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The South Asian
South Asian
Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia. Its member states include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, the Maldives, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Sri Lanka. SAARC comprises 3% of the world's area, 21% of the world's population and 3.8% (US$2.9 trillion)[3] of the global economy, as of 2015. SAARC was founded in Dhaka
Dhaka
on 8 December 1985.[4] Its secretariat is based in Kathmandu, Nepal. The organization promotes development of economic and regional integration.[5] It launched the South Asian
South Asian
Free Trade Area in 2006.[6] SAARC maintains permanent diplomatic relations at the United Nations
United Nations
as an observer and has developed links with multilateral entities, including the European Union.

Contents

1 Historical background 2 Members and observers

2.1 Members 2.2 Observers 2.3 Potential future members

3 Secretariat

3.1 Regional Centres

4 Apex and Recognised Bodies 5 Political issues 6 South Asian
South Asian
Free Trade Area 7 SAARC Visa Exemption Scheme 8 Awards

8.1 SAARC Award 8.2 SAARC Literary Award 8.3 SAARC Youth Award

9 Anthem 10 Secretaries-General of SAARC 11 SAARC summits 12 Current leaders of SAARC 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 External links

Historical background[edit]

A clickable Euler diagram
Euler diagram
showing the relationships between various Asian regional organisations v • d • e

The idea of co-operation in South Asia
South Asia
was discussed in at least three conferences: the Asian Relations Conference
Asian Relations Conference
held in New Delhi
New Delhi
on April 1947; the Baguio Conference in the Philippines
Philippines
on May 1950; and the Colombo
Colombo
Powers Conference held in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in April 1954.[7] In the ending years of the 1970s, the seven inner South Asian
South Asian
nations that included Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
agreed upon the creation of a trade bloc and to provide a platform for the people of South Asia
South Asia
to work together in a spirit of friendship, trust, and understanding. President Ziaur Rahman
Ziaur Rahman
later addressed official letters to the leaders of the countries of the South Asia, presenting his vision for the future of the region and the compelling arguments for region.[8] During his visit to India
India
in December 1977, Rahman discussed the issue of regional cooperation with the Indian Prime Minister, Morarji Desai. In the inaugural speech to the Colombo
Colombo
Plan Consultative Committee which met in Kathmandu
Kathmandu
also in 1977, King Birendra
King Birendra
of Nepal
Nepal
gave a call for close regional cooperation among South Asian
South Asian
countries in sharing river waters.[9] After the USSR's intervention in Afghanistan, the efforts to establish the union was accelerated in 1979 and the resulting rapid deterioration of South Asian
South Asian
security situation.[9] Responding to Rahman and Birendra's convention, the officials of the foreign ministries of the seven countries met for the first time in Colombo
Colombo
in April 1981.[9] The Bangladeshi proposal was promptly endorsed by Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and the Maldives
Maldives
but India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
were sceptical initially.[9] The Indian concern was the proposal’s reference to the security matters in South Asia
South Asia
and feared that Rahman's proposal for a regional organisation might provide an opportunity for new smaller neighbours to renationalise all bilateral issues and to join with each other to form an opposition against India. Pakistan
Pakistan
assumed that it might be an Indian strategy to organise the other South Asian
South Asian
countries against Pakistan
Pakistan
and ensure a regional market for Indian products, thereby consolidating and further strengthening India’s economic dominance in the region.[9] However, after a series of diplomatic consultations headed by Bangladesh
Bangladesh
between South Asian
South Asian
U.N. representatives at the UN headquarters in New York, from September 1979 to 1980, it was agreed that Bangladesh
Bangladesh
would prepare the draft of a working paper for discussion among the foreign secretaries of South Asian
South Asian
countries.[9] The foreign secretaries of the inner seven countries again delegated a Committee of the Whole in Colombo
Colombo
on September 1981, which identified five broad areas for regional cooperation. New areas of co-operation were added in the following years.[10] In 1983, the international conference held in Dhaka
Dhaka
by its Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the foreign ministers of the inner seven countries adopted the Declaration on South Asian
South Asian
Association Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and formally launched the Integrated Programme of Action (IPA) initially in five agreed areas of cooperation namely, Agriculture; Rural Development; Telecommunications; Meteorology; and Health and Population Activities.[11] Officially, the union was established in Dhaka
Dhaka
with Kathmandu
Kathmandu
being union's secretariat-general.[12] The first SAARC summit was held in Dhaka
Dhaka
on 7–8 December 1985 and hosted by the President of Bangladesh Hussain Ershad.[13] The declaration signed by King of Bhutan
Bhutan
Jigme Singye Wangchuk, President of Pakistan
Pakistan
Zia-ul-Haq, Prime Minister of India
India
Rajiv Gandhi, King of Nepal
Nepal
Birendra Shah, President of Sri Lanka JR Jayewardene, and President of Maldives
Maldives
Maumoon Gayoom.[13] Members and observers[edit] Economic data is sourced from the International Monetary Fund, current as of April 2015, and is given in US dollars.[14] Members[edit]

