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The Info List - South China Sea


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The South China
China
Sea
Sea
is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca
Malacca
Straits to the Strait of Taiwan
Taiwan
of around 3,500,000 square kilometres (1,400,000 sq mi). The sea carries tremendous strategic importance; one-third of the world's shipping passes through it carrying over $3 trillion in trade each year,[3] it contains lucrative fisheries that are crucial for the food security of millions in Southeast Asia, and huge oil and gas reserves are believed to lie beneath its seabed.[4] According to International Hydrographic Organization
International Hydrographic Organization
(IHO) Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition (1953), it is located[5]

south of China; east of Vietnam; west of the Philippines; east of the Malay peninsula and Sumatra, up to the Strait of Singapore in the western, and north of the Bangka Belitung Islands
Bangka Belitung Islands
and Borneo

However, in its unapproved draft 4th edition (1986),[6] IHO proposed the Natuna Sea, thus the South China
China
Sea
Sea
southern boundary was shifted northward, from north of Bangka Belitung Islands
Bangka Belitung Islands
to

north and northeast of Natuna Islands.[7]

The minute South China
China
Sea
Sea
Islands, collectively an archipelago, number in the hundreds. The sea and its mostly uninhabited islands are subject to competing claims of sovereignty by several countries. These claims are also reflected in the variety of names used for the islands and the sea.

Contents

1 Names 2 Geography 3 Extent 4 Geology 5 Islands and seamounts 6 Resources 7 Territorial claims

7.1 2016 ruling

8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Names South China
China
Sea
Sea
is the dominant term used in English for the sea, and the name in most European languages is equivalent. This name is a result of early European interest in the sea as a route from Europe and South Asia to the trading opportunities of China. In the sixteenth century Portuguese sailors called it the China
China
Sea
Sea
(Mare da China); later needs to differentiate it from nearby bodies of water led to calling it the South China
China
Sea.[8] The International Hydrographic Organization refers to the sea as "South China
China
Sea
Sea
(Nan Hai)".[5] The Yizhoushu, which was a chronicle of the Western Zhou
Western Zhou
dynasty (1046–771 BCE) gives the first Chinese name for the South China
China
Sea as Nanfang Hai (Chinese: 南方海; pinyin: Nánfāng Hǎi; literally: "Southern Sea"), claiming that barbarians from that sea gave tributes of hawksbill sea turtles to the Zhou rulers.[9] The Classic of Poetry, Zuo Zhuan, and Guoyu classics of the Spring and Autumn period (771–476 BCE) also referred to the sea, but by the name Nan Hai (Chinese: 南海; pinyin: Nán Hǎi; literally: "South Sea") in reference to the State of Chu's expeditions there.[9] Nan Hai, the South Sea, was one of the Four Seas
Four Seas
of Chinese literature. There are three other seas, one for each of the four cardinal directions.[10] During the Eastern Han
Eastern Han
dynasty (23–220 CE), China's rulers called the Sea
Sea
Zhang Hai (Chinese: 漲海; pinyin: Zhǎng Hǎi; literally: "distended sea").[9] Fei Hai (Chinese: 沸海; pinyin: Fèi Hǎi; literally: "boil sea") became popular during the Southern and Northern Dynasties period. Usage of the current Chinese name, Nan Hai (South Sea), became gradually widespread during the Qing Dynasty.[11] In Southeast Asia it was once called the Champa
Champa
Sea
Sea
or Sea
Sea
of Cham, after the maritime kingdom of Champa
Champa
that flourished there before the sixteenth century.[12] The majority of the sea came under Japanese naval control during World War II following the military acquisition of many surrounding South East Asian territories in 1941. Japan calls the sea Minami Shina Kai "South China
China
Sea". This was written 南支那海 until 2004, when the Japanese Foreign Ministry and other departments switched the spelling to 南シナ海, which has become the standard usage in Japan. In China, it is called the "South Sea", 南海 Nánhǎi, and in Vietnam
Vietnam
the "East Sea", Biển Đông.[13][14][15] In Malaysia, Indonesia
Indonesia
and the Philippines, it was long called the "South China Sea" (Dagat Timog Tsina in Tagalog, Laut China
China
Selatan in Malay), with the part within Philippine territorial waters often called the "Luzon Sea", Dagat Luzon, by the Philippines.[16] However, following an escalation of the Spratly Islands dispute
Spratly Islands dispute
in 2011, various Philippine government agencies started using the name "West Philippine Sea". A Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) spokesperson said that the sea to the east of the Philippines
Philippines
will continue to be called the Philippine Sea.[17] In September 2012, Philippine President Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Aquino III
signed Administrative Order No. 29, mandating that all government agencies use the name "West Philippine Sea" to refer to the parts of the South China
China
Sea
Sea
within the Philippines' exclusive economic zone, and tasked the National Mapping and Resource Information Authority
National Mapping and Resource Information Authority
(NAMRIA) to use the name in official maps.[18] In July 2017, to assert its sovereignty, Indonesia
Indonesia
renamed the northern reaches of its exclusive economic zone in the South China
China
Sea as the "North Natuna Sea", which is located north of the Indonesian Natuna Islands, bordering the southern Vietnam
Vietnam
exclusive economic zone, corresponding to the southern end of the South China
China
Sea.[19] The "Natuna Sea" is located south of Natuna Island
Island
within Indonesian territorial waters.[20] Therefore, Indonesia
Indonesia
has named two seas that are portions of the South China
China
Sea; the Natuna Sea
Natuna Sea
located between Natuna Islands
Natuna Islands
and the Lingga and Tambelan Archipelagos, and the North Natuna Sea
Natuna Sea
located between the Natuna Islands
Natuna Islands
and Cape Cà Mau
Cape Cà Mau
on the southern tip of the Mekong Delta
Mekong Delta
in Vietnam. Geography States and territories with borders on the sea (clockwise from north) include: the China
China
(including Macau
Macau
and Hong Kong), Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Singapore, and Vietnam. Major rivers that flow into the South China
China
Sea
Sea
include the Pearl, Min, Jiulong, Red, Mekong, Rajang, Pahang, Pampanga, and Pasig Rivers. Extent The International Hydrographic Organization
International Hydrographic Organization
in its Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition (1953), defines the limits of the South China Sea
Sea
as follows:[5]

