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South Asian cuisine
Asian cuisine
includes the cuisines from South Asia
South Asia
(also known as the Indian subcontinent) comprising the traditional cuisines from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives and when included in the definition, also that of Afghanistan.

Contents

1 Staples and common ingredients 2 History 3 List of South Asian cuisines 4 References

Staples and common ingredients[edit]

An assortment of spices and herbs. Spices
Spices
are an indispensable food ingredient in much of India.

Chapati, a type of flat bread from the former regions, is a common part of meals to be had in many parts of Indian subcontinent. Other staples from many of the cuisines include rice, roti made from atta flour, and beans. Foods in this area of the world are flavoured with various types of chilli, black pepper, cloves, and other strong herbs and spices along with the flavoured butter ghee. Ginger is an ingredient that can be used in both savory and sweet recipes in South Asian cuisine. Chopped ginger is fried with meat and pickled ginger is often an accompaniment to boiled rice. Ginger juice and ginger boiled in syrup are used to make desserts. Turmeric and cumin are often used to make curries. Common meats include lamb, goat, fish and chicken. Beef
Beef
is less common than in Western cuisines because cattle have a special place in Hinduism. Prohibitions against beef extend to the meat of (water) buffalo and yaks to some extent. Pork
Pork
is considered as a taboo food item by all Muslims and is avoided by most Hindus, though it is commonly eaten in Goa, which has a notable Roman Catholic population from Portuguese rule. A variety of very sweet desserts which use dairy products is also found in South Asian cuisines. The main ingredients to South Asian desserts are reduced milk, ground almonds, lentil flour, ghee and sugar. Kheer
Kheer
is a dairy based rice pudding, a popular and common dessert. History[edit] Main article: History of South Asian cuisine Many of South asian's foods go back over five thousand years. The Indus Valley peoples, who settled in what is now Northwestern South Asia, hunted turtles and alligator. They also collected wild grains, herbs and plants. Many foods and ingredients from the Indus period (c. 3300–1700 B.C.) are still common today. Some consist of wheat, barley, rice, tamarind, eggplant, and cucumber. The Indus Valley peoples cooked with oils, ginger, salt, green peppers, and turmeric root, which would be dried and ground into an orange powder. Indians have used leafy vegetables, lentils, and milk products such as yogurt and ghee all along their history. They also used spices such as cumin and coriander. Black pepper which is native to India
India
was often used by 400 A.D. The Greeks brought saffron and the Chinese introduced tea. The Portuguese and British made red chili, potato and cauliflower popular after 1700 A.D. Mughals, who began arriving in India
India
after 1200, saw food as an art and many of their dishes are cooked with as many as twenty-five spices. They also used rose water, cashews, raisins, and almonds. List of South Asian cuisines[edit]

Afghan cuisine

Some of the popular Afghan dishes, from left to right: 1. Lamb grilled kebab (seekh kabab); 2. kabuli Palau and salad; 3. Tandoori chicken; and 4. Mantu (dumplings).

Afghan cuisine
Afghan cuisine
is dominated by Pashtun cuisine
Pashtun cuisine
and, has similarities with both Central Asian culinary styles as well as with the other South Asian cuisines.

Balochi cuisine Pashtun cuisine Tajik cuisine

Bangladeshi cuisine

Bangladeshi cuisine
Bangladeshi cuisine
is dominated by Bengali cuisine
Bengali cuisine
and has been shaped by the diverse history and riverine geography of Bangladesh. The country has a tropical monsoon climate. Rice
Rice
is the main staple food of Bangladeshi people and it is served with a wide range of curries.