Country Population[15] (2016) GDP (Nominal) GDP (PPP) GDP per Capita (PPP) GDP Growth Rate (2014) Exports (2014) Foreign Direct Investment (2013) Foreign Exchange Reserves(million) Defense Budget(% of GDP) (2014)[16] Literacy Rate(Given Age & above) Life Expectancy Population below Poverty Line Primary School Enrollment [17] Secondary School enrollment [18] Population undernourished(%) (2015)[19] Human Development Index

Democracy Index

Global Terrorism Index

G20 BRICS BIMSTEC IORA APTA BBIN SASEC AIIB ACU ACD ADB World Bank Nuclear Weapons

 Afghanistan 34,656,032 $21.3 bn $63.5 bn $1,976 3.2% $0.3 bn N/A $6,442 N/A 28.1%(Age 15) 60 15.8% N/A 54% 26.8% 0.465 (171)

2.77 (147)

9.233 (2)

✖ ✖ ✖ ✖ ✖ ✖ ✖ ✖ ✖ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖

 Bangladesh 162,951,560 $205.3 bn $572.6 bn $3,581 6.2% $31.2 bn $0.66 bn $24,072 $2.2 bn(1.2%) 57.7%(Age 15) 70 31.5% 92% 54% 16.4% 0.570 (142)

5.73 (86)

0 (124)

✖ ✖ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖

 Bhutan 797,765 $2.2 bn $6.3 bn $8,158 6.4% $0.7 bn $63 mln N/A N/A 52.8%(age 15) 68 23.7% 91% 78% N/A 0.605 (132)

4.93 (101)

0.305 (107)

✖ ✖ ✔ ✖ ✖ ✔ ✔ ✖ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖

 India 1,324,171,354 $2,439.0 bn $9,446.8 bn $7,174 7.3% $464.0 bn $31.0 bn $422,532.5 $45 bn(1.9%) 74.4%(age 15) 67 21.9% 94% 69% 15.2% 0.609 (130)

7.74 (35)

4.222 (39)

✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

 Maldives 427,756 $3.0 bn $5.2 bn $14,980 4.5% $0.28 bn N/A $356 N/A 99%(age 15) 77 16% N/A N/A 5.2% 0.706 (104)

__ __ ✖ ✖ ✖ ✖ ✖ ✖ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ ✔ ✔ ✖

   Nepal 28,982,771 $21.6 bn $70.7 bn $2,488 5.5% $1.0 bn $10 mln $5,439 N/A 66%(age 15) 68 25.2% 98% 67% 7.8% 0.548 (145)

4.77 (105)

4.791 (32)

✖ ✖ ✔ ✖ ✖ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖

 Pakistan 193,203,476 $250 bn $928.0bn $4,886 4.2% $25.1 bn $0.709 bn(2014) $16,305 $7.4 bn(3.5%) 55%(age 15) 66 22.6% 72% 34% 22% 0.538 (147)

4.40 (112)

10 (1)

✖ ✖ ✖ ✖ ✖ ✖ ✖ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔

 Sri Lanka 20,798,492 $80.4 bn $233.7 bn $11,068 7% $11.8 bn $0.9 bn $8,314 $1.4 bn(2.3%) 98.1%(age 15) 75 8.9% 94% 99% 22% 0.756 (73)

6.42 (69)

4.077 (42)

✖ ✖ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✖

The member states are Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.[20] SAARC was founded by seven states in 1985. In 2005, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
began negotiating their accession to SAARC and formally applied for membership on the same year.[21][22] The issue of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
joining SAARC generated a great deal of debate in each member state, including concerns about the definition of South Asian
South Asian
identity because Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is a Central Asian country.[23] The SAARC member states imposed a stipulation for Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to hold a general election; the non-partisan elections were held in late 2005.[23] Despite initial reluctance and internal debates, Afghanistan joined SAARC as its eighth member state in April 2007.[23][24] Observers[edit] States with observer status include[25] Australia,[26] China, the European Union,[27] Iran, Japan,[27] Mauritius,[28] Myanmar, South Korea and the United States.[29] On 2 August 2006, the foreign ministers of the SAARC countries agreed in principle to grant observer status to three applicants;[30] the US and South Korea
South Korea
(both made requests in April 2006),[30] as well as the European Union
European Union
(requested in July 2006).[31] On 4 March 2007, Iran requested observer status,[32] followed shortly by Mauritius. Potential future members[edit] Myanmar
Myanmar
has expressed interest in upgrading its status from an observer to a full member of SAARC.[33] Russia
Russia
has applied for observer status membership of SAARC.[34][35][36] Turkey
Turkey
applied for observer status membership of SAARC in 2012.[34][35][36] South Africa has participated in meetings.[37] Secretariat[edit]