On the South. The Eastern and Southern limits of Singapore
Singapore
and Malacca Straits [A line joining Tanjong Datok, the Southeast point of Johore (1°22′N 104°17′E / 1.367°N 104.283°E / 1.367; 104.283) through Horsburgh Reef
Reef
to Pulo Koko, the Northeastern extreme of Bintan Island
Bintan Island
(1°13.5′N 104°35′E / 1.2250°N 104.583°E / 1.2250; 104.583). The Northeastern coast of Sumatra] as far West as Tanjong Kedabu (1°06′N 102°58′E / 1.100°N 102.967°E / 1.100; 102.967) down the East coast of Sumatra
Sumatra
to Lucipara Point (3°14′S 106°05′E / 3.233°S 106.083°E / -3.233; 106.083) thence to Tanjong Nanka, the Southwest extremity of Banka Island, through this island to Tanjong Berikat the Eastern point (2°34′S 106°51′E / 2.567°S 106.850°E / -2.567; 106.850), on to Tanjong Djemang (2°36′S 107°37′E / 2.600°S 107.617°E / -2.600; 107.617) in Billiton, along the North coast of this island to Tanjong Boeroeng Mandi (2°46′S 108°16′E / 2.767°S 108.267°E / -2.767; 108.267) and thence a line to Tanjong Sambar (3°00′S 110°19′E / 3.000°S 110.317°E / -3.000; 110.317) the Southwest extreme of Borneo. On the East. From Tanjong Sambar through the West coast of Borneo
Borneo
to Tanjong Sampanmangio, the North point, thence a line to West points of Balabac and Secam Reefs, on to the West point of Bancalan Island
Island
and to Cape Buliluyan, the Southwest point of Palawan, through this island to Cabuli Point, the Northern point thereof, thence to the Northwest point of Busuanga and to Cape Calavite in the island of Mindoro, to the Northwest point of Lubang Island
Lubang Island
and to Point Fuego (14°08'N) in Luzon
Luzon
Island, through this island to Cape Engano, the Northeast point of Luzon, along a line joining this cape with the East point of Balintang Island
Island
(20°N) and to the East point of Y'Ami Island (21°05'N) thence to Garan Bi, the Southern point of Taiwan
Taiwan
(Formosa), through this island to Santyo (25°N) its North Eastern Point. On the North. From Fuki Kaku the North point of Formosa
Formosa
to Kiushan Tao (Turnabout Island) on to the South point of Haitan Tao (25°25'N) and thence Westward on the parallel of 25°24' North to the coast of Fukien. On the West. The Mainland, the Southern limit of the Gulf of Thailand and the East coast of the Malay Peninsula.