Traditional Bangladeshi Meal: Mustard seed
Mustard seed
Ilish
Ilish
Curry
Curry
, Dhakai Biryani
Biryani
and Pitha

Sublime Bangladeshi dishes exhibit strong aromatic flavours; and often include eggs, potatoes, tomatoes and aubergines. A variety of spices and herbs, along with mustard oil and ghee, is used in Bangladeshi cooking. The main breads are naan, porota, roti, bakarkhani and luchi. Dal
Dal
is the second most important staple food which is served with rice/porota/luchi. Fish is a staple in Bangladeshi cuisine, especially freshwater fish, which is a distinctive feature of the country's gastronomy. Major fish dishes include ilish (hilsa), pabda (butterfish), rui (rohu), pangash (pangas catfish), chitol (clown knifefish), magur (walking catfish), bhetki (barramundi) and tilapia. Meat consumption includes beef, lamb, venison, chicken, duck, squab and koel. Vegetable dishes, either mashed (bhorta), boiled (sabji), or leaf-based (saag), are widely served. Seafood such as lobsters and shrimps are also often prevalent. Islamic dietary laws are prevalent across Bangladesh. Halal foods are food items that Muslims are allowed to eat and drink under Islamic dietary guidelines. The criteria specifies both what foods are allowed, and how the food must be prepared. The foods addressed are mostly types of meat allowed in Islam. Bangladeshi people follow certain rules and regulations while eating. It includes warm hospitality and particular ways of serving as well. This is known as Bangaliketa (Bengali: বাঙালি কেতা). The culture also defines the way to invite people to weddings and for dinner. Gifts are given on certain occasions. Bangaliketa also includes a way of serving utensils in a proper manner.[1] Bengali cuisine
Bengali cuisine
has the only traditionally developed multi-course tradition from the subcontinent that is analogous in structure to the modern service à la russe style of French cuisine, with food served course-wise rather than all at once.

Bhutanese cuisine

Bhutanese national dish Ema datshi (ཨེ་མ་དར་ཚིལ།) with rice (mix of Bhutanese red rice and white rice)

Bhutanese cuisine
Bhutanese cuisine
employs a lot of red rice (like brown rice in texture, but with a nutty taste, the only variety of rice that grows at high altitudes), buckwheat, and increasingly maize. The diet in the hills also includes chicken, yak meat, dried beef, pork, pork fat, and mutton.It has many similarities with Tibetan cuisine

Indian cuisine

Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine
is characterized by its sophisticated and subtle use of many Indian spicesThere is also the widespread practice of vegetarianism across its society although, overall a minority.Indian cuisine is one of the world's most diverse cuisines, each family of this cuisine is characterized by a wide assortment of dishes and cooking techniques. As a consequence, Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine
varies from region to region, reflecting the varied demographics of the ethnically diverse Indian subcontinent.India's religious beliefs and culture has played an influential role in the evolution of its cuisine.It has influences from Middle Eastern, Southeast Asian, East Asian, and Central Asian, as well as the Mediterranean cuisines due to the historical and contemporary cross-cultural interactions with these neighboring regions.

North Indian cuisines

Awadhi cuisine Bihari cuisine Bhojpuri cuisine Cuisine
Cuisine
of Uttar Pradesh Himachali cuisine Kashmiri cuisine Kumauni cuisine Ladakhi cuisine Mughlai cuisine Punjabi cuisine Rajasthani cuisine

Traditional North Indian Vegetarian Thali, India

Rogan josh
Rogan josh
is a popular Kashmiri dish from India

Chicken tikka
Chicken tikka
in India, is a popular dish in Punjabi cuisine

Ghevar
Ghevar
a popular sweet dessert from Rajasthan

South Indian cuisines

Chettinad cuisine Dhivehi cuisine(Minicoy) Hyderabadi cuisine Kerala cuisine Karnataka cuisine Mangalorean cuisine Tamil cuisine Telugu cuisine Thalassery Cuisine Udupi cuisine

Hyderabadi Dum Biryani, India

Dosa
Dosa
served with sambar and chutney

South Indian vegetarian Thali, India

Fish moolie
Fish moolie
Kerala Style

East Indian cuisines

Bengali cuisine Cuisine
Cuisine
of Chhattisgarh Gorkha cuisine Cuisine
Cuisine
of Jharkhand Maithil cuisine Odia cuisine