Secretariat of the South Asian
South Asian
Association for Regional Cooperation in Kathmandu, Nepal

The SAARC Secretariat was established in Kathmandu
Kathmandu
on 16 January 1987 and was inaugurated by Late King Birendra
King Birendra
Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal.[38] Regional Centres[edit] The SAARC Secretariat is supported by following Regional Centres established in the Member States to promote regional co-operation. These Centres are managed by Governing Boards comprising representatives from all the Member States, SAARC Secretary-General and the Ministry of Foreign/External Affairs of the Host Government. The Director of the Centre acts as Member Secretary to the Governing Board which reports to the Programming Committee. After 31 December 2015, there 6 regional centers were stopped by unanimous decision. These are SMRC, SFC, SDC, SCZMC, SIC, SHRDC.[39]

Regional Centre Location Country Website

SAARC Agricultural Centre (SAC) Dhaka Bangladesh Official website

SAARC Meteorological Research Centre (SMRC) STOPPED Dhaka Bangladesh

SAARC Forestry Centre (SFC) STOPPED Thimphu Bhutan

SAARC Development Fund (SDF) Thimphu Bhutan Official website

SAARC Documentation Centre (SDC) STOPPED New Delhi India

SAARC Disaster Management Centre (SDMC) Gandhinagar India Official website

SAARC Coastal Zone Management Centre (SCZMC) STOPPED Malé Maldives

SAARC Information Centre (SIC) STOPPED Kathmandu Nepal

SAARC Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS Centre (STAC) Kathmandu Nepal Official website

SAARC Human Resources Development Centre (SHRDC) STOPPED Islamabad Pakistan

SAARC Energy Centre (SEC) Islamabad Pakistan Official website

SAARC Cultural Centre (SCC) Colombo Sri Lanka Official website

Apex and Recognised Bodies[edit] SAARC has six Apex Bodies,[40] they are-

SAARC Chamber of Commerce & Industry (SCCI), South Asian
South Asian
Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARCLAW),[41] South Asian
South Asian
Federation of Accountants (SAFA), South Asia
South Asia
Foundation (SAF), South Asia
South Asia
Initiative to End Violence Against Children (SAIEVAC), Foundation of SAARC Writers and Literature
Foundation of SAARC Writers and Literature
(FOSWAL)

Amjad Hussain B Sial is the current Secretary General of SAARC. SAARC also has about 17 recognised bodies.[40] Political issues[edit] Lasting peace and prosperity in the Indian subcontinent has been elusive because of the various ongoing conflicts in the region. Political dialogue is often conducted on the margins of SAARC meetings which have refrained from interfering in the internal matters of its member states.[42] During the 12th and 13th SAARC summits, extreme emphasis was laid upon greater cooperation between the SAARC members to fight terrorism.[43][44] The 19th SAARC summit scheduled to be held in Pakistan
Pakistan
was called off as India, Bangladesh, Bhutan
Bhutan
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
decided to boycott it.[45][46] It was for the first time that four countries boycotted a SAARC summit, leading to its cancellation.[47][48] South Asian
South Asian
Free Trade Area[edit]

