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SOUTH MORAVA or in the past BULGARIAN MORAVA (Serbian and Macedonian : Јужна Морава, Serbian Latin : Južna Morava; pronounced ; Albanian : Lumi Morava; Bulgarian : Българска Морава, Balgarska Morava) is a river in eastern Kosovo
Kosovo
and in southern Serbia
Serbia
, which represents the shorter headwater of Great Morava . Today, it is 295 km long. It flows generally in the south to north direction, from Macedonian border to Kosovo
Kosovo
and onwards to Central Serbia
Serbia
, where it meets West Morava
West Morava
at Stalać , to create Great Morava
Great Morava
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Sources * 2 Geography * 3 Tributaries * 4 Economy * 5 See also * 6 Notes and references * 7 External links

SOURCES

The river rises in the Skopska Crna Gora
Skopska Crna Gora
mountain in Macedonia, north Skopje
Skopje
. Streams of Ključevska reka and Slatinska reka join together to form the river Golema, which is, after passing the Macedonian-Serbian border, known as Binačka Morava . After 49 km it meets Preševska Moravica at Bujanovac
Bujanovac
, and for the remaining of 246 km flows as South Morava.

GEOGRAPHY

South Morava
South Morava
belongs to the Black Sea
Black Sea
drainage basin, and its own drainage area is 15,469 km², out of which 1,237 is in Bulgaria (through its right tributary Nišava ). Its average discharge at the mouth is 100 m³/s and it is not navigable.

South Morava
South Morava
has a composite valley, which means it consists of series of gorges and valleys in this order: Gnjilane
Gnjilane
valley – Končulj gorge – Vranje
Vranje
valley – Grdelica gorge – Leskovac valley – Niš
Niš
valley – Aleksinac
Aleksinac
valley – Stalać gorge. After breaking through the last, Stalać gorge, it meets West Morava. South Morava
South Morava
in Moravac

In macro-geological point of view, South Morava
South Morava
connects Aegean basin with Pannonian basin. This creates a phenomenon named apparent flow inversion, because it seems that river from one lowland climbs up the mountains and then flows into another lowland. The point connecting these two large geological basins is Grdelica gorge (Serbian: Grdelička klisura/Грделичка клисура), but the bottom of the gorge, where the river flows, is much lower than the mountains surrounding it, so the river flows normally.

South Morava
South Morava
used to be 318 km long and represented longer and natural (flowing in the same direction) headwater of Great Morava. Causing severe floods in history, meandering river has been shortened by almost 30 km until today, so it became shorter than West Morava. However, West Morava
West Morava
has always had bigger discharge.

Areas in southern Serbia
Serbia
where South Morava
South Morava
flows have been almost completely deforested, which causes one of the most severe cases of erosion in the Balkans. As a result of this, the river brings large amount of materials to the Great Morava, filling and elevating its river bed, which helps the huge floods of its daughter river.

TRIBUTARIES

South Morava
South Morava
has 157 tributaries. The most important left ones are: Jablanica , Veternica , Pusta reka and Toplica . Right tributaries are: Vrla , Vlasina , Nišava (the longest) and Sokobanjska Moravica .

ECONOMY

South Morava
South Morava
has a significant potential for electricity production, but this has not been used at all. Huge hydroelectrical system has been constructed in its drainage basin, though (Vlasina- Vrla I-IV power stations).

To a certain extent, its waters are used for irrigation.

The most important role river valley has in transportation. It is the natural route for both railway and highway Belgrade–Skopje– Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
. It is part of the Pan-European corridor X , and the route of E75 Highway .

SEE ALSO

* Great Morava
Great Morava
* West Morava
West Morava
* Nišava River
River
* Pčinja River
River

NOTES AND REFERENCES

Wikimedia Commons has media related to SOUTH MORAVA .

Notes

* ^ A B Kosovo
Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia
Serbia
. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory . The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement . Kosovo
Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 111 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states .

General

* ^ Serbien und die Serben, Spiridon Gopčević Publisher Elischer, 1891, pp.5 - 6. * ^ The Russo-Turkish War, R. Grant Barnwell, 1878, p.402 * ^ A handbook of Serbia, Montenegro, Albania and adjacent parts of Greece, Great Britain. Naval Intelligence Division, 1920, p.11 * ^ Български хроники: история на нашия народ от 2137 пр. Хр. до 1453 сл. Хр. Стефан Цанев, TRUD Publishers, 2008, ISBN 9545288612 , str. 346. * ^ Bŭlgaria 20-ti vek: almanakh, Filip Panaĭotov, TRUD Publishers, 1999, ISBN 9545281464 , p. 1013. * ^ Сербске Народне Новине, године VII, Чис 41. Четвертак 25 мая. 1844, Пешта

* Mala Prosvetina Enciklopedija, Third edition (1985); Prosveta; ISBN 86-07-00001-2 * Jovan Đ. Marković (1990): "Enciklopedijski geografski leksikon Jugoslavije