However, in a revised edition of Limits of Oceans and Seas, 4th edition (1986), the International Hydrographic Organization
International Hydrographic Organization
officially recognized the Natuna Sea. Thus the southern limit of South China
China
Sea is revised from the Bangka Belitung Islands
Bangka Belitung Islands
to the Natuna Islands.[7] Geology See also: Tectonics of the South China
China
Sea

Sunset on the South China
China
Sea
Sea
off Mũi Né
Mũi Né
village on the south-east coast of Vietnam

The sea lies above a drowned continental shelf; during recent ice ages global sea level was hundreds of metres lower, and Borneo
Borneo
was part of the Asian mainland. The South China
China
Sea
Sea
opened around 45 million years ago when the "Dangerous Ground" rifted away from southern China. Extension culminated in seafloor spreading around 30 million years ago, a process that propagated to the SW resulting in the V-shaped basin we see today. Extension ceased around 17 million years ago.[21] Arguments have continued about the role of tectonic extrusion in forming the basin. Paul Tapponnier and colleagues have argued that as India collides with Asia it pushes Indochina
Indochina
to the SE. The relative shear between Indochina
Indochina
and China
China
caused the South China
China
Sea
Sea
to open.[22] This view is disputed by geologists[who?] who do not consider Indochina
Indochina
to have moved far relative to mainland Asia. Marine geophysical studies in the Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
by Peter Clift
Peter Clift
has shown that the Red River Fault
Red River Fault
was active and causing basin formation at least by 37 million years ago in the NW South China
China
Sea, consistent with extrusion playing a part in the formation of the sea. Since opening the South China
China
Sea
Sea
has been the repository of large sediment volumes delivered by the Mekong
Mekong
River, Red River and Pearl River. Several of these deltas are rich in oil and gas deposits. Islands and seamounts See also: South China
China
Sea
Sea
Islands The South China
China
Sea
Sea
contains over 250 small islands, atolls, cays, shoals, reefs, and sandbars, most of which have no indigenous people, many of which are naturally under water at high tide, and some of which are permanently submerged. The features are grouped into three archipelagos (listed by area size), Macclesfield Bank
Macclesfield Bank
and Scarborough Shoal:

South China
China
Sea

The Spratly Islands The Paracel Islands The Pratas Islands The Macclesfield Bank The Scarborough Shoal

The Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands
spread over an 810 by 900 km area covering some 175 identified insular features, the largest being Taiping Island (Itu Aba) at just over 1.3 km long and with its highest elevation at 3.8 metres. The largest singular feature in the area of the Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands
is a 100 km wide seamount called Reed Tablemount, also known as Reed Bank, in the northeast of the group, separated from Palawan
Palawan
Island
Island
of the Philippines
Philippines
by the Palawan
Palawan
Trench. Now completely submerged, with a depth of 20 m, it was an island until it sank about 7,000 years ago due to the increasing sea level after the last ice age. With an area of 8,866 km², it is one of the largest submerged atoll structures in the world. Resources The South China
China
Sea
Sea
is an extremely significant body of water in a geopolitical sense. It is the second most used sea lane in the world, while in terms of world annual merchant fleet tonnage, over 50% passes through the Strait of Malacca, the Sunda Strait, and the Lombok Strait. Over 1.6 million m³ (10 million barrels) of crude oil a day are shipped through the Strait of Malacca, where there are regular reports of piracy, but much less frequently than before the mid-20th century. The region has proven oil reserves of around 1.2 km³ (7.7 billion barrels), with an estimate of 4.5 km³ (28 billion barrels) in total. Natural gas
Natural gas
reserves are estimated to total around 7,500 km³ (266 trillion cubic feet). A 2013 report by the U.S. Energy Information Administration raised the total estimated oil reserves to 11 billion barrels.[23] In 2014 China
China
began to drill for oil in waters disputed with Vietnam.[24] According to studies made by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Philippines, this body of water holds one third of the entire world's marine biodiversity, thereby making it a very important area for the ecosystem. However the fish stocks in the area are depleted, and countries are using fishing bans as a means of asserting their sovereignty claims.[25] Indonesia's maritime waters have been breached by fishing fleets from Vietnam
Vietnam
and the Philippines
Philippines
leading to said ships being seized and sunk by Indonesian authorities.[26] China
China
announced in May 2017 a breakthrough for mining methane clathrates, when they extracted methane from hydrates in the South China
China
Sea.[27][28] Territorial claims Main articles: Territorial disputes in the South China
China
Sea
Sea
and Spratly Islands dispute

Territorial claims in the South China
China
Sea

Map of various countries occupying the Spratly Islands

Several countries have made competing territorial claims over the South China
China
Sea. Such disputes have been regarded as Asia's most potentially dangerous point of conflict. Both People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) and the Republic of China
China
(ROC, commonly known as Taiwan) claim almost the entire body as their own, demarcating their claims within what is known as the nine-dotted line, which claims overlap with virtually every other country in the region. Competing claims include:

Indonesia, China, and Taiwan
Taiwan
over waters NE of the Natuna Islands The Philippines, China, and Taiwan
Taiwan
over Scarborough Shoal. Vietnam, China, and Taiwan
Taiwan
over waters west of the Spratly Islands. Some or all of the islands themselves are also disputed between Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Brunei, Malaysia, and the Philippines. The Paracel Islands
Paracel Islands
are disputed between the China, Taiwan
Taiwan
and Vietnam. Malaysia, Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam
Vietnam
over areas in the Gulf of Thailand. Singapore
Singapore
and Malaysia
Malaysia
along the Strait of Johore and the Strait of Singapore.

