HOME
The Info List - South African Republic


--- Advertisement ---



The South African Republic
Republic
(Dutch: Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, ZAR), often referred to as the Transvaal and sometimes as the Republic
Republic
of Transvaal, was an independent and internationally recognised country in Southern Africa
Southern Africa
from 1852 to 1902. The country defeated the British in what is often referred to as the First Boer War
First Boer War
and remained independent until the end of the Second Boer War
Second Boer War
on 31 May 1902, when it was forced to surrender to the British. The territory of the ZAR became known after this war as the Transvaal Colony. After the outbreak of the First World War
First World War
a small number of Boers staged the Maritz Rebellion by declaring the reinstatement of the South African Republic
Republic
and aligned themselves with the Central Powers. The rebellion was put down by British forces in February 1915. The land area that was once the ZAR now comprises all or most of the provinces of Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, and North West in the northeastern portion of the modern Republic
Republic
of South Africa.

Contents

1 Name and etymology

1.1 Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (ZAR) 1.2 Transvaal

2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Formation 2.3 Independence 2.4 Expansion

3 Constitution and laws

3.1 Religion 3.2 Citizenship 3.3 Racialism

4 Language 5 Military history

5.1 War with Mapela and Makapaan, 1854 5.2 Civil War, 1861–1864 5.3 Sekhukhune
Sekhukhune
War of 1876 5.4 First Boer War, 1880–1881 5.5 Mapoch War of 1883 5.6 Western frontier war of 1885 5.7 Malaboch War 5.8 Second Boer War, 1899–1902

6 Political structure

6.1 Officials 6.2 Divisions

7 Economy and transport 8 Flag 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Name and etymology[edit] Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (ZAR)[edit] Constitutionally the name of the country was Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (South African Republic
Republic
or ZAR). Many people also called the ZAR Transvaal, in reference to the area over (or trans) the Vaal River,[2] including the British press and the press in Europe. In fact the name "Transvaal" was later so often used that later the British objected to the use of the real name (The South African Republic). The British pointed out that the Pretoria
Pretoria
Convention of 3 August 1881[3] referred to the 'Transvaal Territory' and that the Transvaal and the South African Republic
Republic
did not have the same boundaries.[4] However, in the London Convention dated 27 February 1884,[3]:469–474 a subsequent treaty between Britain and the ZAR, Britain acquiesced and reverted to the use of the true name, "The South African Republic".

Map of South African Republic, Orange Free State, Natal, Basuto Land, etc.

Transvaal[edit] The name of the South African Republic
Republic
was of such importance that on 1 September 1900 the British declared by special proclamation that the name of the South African Republic
Republic
be changed[3]:514 from "South African Republic" to "The Transvaal" and that the entire territory shall henceforth and forever be known as "The Transvaal". This proclamation was issued during the Second Boer War
Second Boer War
and whilst the ZAR was still an independent country. On 31 May 1902, the Treaty of Vereeniging
Treaty of Vereeniging
was signed, with the South African Government, Orange Free State
Orange Free State
Government and the British Government which also converted the ZAR into the Transvaal Colony. On 20 May 1903 an Inter Colonial Council[3]:516 was established, to manage the colonies of the British Government. The name "Transvaal" was finally changed in 1994, when the ANC government broke up the Transvaal area and renamed the core to "Gauteng". History[edit] Early history[edit] Further information: History of South Africa In paleolithic times, between 2.2 and 3.3 million years ago, hominids lived within the geographic area of the ZAR. The earliest hominid bones, between 2.2 and 3.3 million years old, were discovered at Sterkfontein
Sterkfontein
in 1994. In 1938 Paranthropus robustus
Paranthropus robustus
bones were found at Kromdraai, and during 1947 several more examples of Australopithecus africanus were uncovered in Sterkfontein. Formation[edit] Further information: Boer Republics
Boer Republics
§ South African Republic The South African Republic
Republic
came into existence on 17 January 1852[3]:357–359 when the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
signed the Sand River Convention treaty with about 40,000 Boer people, recognising their independence in the region to the north of the Vaal River. The first president of the ZAR was Marthinus Wessel Pretorius, elected in 1857, son of Boer leader Andries Pretorius, who commanded the Boers to victory at the Battle of Blood River. The capital was established at Potchefstroom
Potchefstroom
and later moved to Pretoria. The parliament was called the Volksraad
Volksraad
and had 24 members. Independence[edit] The ZAR became fully independent on the 27 February 1884 when the London Convention was signed. The country independently also entered into various agreements with other foreign countries after that date. On 3 November 1884 the country signed a Postal convention with the government of the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
and later similarly with the Orange Free State.[3]:477