Countries under the South Asian
South Asian
Free Trade Area

SAFTA was envisaged primarily as the first step towards the transition to a South Asian
South Asian
Free Trade Area (SAFTA) leading subsequently towards a Customs Union, Common Market and the Economic Union. In 1995, Sixteenth session of the Council of Ministers (New Delhi, 18–19 December 1995) agreed on the need to strive for the realisation of SAFTA and to this end an Inter-Governmental Expert Group (IGEG) was set up in 1996 to identify the necessary steps for progressing to a free trade area. The Tenth SAARC Summit (Colombo, 29–31 July 1998) decided to set up a Committee of Experts (COE) to draft a comprehensive treaty framework for creating a free trade area within the region, taking into consideration the asymmetries in development within the region and bearing in mind the need to fix realistic and achievable targets. The SAFTA Agreement was signed on 6 January 2004 during Twelfth SAARC Summit held in Islamabad, Pakistan. The Agreement entered into force on 1 January 2006, and the Trade Liberalisation Programme commenced from 1 July 2006. Under this agreement, SAARC members will bring their duties down to 20 percent by 2009. Following the Agreement coming into force the SAFTA Ministerial Council (SMC) has been established comprising the Commerce Ministers of the Member States.[49] In 2012 the SAARC exports increased substantially to US$354.6 billion from US$206.7 billion in 2009. Imports too increased from US$330 billion to US$602 billion over the same period. But the intra-SAARC trade amounts to just a little over 1% of SAARC's GDP. In contrast, in ASEAN
ASEAN
(which is actually smaller than SAARC in terms of the size of the economy) the intra-bloc trade stands at 10% of its GDP. SAFTA was envisaged to gradually move towards South Asian
South Asian
Economic Union, but the current intra-regional trade and investment relation are not encouraging and it may be difficult to achieve this target. The SAARC intra-regional trade stands at just five per cent on the share of intra-regional trade in overall trade in South Asia. Similarly, foreign direct investment is also dismal. The intra-regional FDI flow stands at around four per cent of the total foreign investment.[50] The Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
has estimated that inter-regional trade in SAARC region possessed potential of shooting up agricultural exports by $14 billion per year from existing level of $8 billion to $22 billion.The study by Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
states that against the potential average SAARC intra-regional trade of $22 billion per year, the actual trade in South Asia
South Asia
has been only around $8 billion. The uncaptured potential for intra-regional trade is therefore $14 billion per year, i.e. 68%.[51][52] SAARC Visa Exemption Scheme[edit] The SAARC Visa Exemption Scheme was launched in 1992. The leaders at the Fourth Summit (Islamabad, 29–31 December 1988), realizing the importance of people-to-people contact among SAARC countries, decided that certain categories of dignitaries should be entitled to a Special Travel document. The document would exempt them from visas within the region. As directed by the Summit, the Council of Ministers regularly kept under review the list of entitled categories. Currently, the list included 24 categories of entitled persons, which include dignitaries, judges of higher courts, parliamentarians, senior officials, entrepreneurs, journalists, and athletes. The Visa Stickers are issued by the respective Member States to the entitled categories of that particular country. The validity of the Visa Sticker is generally for one year. The implementation is reviewed regularly by the Immigration Authorities of SAARC Member States.[53] Awards[edit] SAARC Award[edit] The Twelfth Summit approved the SAARC Award to support individuals and organisations within the region. The main aims of the SAARC Award are:

To encourage individuals and organisations based in South Asia
South Asia
to undertake programmes and activities that complement the efforts of SAARC To encourage individuals and organisations in South Asia
South Asia
contributing to bettering the conditions of women and children To honour outstanding contributions and achievements of individuals and organisations within the region in the fields of peace, development, poverty alleviation, environment protection and regional cooperation To honour any other contributions and achievement not covered above of individuals and organisations in the region.

The SAARC Award consists of a gold medal, a letter of citation, and cash prize of US $25,000 (₹15 lakhs). Since the institution of the SAARC Award in 2004, it has been awarded only once and the Award was posthumously conferred upon the late President Ziaur Rahman
Ziaur Rahman
of Bangladesh.[54] SAARC Literary Award[edit]

Recipients of SAARC Literary Award
SAARC Literary Award
2013

The SAARC Literary Award
SAARC Literary Award
is an annual award conferred by the Foundation of SAARC Writers and Literature
Foundation of SAARC Writers and Literature
(FOSWAL) since 2001[55][56] which is an apex SAARC body.[57] Shamshur Rahman, Mahasweta Devi, Jayanta Mahapatra, Abhi Subedi, Mark Tully, Sitakant Mahapatra, Uday Prakash, Suman Pokhrel
Suman Pokhrel
and Abhay K
Abhay K
are some of the prominent recipients of this award.[58] Nepali poet, lyricist and translator Suman Pokhrel
Suman Pokhrel
is the only poet/writer to get this award twice.[59] SAARC Youth Award[edit] The SAARC Youth Award is awarded to outstanding individuals from the SAARC region. The award is notable because of the recognition it gives to the Award winner in the SAARC region. The award is based on specific themes which apply to each year. The award recognises and promotes the commitment and talent of the youth who give back to the world at large through various initiatives such as Inventions, Protection of the Environment and Disaster relief. The recipients who receive this award are ones who have dedicated their lives to their individual causes to improve situations in their own countries as well as paving a path for the SAARC region to follow. The Committee for the SAARC Youth Award selects the best candidate based on his/her merits and their decision is final.[60] Previous Winners:

1997: Outstanding Social Service in Community Welfare – Mohammed Sukur Salek (Bangladesh) 1998: New Inventions and Shanu — Najmul Hasnain Shah (Pakistan) 2001: Creative Photography: South Asian
South Asian
Diversity – Mushfiqul Alam (Bangladesh) 2002: Outstanding contribution to protect the Environment – Masil Khan (Pakistan) 2003: Invention in the Field of Traditional Medicine – Hassan Sher (Pakistan) 2004: Outstanding contribution to raising awareness of TB and/or HIV/AIDS – Ajij Prasad Poudyal (Nepal) 2006: Promotion of Tourism in South Asia – Syed Zafar Abbas Naqvi (Pakistan) 2008: Protecting the Environment in South Asia – Uswatta Liyanage Deepani Jayantha (Sri Lanka) 2009: Outstanding contribution to humanitarian works in the aftermath of Natural Disasters – Ravikant Singh (India) 2010: Outstanding contribution for the Protection of Environment and mitigation of Climate Change – Anoka Primrose Abeyrathne
Anoka Primrose Abeyrathne
(Sri Lanka)

Anthem[edit] SAARC does not have an official anthem like some other regional organisations (e.g. ASEAN).[61] A poem by poet-diplomat Abhay Kumar spurred a search for a better SAARC anthem.[62] Nepal's foreign minister has expressed the need for an SAARC anthem to connect SAARC nations.[63] Nepal
Nepal
at the 18th summit in Kathmandu
Kathmandu
in November 2014 planned to introduce proposal for an SAARC Anthem in the agenda of summit when heads of all member states meet here.[61] Secretaries-General of SAARC[edit]

# Name Country Took office Left office

1 Abul Ahsan  Bangladesh 16 January 1985 15 October 1989

2 Kant Kishore Bhargava  India 17 October 1989 31 December 1991

3 Ibrahim Hussein Zaki  Maldives 1 January 1992 31 December 1993

4 Yadav Kant Silwal    Nepal 1 January 1994 31 December 1995

5 Naeem U. Hasan  Pakistan 1 January 1996 31 December 1998

6 Nihal Rodrigo  Sri Lanka 1 January 1999 10 January 2002

7 Q. A. M. A. Rahim  Bangladesh 11 January 2002 28 February 2005

8 Chenkyab Dorji  Bhutan 1 March 2005 29 February 2008

9 Sheel Kant Sharma  India 1 March 2008 28 February 2011

10 Fathimath Dhiyana Saeed  Maldives 1 March 2011 11 March 2012

11 Ahmed Saleem  Maldives 12 March 2012 28 February 2014

12 Arjun Bahadur Thapa    Nepal 1 March 2014 28 February 2017

13 Amjad Hussain B Sial  Pakistan 1 March 2017 Incumbent

SAARC summits[edit] Main article: List of SAARC summits

No Date Country Host Host leader

1st 7–8 December 1985 Bangladesh Dhaka Ataur Rahman Khan

2nd 16–17 November 1986 India Bengaluru Rajiv Gandhi

3rd 2–4 November 1987 Nepal Kathmandu Marich Man Singh Shrestha

4th 29–31 December 1988 Pakistan Islamabad Benazir Bhutto

5th 21–23 November 1990 Maldives Malé Maumoon Abdul Gayoom

6th 21 December 1991 Sri Lanka Colombo Ranasinghe Premadasa

7th 10–11 April 1993 Bangladesh Dhaka Khaleda Zia

8th 2–4 May 1995 India New Delhi P V Narasimha Rao

9th 12–14 May 1997 Maldives Malé Maumoon Abdul Gayoom

10th 29–31 July 1998 Sri Lanka Colombo Chandrika Kumaratunga

11th 4–6 January 2002 Nepal Kathmandu Sher Bahadur Deuba

12th 2–6 January 2004 Pakistan Islamabad Zafarullah Khan Jamali

13th 12–13 November 2005 Bangladesh Dhaka Khaleda Zia

14th 3–4 April 2007 India New Delhi Manmohan Singh

15th 1–3 August 2008 Sri Lanka Colombo Mahinda Rajapaksa

16th 28–29 April 2010 Bhutan Thimphu Jigme Thinley

17th 10–11 November 2011[64] Maldives Addu Mohammed Nasheed

18th 26–27 November 2014[65] Nepal Kathmandu Sushil Koirala

19th 9–10 November 2016 Pakistan Islamabad Cancelled

20th TBA

Current leaders of SAARC[edit]

Afghanistan President Ashraf Ghani

Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina

Bhutan Prime Minister Tshering Tobgay

India Prime Minister Narendra Modi

Maldives President Abdulla Yameen

Nepal Prime Minister Khadga Prasad Oli

Sri Lanka President Maithripala Sirisena

Pakistan Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi

See also[edit]

SAARC portal India
India
portal Nepal
Nepal
portal

ASEAN
ASEAN
and India's Look-East connectivity projects Asia
Asia
Cooperation Dialogue Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bhutan
Bhutan
India
India
Nepal
Nepal
Initiative BIMSTEC Indian-Ocean Rim Association List of SAARC summits Mekong–Ganga Cooperation SAARC satellite South Asian
South Asian
University South Asia
South Asia
Subregional Economic Cooperation

Notes[edit]

^ .asia is representative of all of Asia; member states also have their own TLDs.