China
China
and Vietnam
Vietnam
have both been vigorous in prosecuting their claims. China
China
(various governments) and South Vietnam
Vietnam
each controlled part of the Paracel Islands
Paracel Islands
before 1974. A brief conflict in 1974 resulted in 18 Chinese and 53 Vietnamese deaths, and China
China
has controlled the whole of Paracel since then. The Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands
have been the site of a naval clash, in which over 70 Vietnamese sailors were killed just south of Chigua Reef
Reef
in March 1988. Disputing claimants regularly report clashes between naval vessels.[citation needed] ASEAN
ASEAN
in general, and Malaysia
Malaysia
in particular, have been keen to ensure that the territorial disputes within the South China
China
Sea
Sea
do not escalate into armed conflict. As such, Joint Development Authorities have been set up in areas of overlapping claims to jointly develop the area and divide the profits equally without settling the issue of sovereignty over the area. This is true particularly in the Gulf of Thailand. Generally, China
China
has preferred to resolve competing claims bilaterally,[29] while some ASEAN
ASEAN
countries prefer multilateral talks,[30] believing that they are disadvantaged in bilateral negotiations with the much larger China
China
and that because many countries claim the same territory only multilateral talks could effectively resolve the competing claims.[31] The overlapping claims over Pedra Branca or Pulau Batu Putih including the neighboring Middle Rocks
Middle Rocks
by both Singapore
Singapore
and Malaysia
Malaysia
were settled in 2008 by the International Court of Justice, awarding Pedra Branca/Pulau Batu Puteh to Singapore
Singapore
and the Middle Rocks
Middle Rocks
to Malaysia. In July 2010, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton called for China to resolve the territorial dispute. China
China
responded by demanding the US keep out of the issue. This came at a time when both countries had been engaging in naval exercises in a show of force to the opposing side, which increased tensions in the region.[citation needed] The US Department of Defense released a statement on August 18 where it opposed the use of force to resolve the dispute, and accused China
China
of assertive behaviour.[citation needed] On July 22, 2011, one of India's amphibious assault vessels, the INS Airavat which was on a friendly visit to Vietnam, was reportedly contacted at a distance of 45 nautical miles from the Vietnamese coast in the disputed South China Sea
Sea
on an open radio channel by a vessel identifying itself as the Chinese Navy and stating that the ship was entering Chinese waters.[32][33] The spokesperson for the Indian Navy clarified that as no ship or aircraft was visible from INS Airavat it proceeded on her onward journey as scheduled. The Indian Navy further clarified that "[t]here was no confrontation involving the INS Airavat. India supports freedom of navigation in international waters, including in the South China
China
Sea, and the right of passage in accordance with accepted principles of international law. These principles should be respected by all."[32] In September 2011, shortly after China
China
and Vietnam
Vietnam
had signed an agreement seeking to contain a dispute over the South China
China
Sea, India's state-run explorer, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation
(ONGC) said that its overseas investment arm ONGC Videsh Limited had signed a three-year deal with Petro Vietnam
Vietnam
for developing long-term cooperation in the oil sector[34] and that it had accepted Vietnam's offer of exploration in certain specified blocks in the South China
China
Sea.[35] In response, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Jiang Yu issued a protest.[36][37] The spokesman of the Ministry of External Affairs of the Government of India responded by saying that “The Chinese had concerns but we are going by what the Vietnamese authorities have told us and have conveyed this to the Chinese.”[36] The Indo-Vietnamese deal was also denounced by the Chinese state-run newspaper Global Times.[35][37]

Subi Reef
Reef
being built by China
China
and transformed into an artificial island, 2015

In 1999, Taiwan
Taiwan
claimed the entirety of the South China
China
Sea
Sea
islands under the Lee Teng-hui
Lee Teng-hui
administration.[38] The entire subsoil, seabed and waters of the Paracels and Spratlys are claimed by Taiwan.[39] In 2012 and 2013, Vietnam
Vietnam
and Taiwan
Taiwan
butted heads against each other over anti-Vietnamese military exercises by Taiwan.[40] In May 2014, China
China
established an oil rig near the Paracel Islands, leading to multiple incidents between Vietnamese and Chinese ships.[41][42] In 2017, analysts expect the US, under Donald Trump's administration, to take a more aggressive stance against China
China
in the South China Sea.[43] 2016 ruling Main article: Philippines
Philippines
v. China In January 2013, the Philippines
Philippines
formally initiated arbitration proceedings against China's claim on the territories within the "Nine-Dash Line" that includes the Spratly Islands, which it said is unlawful under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).[44][45] On July 12, 2016, the arbitral tribunal backed the Philippines, saying that there was no evidence that China
China
had historically exercised exclusive control over the waters or resources, hence there was "no legal basis for China
China
to claim historic rights" over the nine-dash line.[46][47] The tribunal also criticized China's land reclamation projects and its construction of artificial islands in the Spratly Islands, saying that it had caused "severe harm to the coral reef environment".[48] It also characterized Taiping Island
Island
and other features of the Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands
as "rocks" under UNCLOS, and therefore are not entitled to a 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone.[49] China
China
however rejected the ruling, calling it "ill-founded".[50] Taiwan, which currently administers Taiping Island, the largest of the Spratly Islands, also rejected the ruling.[51] See also