Statue of Marthinus Wessel Pretorius, the first President of the ZAR in Pretoria.

Flag of the British Colony of Transvaal

Coat of arms of the South African Republic
Republic
displayed on Kruger's wagon

Expansion[edit] On the November 1859[3]:420–422 the independent Republics of Lijdenburg and Utrecht merged with the ZAR. On 9 May 1887, burghers from the territories of Stellaland
Stellaland
and Goosen[3]:479 (sometimes referred to as "Goshen") were granted rights to the ZAR franchise. On 25 July 1895 the burghers that took part in the battle at Zoutpansberg,[3]:505 were granted citizenship of the ZAR. Constitution and laws[edit] The constitution of the South African Republic
Republic
has been referred to as legally interesting for its time.[5] It contained provisions for the division between the political leadership and office bearers in government administration. The legal system consisted of higher and lower courts and had adopted a jury system. The laws were enforced by the South African Republic
Republic
Police (Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek Politie or ZARP) which were divided into Mounted Police (Rijdende Politie) and Foot Police. On 10 April 1902 the Magistrates Court powers were extended to increase the civil ceiling amounts and to expand criminal jurisdiction to include all criminal cases not punishable by death or banishment. Also established was a Municipal Government, Witwatersrand District court and the High Court of Transvaal.[3]:515 Religion[edit] Initially the State and Church were not separated in the constitution of the ZAR, citizens of the ZAR had to be members of the Dutch Reformed Church. In 1858 these clauses were altered in the constitution to allow for the Volksraad
Volksraad
to approve other Dutch Christian churches.[3]:358–359 The Reformed Church was approved by the Volksraad
Volksraad
in 1858, which had the effect of allowing Paul Kruger, of the Gereformeerde Kerk to remain a citizen of the ZAR. The Bible itself was also often used to interpret the intention of legal documents. The Bible was also used to interpret a prisoner exchange agreement, reached in terms of the Sand River Convention, between a commando of the ZAR, led by Paul Kruger
Paul Kruger
and a Commando of the Orange Free State. President Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff
Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff
had issued a death sentence over two ZAR citizens, for treason. Paul Kruger
Paul Kruger
argued with President Boshoff that the Bible said punishment does not mean a death sentence and at the prisoner exchange, it was agreed that the accused would be punished if found guilty. After double checking Commandant Paul Kruger's Bible, President Boshoff commuted the sentences to lashes with a sjambok.[6] Citizenship[edit] Citizenship of the ZAR was legislated by the constitution as well as Law no 7 of 1882, as amended on 23 June 1890.[3]:495 Citizenship was gained by being born in the republic or by naturalization. The voting age was 16 years. Persons not born in the Republic
Republic
(Foreigners) could become citizens by taking the prescribed oath and procuring the letters of naturalization. The oath involved abandoning, discarding and renouncing all allegiance and subjugation towards foreign sovereignties and in particular their previous citizenship. Foreigners had to have been residing in the Republic
Republic
for a period of two years, be of good character and have been accepted as member of the Dutch Reformed or Reformed Church. On 20 September 1893 the ZAR Constitution was amended so that two thirds of the Volksraad
Volksraad
