This creates a phenomenon named apparent flow
inversion, because it seems that river from one lowland climbs up the
mountains and then flows into another lowland. The point connecting
these two large geological basins is Grdelica gorge (Serbian:
Grdelička klisura/Грделичка клисура), but the bottom
of the gorge, where the river flows, is much lower than the mountains
surrounding it, so the river flows normally.
South Morava used to be 318 km long and represented longer and
natural (flowing in the same direction) headwater of Great Morava.
Causing severe floods in history, meandering river has been shortened
by almost 30 km until today, so it became shorter than West Morava.
West Morava has always had bigger discharge.
Areas in southern
South Morava flows have been almost
completely deforested, which causes one of the most severe cases of
erosion in the Balkans. As a result of this, the river brings large
amount of materials to the Great Morava, filling and elevating its
river bed, which helps the huge floods of its daughter river.
South Morava has 157 tributaries. The most important left ones are:
Veternica , Pusta reka and Toplica . Right tributaries
are: Vrla , Vlasina , Nišava (the longest) and
Sokobanjska Moravica .
South Morava has a significant potential for electricity production,
but this has not been used at all. Huge hydroelectrical system has
been constructed in its drainage basin, though (Vlasina- Vrla I-IV
To a certain extent, its waters are used for irrigation.
The most important role river valley has in transportation. It is the
natural route for both railway and highway
Thessaloniki . It is part of the Pan-European
corridor X , and the route of E75 Highway .
NOTES AND REFERENCES
Wikimedia Commons has media related to SOUTH MORAVA .
* ^ A B
Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the
Kosovo and the Republic of
Serbia . The Republic of Kosovo
unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia
continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory . The two
governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the
Brussels Agreement .
Kosovo has received formal recognition as an
independent state from 111 out of 193
United Nations member states .
* ^ Serbien und die Serben,
Spiridon Gopčević Publisher Elischer,
1891, pp.5 - 6.
* ^ The Russo-Turkish War, R. Grant Barnwell, 1878, p.402
* ^ A handbook of Serbia, Montenegro, Albania and adjacent parts of
Greece, Great Britain. Naval Intelligence Division, 1920, p.11
* ^ Български хроники: история на
нашия народ от 2137 пр. Хр. до 1453 сл. Хр.
Стефан Цанев, TRUD Publishers, 2008, ISBN 9545288612 , str.
* ^ Bŭlgaria 20-ti vek: almanakh, Filip Panaĭotov, TRUD
Publishers, 1999, ISBN 9545281464 , p. 1013.
* ^ Сербске Народне Новине, године VII,
Чис 41. Четвертак 25 мая. 1844, Пешта
* Mala Prosvetina Enciklopedija, Third edition (1985); Prosveta;
* Jovan Đ. Marković (1990): "Enciklopedijski geografski leksikon