East China
China
Sea

References

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Sea
Sea
ruling, says will deploy another navy vessel to Taiping". The Straits Times. Singapore
Singapore
Press Holdings Ltd. Co.  ^ "South China
China
Sea: Tribunal backs case against China
China
brought by Philippines". BBC. 12 July 2016.  ^ Jun Mai, Shi Jiangtao (12 July 2016). "Taiwan-controlled Taiping Island
Island
is a rock, says international court in South China
China
Sea
Sea
ruling". South China
China
Morning Post. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)

Further reading

Beckman, Robert et al. (eds.) (2013). Beyond Territorial Disputes in the South China
China
Sea: Legal Frameworks for the Joint Development of Hydrocarbon Resources. Edward Elgar. ISBN 978 1 78195 593 2. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Francois-Xavier Bonnet, Geopolitics of Scarborough Shoal, Irasec Discussion Paper 14, November 2012 C. Michael Hogan (2011) South China
China
Sea
Sea
Topic ed. P. Saundry. Ed.-in-chief C.J. Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC Clive Schofield et al., From Disputed Waters to Seas of Opportunity: Overcoming Barriers to Maritime Cooperation in East and Southeast Asia (July 2011) UNEP (2007). Review of the Legal Aspects of Environmental Management in the South China
China
Sea
Sea
and Gulf of Thailand. UNEP/GEF/SCS Technical Publication No. 9. Wang, Gungwu (2003). The Nanhai Trade: Early Chinese Trade in the South China
China
Sea. Marshall Cavendish International. ISBN 9789812102416. Keyan Zou (2005). Law of the sea in East Asia: issues and prospects. London/New York: Rutledge Curzon. ISBN 0-415-35074-3 United States. Congress. (2014). Maritime Sovereignty in the East and South China
China
Seas: Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Seapower and Projection Forces of the Committee on Armed Services Meeting Jointly with the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific of the Committee on Foreign Affairs (Serial No. 113-137), House of Representatives, One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, Second Session, Hearing held January 14, 2014

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to South China
China
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Wikinews has news related to: South China
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ASEAN
ASEAN
and the South China
China
Sea: Deepening Divisions Q&A with Ian J. Storey (July 2012) Rising Tensions in the South China
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Sea, June 2011 Q&A with Ian J. Storey News collections on The South China
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on China
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Digital Times The South China
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on Google Earth
Earth
- featured on Google Earth's Official Blog South China
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Virtual Library - online resource for students, scholars and policy-makers interested in South China
China
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regional development, environment, and security issues. Energy Information Administration - The South China
China
Sea Tropical Research and Conservation Centre - The South China
China
Sea Weekly Piracy
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Report Reversing Environmental Degradation Trends in the South China
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and Gulf of Thailand UNEP/GEF South China
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Knowledge Documents Audio Radio communication between United States Navy Boeing P-8A Poseidon aircraft operating under international law and the Chinese Navy warnings.

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South China
China
Sea

Pratas Islands

Pratas Island

Paracel Islands

Amphitrite Group

Rocky Island Tree Island West Sand Woody Island Qilian Yu

Crescent Group

Money Island Robert Island Yagong Island

Other features

Bombay Reef Triton Island

NorthEast SCS

Zhongsha Islands Macclesfield Bank

Walker Shoal

Scarborough Shoal

Spratly Islands

List of maritime features in the Spratly Islands Great Wall of Sand Royal Malaysian Navy Offshore Bases Vietnamese DK1 rigs List of airports in the Spratly Islands