would have to agree to changes to the citizenship law. This proclamation, number 224, also changed Law no 7 with regards to voting.[3]:501 All citizens who were born in the ZAR or had obtained their franchise prior to 23 June 1890 would have the right to vote for both the first and second volksraad and in all other elections. Citizens who obtained their franchise through naturalization after 23 June 1890, would be able to vote in all elections, except those for the first Volksraad. Racialism[edit] The constitution promoted racialism as it treated European (white) people differently from Native (black) people. Although slavery was illegal in the constitution and foreigners (white and black) were both discriminated against, black foreigners had fewer rights than their white counterparts. Black and Asian foreigners could never become citizens of the ZAR; at this time in history, this was very similar to many other European countries as well as in the New World. Discrimination on the basis of race was prevalent in the ZAR and black British subjects were forced to reside in ghettos outside cities with Asians and blacks, whilst whites were free to live anywhere. One of the justifications often used by the ZAR Government for its institutional racism was that "sanitation and regard to public health necessitated that measure of segregation".[7] Language[edit] The language spoken and written by the citizens of the ZAR was high Dutch. This high Dutch was carried over into the Transvaal Colony
Transvaal Colony
and later the Union of South Africa. Up to 1925, the high Dutch language was still in use. In fact there were four main languages: High Dutch, Low or South African Dutch (Afrikaans), High Afrikaans, and English.[8] On 3 October 1884 the Volksraad
Volksraad
stated that they had reason to believe that in certain schools impure Dutch was being used. The Volksraad
Volksraad
issued Proclamation 207 and compelled the Superintendent of Education to apply the language law[9] enforcing the exclusive use of the Dutch Language.[3]:477 On 30 July 1888 the high Dutch language was declared the only language[3]:481–82 to be used in the country, not only in government but also in schools, trade and general use. All other languages were declared "foreign".[10] These changes to the ZAR laws made the use of all other foreign languages illegal in the ZAR. Use of any foreign language was subject to criminal penalty[3]:483 and fine of 20 ZAR Pond for each offense. The British similarly had declared English to be the only language spoken in the Cape Colony some decades earlier to outlaw[11] the Dutch Language. The discovery of gold in 1885 led to a major influx of foreigners. By 1896 the language of government and citizens remained Dutch but in many market places, shops and homes the English language was spoken.[12] Military history[edit] War with Mapela and Makapaan, 1854[edit] Hendrik Potgieter was elected at the assembly of 1849 as Commandant General for life and it became necessary, to avoid strife, to appoint three commandants general all possessing equal powers.[6]:41 Commandant General A.W.J. Pretorius became Commandant General of the Potchefstroom
Potchefstroom
and Rustenburg
Rustenburg
districts. On 16 December 1852 Commandant General Potgieter died and his son, Piet Potgieter, was appointed in his stead as Commandant General of the Lydenburg
Lydenburg
and Zoutpansberg districts of the ZAR. There were some disputes over cattle which Mapela was raising on behalf of Potgieter and earlier Commandant Scholtz had confiscated a large number of rifles and amounts of ammunition, rifle repair equipment and materials of war from the home of English missionary, Reverend Livingstone. Livingstone admitted to storing these for Secheli and by this he was acting in breach of the Sand River Convention
Sand River Convention
of 1852, which prescribed that neither arms nor ammunition should be supplied to the natives.[6]:40 In 1853, the brother of Hendrik Potgieter, Herman Potgieter was called to Mapela to come and cull the elephant population.[6]:42 When Potgieter arrived, Maphela took Potgieter, his son, his groom and a few other burghers to show them where the elephants were. On the way, Mapela and hundreds of natives attacked the Potgieter party. They killed Andries Potgieter, the son of Herman Potgieter and then dragged Potgieter up a hill, where they proceeded to skin him alive. They stopped once they had torn the entrails from his body.[6]:43 At the same time of these events, Makapaan attacked and killed an entire convoy of woman and children traveling to Pretoria. The two chiefs had concluded an agreement to murder all the Europeans in their respective districts[6]:44 and to keep the cattle that they were raising for the Europeans. General Piet Potgieter set out with 100 men from Zoutpansberg