References[edit]

^ "CURRICULUM VITAE OFH. E. MR. AMJAD HUSSAIN B. SIAL SECRETARY GENERAL OF SAARC". SAARC Secretariat. Retrieved 12 October 2017.  ^ "World Urbanization Prospects — Population Division — United Nations". un.org.  ^ a b c "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". imf.org.  ^ "Rest in peace SAARC: The tug of war between India
India
and Pakistan".  ^ "Charter of SAARC". SAARC Secretariat. Retrieved 10 November 2013.  ^ Center, Asia
Asia
Regional Integration. " South Asian
South Asian
Free Trade Area Free Trade Agreement". aric.adb.org. Retrieved 2018-03-02.  ^ http://jang.com.pk/important_events/saarc_2004/history.html ^ "History and mission of SAARC". Daily News. Colombo. 1 August 2008. Retrieved 10 November 2013.  ^ a b c d e f Muhammad, Jamshed Iqbal. "SAARC: Origin, Growth, Potential and Achievements" (PDF). National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research in Islamabad. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ "A Brief on SAARC." South Asian
South Asian
Association for Regional Cooperation. No date. See for a complete historical account of SAARC e.g. Michael, Arndt (2013). India's Foreign Policy and Regional Multilateralism (Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 57–112. ^ "History and Evolution of SAARC". Jang Media Research Unit. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ "About SAARC". SAARC Secretariat. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ a b "1st Summit Declaration" (PDF). SAARC Secretariat. Retrieved 10 November 2013.  ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". imf.org.  ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ "The World Factbook". cia.gov.  ^ "Net enrolment rate, primary, both sexes (%) - Data". worldbank.org.  ^ "Gross enrolment ratio, secondary, both sexes (%) - Data". worldbank.org.  ^ UN ^ " South Asian
South Asian
Association for Regional Cooperation". SAARC Secretariat. Retrieved 27 June 2014.  ^ " Afghanistan
Afghanistan
keen to join SAARC". rediff web services. 28 August 2005. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ " Afghanistan
Afghanistan
inducted as 8th member: 14th Saarc summit begins". Dawn. 4 April 2004. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ a b c Sáez, Lawrence (2012). The South Asian
South Asian
Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC): An emerging collaboration architecture. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. pp. 58–. ISBN 978-1-136-67108-1.  ^ "South Asia: Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Joins World's Largest Regional Grouping." Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 3 April 2007. ^ "Cooperation with Observers". SAARC Secretariat. Retrieved 8 March 2014.  ^ "Sri Lanka, 7 - 30 - 2008: Australia
Australia
and Myanmar
Myanmar
to admit as SAARC observers - Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
official". ColomboPage.  ^ a b thehimalayantimes.com Archived 9 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "The Island-News". island.lk.  ^ "Cooperation with Observers". SAARC Secretariat. Retrieved 16 November 2012.  ^ a b "SAARC to grant observer status to US, S Korea, EU." Hindustan Times. 2 August 2006. ^ Waliur Rahman. "US and S Korea to observe SAARC." BBC News, 11 April 2008. ^ " Iran
Iran
requests for observer status in SAARC". China
China
Daily. 4 March 2007.  ^ SAARC and Myanmar: Observer Research Foundation ^ a b "Russia, Turkey
Turkey
seek observer status in SAARC". The Economic Times. IANS. 16 February 2014.  ^ a b SAARC The Changing Dimensions: UNU-CRIS Working Papers United Nations University Archived 20 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Comparative Regional Integration Studies ^ a b Russia
Russia
keen to join SAARC as observer, Oneindia News ^ "SAARC nations call for transparency in social sector". thaindian.com.  ^ "Features Online edition of Daily News - Lakehouse Newspapers". archives.dailynews.lk. Retrieved 2017-06-05.  ^ http://saarc-sec.org/saarc-regional-centres ^ a b " South Asian
South Asian
Association For Regional Cooperation — Apex and Recognised Bodies". saarc-sec.org.  ^ "SAARCLAW — South Asian
South Asian
Association for Regional Co-operation in Law". saarclaw.org.  ^ See for this aspect Michael, Arndt (2013). Sovereignty vs. Security: SAARC and its Role in the Regional Security Architecture in South Asia. Harvard Asia
Asia
Quarterly Summer 2013, Vol. VX, No.2: 37-45 ^ Jhawar, Shiv (2004). Building a Noble World. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-9749197-0-6.  ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize for 2012". Retrieved 12 October 2012.  ^ https://www.geo.tv/latest/116144-SAARC-conference-in-Pakistan-postponed-confirm-official-sources ^ http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/dhaka-kabul-thimphu-too-blame-islamabad-saarc-summit-to-be-called-off-3054953/ ^ http://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/saarc-summit-collapses-after-india-and-3-other-members-pull-out/story-kIMWfSqirGLzB6MEfuS3CN.html ^ http://www.dawn.com/news/1286684 ^ " South Asian
South Asian
Association For Regional Cooperation — Area of Cooperation". saarc-sec.org.  ^ http://thehimalayantimes.com/business/safta-meet-likely-next-month/ ^ https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/142861-ADB-urges-Safta-to-exploit-rich-trade-potential-of-member-countries ^ http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/Coming-closer-together-for-trade/article14628676.ece ^ " South Asian
South Asian
Association For Regional Cooperation — SAARC Visa Exemption Scheme". saarc-sec.org.  ^ " South Asian
South Asian
Association For Regional Cooperation — SAARC Award". saarc-sec.org.  ^ [1] FOSWAL
FOSWAL
Website ^ [2] Five Writers honoured at SAARC Litearure Festival, Hindustan Times 11 March 2013 ^ [3] Official website of SAARC:Apex and Recognized Bodies ^ Mahasweta Devi
Mahasweta Devi
to get SAARC Literary Award
SAARC Literary Award
Oneindia.in 30 March 2007 ^ Hindustan Times, New Delhi, Saturday, 14 February 2015 ^ http://saarc-sec.org/SAARC-Youth-Award/71/ ^ a b Will SAARC have an anthem like ASEAN? Hindustan Times, 3 November 2014 ^ Indian diplomat's poem spurs search for SAARC anthem IANS 9 January 2014 ^ Nepal
Nepal
foreign minister expresses need for an anthem to connect SAARC nations Business Standard, 6 June 2014 ^ " Maldives
Maldives
holiday reviews — Travel Guides — Maldives Traveller". maldivestraveller.mv.  ^ "Press Releases, 18th SAARC Summit Declaration, November 27, 2014". SAARC. Retrieved 2 December 2015. 