Dangerous Ground

NW

North Danger Reef

Northeast Cay Southwest Cay

Thitu Reefs

Thitu Island Subi Reef

Loaita Bank

Lankiam Cay Loaita Island

Tizard Bank

Ban Than Reef Gaven Reefs Itu Aba Namyit Island Sand Cay

NNW

Irving Reef West York Island

WNW

Western Reef

NE

Flat Island Nanshan Island Reed Bank Third Thomas Shoal

SE

Commodore Reef First Thomas Shoal Mischief Reef Sabina Shoal Second Thomas Shoal

SW

Union Banks

Collins Reef Hughes Reef Johnson South Reef Sin Cowe Island

Ardasier Reef Cornwallis South Reef Dallas Reef Erica Reef Investigator Shoal Mariveles Reef

West

London Reefs

Central London Reef Cuarteron Reef East London Reef West London Reef

Bombay Castle Fiery Cross Reef Ladd Reef Spratly Island

East

Royal Captain Shoal Half Moon Shoal

South

Amboyna Cay Louisa Reef Swallow Reef

Southern SCS

James Shoal Luconia Shoals

Tudjuh Archipelago

Natuna Islands Anambas Islands Badas Islands Tambelan Archipelago

History

Territorial disputes History of the Spratly Islands Nine-Dash Line Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands
dispute Philippines
Philippines
and the Spratly Islands Battle of the Paracel Islands
Paracel Islands
(1974) Southwest Cay
Southwest Cay
incident (1975) Johnson South Reef
Reef
Skirmish (1988) Scarborough Shoal
Scarborough Shoal
standoff (2012) Hai Yang Shi You 981 standoff
Hai Yang Shi You 981 standoff
(2014)

Transport

Ships

Coconut Princess

Airports

Pratas Is Paracel Islands
Paracel Islands
Airports

Woody Is

Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands
Airports

Itu Aba Spratly Is Swallow Reef Thitu Is

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Seas of the Philippines

Ocean

Pacific Ocean

Sea

Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Philippine Sea Samar Sea Sibuyan Sea Sulu Sea Visayan Sea South China
China
Sea

Strait

Babuyan Channel Balintang Channel Balabac Strait Basilan Strait Burias Pass Canigao Channel Cebu Strait Guimaras Strait Iloilo Strait Jintotolo Channel Linapacan Strait Luzon
Luzon
Strait Mindoro
Mindoro
Strait Polillo Strait San Bernardino Strait San Juanico Strait Surigao Strait Tablas Strait Tañon Strait Tapiantana Channel Ticao Pass Verde Island
Island
Passage

Gulf

Albay Gulf Asid Gulf Davao Gulf Lagonoy Gulf Leyte Gulf Lingayen Gulf Moro Gulf Panay Gulf Ragay Gulf

See also: Bodies of water of the Philippines

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Seas of China

Yellow Sea East China
China
Sea South China
China
Sea Bohai Sea

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Indonesian seas

Ocean

Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean

Sea

Andaman Sea Arafura Sea Bali Sea Banda Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Flores Sea Halmahera Sea Java Sea Molucca Sea Natuna Sea Philippine Sea Savu Sea South China
China
Sea Timor Sea

Strait

Alas Strait Alor Strait Badung Strait Bali Strait Bangka Strait Berhala Strait Dampier Strait Gaspar Strait Karimata Strait Laut Strait Lombok Strait Madura Strait Makassar Strait Malacca
Malacca
Strait Mentawai Strait Ombai Strait Pitt Strait Riau Strait Rupat Strait Sape Strait Selayar Strait Singapore
Singapore
Strait Sumba Strait Sunda Strait Torres Strait Wetar Strait

Gulf

Balikpapan Bay Bintuni Bay Boni Gulf Cenderawasih Bay Jakarta Bay Lampung Gulf Pelabuhanratu Gulf Saleh Bay Semangka Gulf Tolo Bay Tomini Gulf

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago
Archipelago
Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea
Sea
of Åland Sea
Sea
of Azov Sea
Sea
of Crete Sea
Sea
of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China
China
Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea
Sea
of Japan Sea
Sea
of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China
China
Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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Coordinates: 12°N 113°E / 12°N 113°E / 12; 113

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