Zoutpansberg
and Commandant General Pretorius left Pretoria
Pretoria
with 200 men. After the commandos met up, they first attacked Makapaan and the natives were driven back to their caves in the mountains where they lived before. The Boers held them at siege in their caves and eventually hundreds of women and children came out. Orphan children of the native tribes were "ingeboekt" at "autorisatie voor den landrost" or translated into English, "booked in" strictly controlled by legal process, at appointed Boer families to look after them until they came of age.[6]:47 (The administration was similar to the system of indentured workers, (which was simply another form of slavery) with the exception that children so registered had to be released at age 16) The commando would return all such children to the nearest landrost district, for registration and allocation to a Boer family. As there were slavers and other criminals dealing in children any burgher found in possession of an unregistered minor child was guilty of a criminal offense. These children were also often called "oorlams" in reference to being overly used to the Dutch culture, and in reference to a hand raised orphan sheep, or "hanslam". These children, even after their 16th birthday, and being free to come and go as they please, never re-connected with their own culture and own language and except for surviving and being cared for in terms of food and shelter, were basically forcefully divorced from their native tribe forever. Among the casualties of this war was Commandant General Potgieter.[6]:46 The natives were armed with rifles and were good shots. The general was killed by native sniper on the ridge of a trench and his body recovered by then commandant Paul Kruger
Paul Kruger
whilst under heavy fire from the natives. What remained of the joint commando, now under command of General Pretorius focussed their attention on Mapela. By the time the commando had reached Mapela, the natives had fled. A few wagons, bloody clothes, chests and other goods were discovered at a kop near Mapela's town. Mapela and his soldiers escaped and with their rifles and ammunition intact and Mapela was only captured much later, in 1858. Civil War, 1861–1864[edit] Main article: Transvaal Civil War Commandant-General Schoeman did not accept the 20 September 1858 proclamation by the Volksraad, where the members of the Christelijk Gereformeerde Church, would be entitled to citizenship of the ZAR. Consequently, Paul Kruger
Paul Kruger
was not accepted as a citizen and disallowed from political intercourse. Acting President van Rensburg called a special meeting of the general council of the Hervormde kerk (Dutch Reformed Church) which then voted in a special resolution to allow members of the Reformed Church access to the franchise. Sekhukhune
Sekhukhune
War of 1876[edit] In 1876, a war between the ZAR and the Bapedi
Bapedi
broke out over cattle theft and land encroachment.[13] The Volksraad
Volksraad
declared war on the Pedi leader, Sekhukhune
Sekhukhune
on 16 May 1876. The war only began in July 1876. The president of the ZAR, Burgers led an army of 2000 burghers and was joined by a strong force of Swazi warriors. The Swazis joined the war to aid Mampuru, who was ousted from his position of chieftain by Sekhukhune.[13] One of the early battles occurred at Botsabelo Mission Station on 13 July 1876, against Johannes Dinkwanyane, who was Sekhukhune's brother. The Boer forces were led by Commandant Coetzee and accompanied by Swazi warriors. The Swazi warriors launched a surprise and successful attack while the Boers held back.[13] Seeing this, the Swazis refused to hand over to the Boers any spoils from the battle, thereafter leaving and returning to Swaziland. Dinkwanyane's followers also surrendered after this campaign.[13] First Boer War, 1880–1881[edit] Main article: First Boer War