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South Asian
South Asian
Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

Agreements

South Asian
South Asian
Free Trade Area

Summits

Dhaka
Dhaka
1985 Bengaluru
Bengaluru
1986 Kathmandu
Kathmandu
1987 Islamabad
Islamabad
1988 Malé
Malé
1990 Colombo
Colombo
1991 Dhaka
Dhaka
1993 New Delhi
New Delhi
1995 Malé
Malé
1997 Colombo
Colombo
1998 Kathmandu
Kathmandu
2002 Islamabad
Islamabad
2004 Dhaka
Dhaka
2005 New Delhi
New Delhi
2007 Colombo
Colombo
2008 Thimphu
Thimphu
2010 Addu 2011 Kathmandu
Kathmandu
2014 Islamabad
Islamabad
2016 (Cancelled) Next

Members

 Afghanistan  Bangladesh  Bhutan  India  Maldives    Nepal  Pakistan  Sri Lanka

Observers

 Australia  China  European Union  Iran  Japan  Mauritius  Myanmar  South Korea  United States

Guests

 South Africa  Russia

Specialized agencies

SAARC Consortium on Open and Distance Learning SAARC Documentation Centre South Asia
South Asia
Co-operative Environment Programme Foundation of SAARC Writers and Literature SAARC Chamber of Commerce and Industry South Asian
South Asian
Federation of Accountants

Related Articles

SAARC Secretary General SAARC Secretariat SAARC satellite South Asian
South Asian
University South Asian
South Asian
Games SAARC Literary Award SAARC Road SAARC Fountain

Links to related articles

v t e

SAARC heads of government

Ghani Hasina Tobgay Modi Yameen Dahal Abbasi Sirisena

v t e

South Asian
South Asian
Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

Agreements

South Asian
South Asian
Free Trade Area

Summits

Dhaka
Dhaka
1985 Bengaluru
Bengaluru
1986 Kathmandu
Kathmandu
1987 Islamabad
Islamabad
1988 Malé
Malé
1990 Colombo
Colombo
1991 Dhaka
Dhaka
1993 New Delhi
New Delhi
1995 Malé
Malé
1997 Colombo
Colombo
1998 Kathmandu
Kathmandu
2002 Islamabad
Islamabad
2004 Dhaka
Dhaka
2005 New Delhi
New Delhi
2007 Colombo
Colombo
2008 Thimphu
Thimphu
2010 Addu 2011 Kathmandu
Kathmandu
2014 Islamabad
Islamabad
2016 (Cancelled) Next