Bengali Fish meal

Odisha style Mutton Curry

Momo platter from Darjeeling

Rasgulla
Rasgulla
a famous syrupy dessert from Eastern India

North East Indian cuisines

Assamese cuisine Cuisine
Cuisine
of Arunachal Pradesh Cuisine
Cuisine
of Meghalaya Meitei Cuisine Naga cuisine Sikkimese cuisine Tripuri cuisine

Assamese Thali]]

Non-Vegetarian Eromba
Eromba
from Manipur]]

Tan Ngang a bread from Manipur]]

Thukpa
Thukpa
from Sikkim]]

West Indian cuisines

Goan cuisine Gujarati cuisine

Maharashtrian cuisine Malvani cuisine Parsi cuisine Sindhi cuisine Thathai Bhatia Cuisine

Dhokla
Dhokla
is a popular snack from Gujarat]]

Pav Bhaji
Pav Bhaji
a popular fast food from Mumbai, Maharashtra]]

Pork
Pork
Vindaloo
Vindaloo
being served at a restaurante in Goa]]

Dhansak
Dhansak
a famous Parsi dish from Gujarat]]

Other Indian cuisines

Indian Chinese cuisine Jain (Satvika) Indian fast food

A popular Indian Chinese dish]]

Samosa
Samosa
with Pudina Chutney]]

Maldivian cuisine

Maldivian cuisine
Maldivian cuisine
also called Dhivehi cuisine is the cuisine of the Nation of Maldives
Maldives
and of Minicoy, India. The traditional cuisine of Maldivians
Maldivians
is based on three main items and their derivatives: coconuts, fish and starches.

Masroshi Maldivian savory snacks]]

Gulha
Gulha
is a popular snacks in Maldives]]

Nepalese cuisine

Nepalese cuisine
Nepalese cuisine
comprises a variety of cuisines based upon ethnicity, soil and climate relating to Nepal's cultural diversity and geography.Dal-bhat-tarkari (Nepali: दाल भात तरकारी) is eaten throughout Nepal.Nepali cuisine has significant influences from Neighboring Indian and Tibetan cuisines.

Newari cuisine Tibetan cuisine Maithil cuisine

Dal-bhat-tarkari is a traditional dish in Nepalese cuisine]]

Plateful of Momo in Nepal]]

Pakistani cuisine

Pakistani cuisine
Pakistani cuisine
(Urdu: پاکستانی پکوان‬‎) is part of the greater South Asian and Central Asian Cuisines due to its geographic location. As a result of Mughal legacy, Pakistan
Pakistan
also mutually inherited many recipes and dishes from that era alongside India.

Regional cuisines

Balochi cuisine Chitrali cuisine Kalash cuisine Lahori cuisine Muhajir cuisine Pashtun cuisine Punjabi cuisine Saraiki cuisine Sindhi cuisine

Sindhi biryani]]

Sohan Halwa
Sohan Halwa
from Multan
Multan
a popular Saraiki dessert]]

Pashtun dinner sitting on dastarkhan]]

Sajji, a popular meat dish of Balochistan]]

Ghalmandi with cottage cheese and herbs from Chitral]]

Aloo paratha
Aloo paratha
from Faisalabad, Punjab]]

Other Pakistani cuisines

Pakistani Chinese cuisine Mughlai cuisine(Karachi) Pakistani fast food

Sri Lankan cuisine

Sri Lankan cuisine
Sri Lankan cuisine
has been shaped by many historical, cultural, and other factors. Foreign traders who brought new food items; influences from Indonesian cuisine
Indonesian cuisine
and South Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine
are evident.

Kiribath
Kiribath
is a traditional rice pudding from Sri Lanka]]

Sri Lankan rice and curry platter]]

References[edit]

^ Bangladesh
Bangladesh
– Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette

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