Members

 Afghanistan  Bangladesh  Bhutan  India  Maldives    Nepal  Pakistan  Sri Lanka

Observers

 Australia  China  European Union  Iran  Japan  Mauritius  Myanmar  South Korea  United States

Guests

 South Africa  Russia

Specialized agencies

SAARC Consortium on Open and Distance Learning SAARC Documentation Centre South Asia
South Asia
Co-operative Environment Programme Foundation of SAARC Writers and Literature SAARC Chamber of Commerce and Industry South Asian
South Asian
Federation of Accountants

Related Articles

SAARC Secretary General SAARC Secretariat SAARC satellite South Asian
South Asian
University South Asian
South Asian
Games SAARC Literary Award SAARC Road SAARC Fountain

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South–South cooperation and Third Worldism

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Dialogue Forum (IBSA)

Finance

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Trade and development

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(SCO)

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Power in international relations

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Studies

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Organizations and groups by region or regions affected

Africa

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(OIC)

Americas

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(OAS) Union of South American Nations
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(Unasur)

Asia

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(ACD) Asia-Pacific
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Economic Cooperation (APEC) Association of Southeast Asian Nations
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(ASEAN) China–Japan– South Korea
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trilateral summits Economic Cooperation Organization
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(ECO) South Asian
South Asian
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(SCO)

Europe

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Eurasia

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(EaEU) Turkic Council

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Oceania-Pacific

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United States
Security Treaty (ANZUS) Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation (APEC) Melanesian Spearhead Group
Melanesian Spearhead Group
(MSG) Pacific Islands Forum
Pacific Islands Forum
(PIF) Polynesian Leaders Group
Polynesian Leaders Group
(PLG)

Non-regional

Brazil–Russia–India–China– South Africa
South Africa
(BRICS) Commonwealth of Nations Francophonie Colombia–Indonesia–Vietnam–Egypt–Turkey–South Africa (CIVETS) E7 E9 G4 G7 G8 G8+5 G20 G24 G77 India–Brazil– South Africa
South Africa
Dialogue Forum (IBSA) Mexico–Indonesia–Nigeria– Turkey
Turkey
(MINT) Next Eleven
Next Eleven
(N-11) Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM) Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Uniting for Consensus

Global

United Nations
United Nations
(UN)

v t e

International trade

Terminology

Absolute advantage Balance of payments Balance of trade Capital account Comparative advantage Current account Export-oriented industrialization Fair trade Foreign exchange reserves Globalization Import substitution industrialization Net capital outflow Outsourcing Tariff Trade justice Trade war Trading nation

Organizations and policies

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(IMF) United Nations
United Nations
Conference on Trade and Development World Bank
World Bank
Group World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
(WTO)

International Trade Centre

Bilateral investment treaty Economic integration Free-trade zone Special
Special
economic zone Trade agreement Trade barrier Trade bloc

Political economy

Free trade
Free trade
(Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, Repeal of the Corn Laws) Mercantilism Protectionism
Protectionism
(Economic nationalism, Autarky)

Regional organizations

ACU ASEAN CACM CAN CARICOM CEMAC CUBKR EAC EAU EU GCC Mercosur RCEP SAARC SACU WAEMU

Exports by product

Aircraft & Spacecraft Aircraft parts Aluminium Cars Car parts Coal Coffee Computers Copper Corn Cotton Diamonds Electricity Engines Gas turbines Gold Integrated circuits Iron ore Natural gas Oil Petrol Pharmaceuticals Ships Steel Telecommunications equipment Telephones Trucks Wheat Wine

Category Commons

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Regional organizations

Bodies

African Union Arab League Asia
Asia
Cooperation Dialogue APEC OCS ASEAN BBIN BIMSTEC Caribbean Community Central American Integration System Commonwealth of Independent States Commonwealth of Nations Community of Latin American and Caribbean States Council of Europe East African Community ECOWAS Economic Cooperation Organization Eurasian Economic Union EU GUAM Gulf Cooperation Council IORA Latin American Parliament Melanesian Spearhead Group Mercosur NATO Nordic Council OAS PIF Polynesian Leaders Group RCEP SCO SAARC TAKM Trilateral Cooperation Secretariat Turkic Council Union of South American Nations V4 West Nordic Council

Topics

Regional integration Regional organizations by population Regionalism (international relations)

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran
Iran
crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam
Vietnam
War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam
Vietnam
War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN
ASEAN
Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

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