The President of the ZAR, State President Paul Kruger
Paul Kruger
at his fourth inauguration, Pretoria, 1898.

On 12 April 1877, Britain issued a proclamation called: "Annexation of the S.A. Republic
Republic
to the British empire"[3]:448–49 In the proclamation, the British claimed that the country was unstable, ungovernable, bankrupt and facing civil war. The unsuccessful annexation did not suspend self-government and attempted to convert the ZAR into a British colony.[3]:448–53 The Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek viewed this proclamation as an act of aggression,[3]:454–55 and resisted. Instead of declaring war, the country decided to send a delegation to United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the United States, to protest. This did not have any effect and the First Boer War formally broke out on 20 December 1880. The First Boer War
First Boer War
was the first conflict since the American Revolution in which the British had been decisively defeated and forced to sign a peace treaty under unfavourable terms. It would see the introduction of the khaki uniform, marking the beginning of the end of the famous Redcoat. The Battle of Laing's Nek would be the last occasion where a British regiment carried its official regimental colours into battle. The Pretoria
Pretoria
Convention of 1881 was signed on 3 August 1881 and ratified on 25 October 1881 by the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek (where the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek is referred to by the name "Transvaal Territory"). The Pretoria
Pretoria
Convention of 1881[3]:456–57 was superseded in 1884 by the London Convention,[3]:469–70 and in which the British suzerainty over the South African Republic, was relinquished. The British Government, in the London Convention, accepted the name of the country as The South African Republic. The convention was signed in duplicate in London on 27 February 1884 by Hercules Robinson, S.JP. Kruger, S.J. Du Toit and N.J. Smit, and later ratified by the South African Republic
Republic
(Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek) Volksraad. In 1885 extremely rich gold reefs were discovered in the ZAR. The South African Republic
Republic
burghers were farmers and not miners and much of the mining fell to immigrants. The immigrants were also referred to as "outlanders" (uitlanders). By 1897 the immigrants had invested over 300 000 000 British Pounds in the ZAR goldfields. Mapoch War of 1883[edit]

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (October 2014)

Western frontier war of 1885[edit]

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (October 2014)

Malaboch War[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The Malaboch War
Malaboch War
(1894) was between Chief Malaboch (Mmaleboho, Mmaleboxo) of the Bahananwa (Xananwa) people and the South African Republic
Republic
(ZAR) Government led by Commandant-General Piet Joubert. Malboch refused to pay taxes to the Transvaal after it was given back to the Boers in 1881 by the British, which resulted in a military drive against him by the South African Republic
Republic
(ZAR). Second Boer War, 1899–1902[edit] Main article: Second Boer War Britain first attacked the independent country of South Africa
South Africa
in December 1895, the Jameson Raid. After that failed attack the British started building up massive numbers of troops and amounts of resources at the borders of the ZAR. Then they demanded voting rights for the 50,000 British nationals and the 10,000 other nationals in South Africa, even though none of these nationals were at that time South African citizens. Kruger rejected the British demand and called for the withdrawal of British troops from the ZAR's borders. When the British refused, Kruger declared war against Britain. Britain received assistance from Australia,[14] Canada[15] and New Zealand[16] as well as forces and citizens of colonies like the Colony of Natal
Colony of Natal
and the Cape Colony. The Second Boer War
Second Boer War
was a watershed for the British Army
British Army
in particular and for the British Empire
British Empire
as a whole. The British used concentration camps where women and children were held without adequate food or medical care.[17] The abhorrent conditions in these camps caused the death of 4,177 women and 22,074 children under sixteen; death rates were between 344 and 700 per 1000.[18] The Treaty of Vereeniging
Treaty of Vereeniging
was signed on 31 May 1902. The treaty ended the existence of the ZAR and the Orange Free State
Orange Free State
as independent Boer republics and placed them within the British Empire. The Boers were promised eventual limited self-government, which was granted in 1906 and 1907. The Union of South Africa
South Africa
was established in 1910. Political structure[edit] Officials[edit] Main article: List of Presidents of the South African Republic

President of the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek State Secretary of the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek State Attorney of the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek

Divisions[edit] The country was divided into 17 districts:[19]

Pretoria
Pretoria
district: Pretoria Potchefstroom
Potchefstroom
district: Potchefstroom, Ventersdorp, Klerksdorp, Venterskroon, Wolmaranstad Rustenburg
Rustenburg
district: Rustenburg Waterberg district: Nylstroom, Hartingsburg Zoutpansberg
Zoutpansberg
district: Pietersburg, Haenertsburg, Woodbush, Eersteling, Marabastad, Smitsdorp Lydenburg
Lydenburg
district: Lydenburg, Pilgrim's Rest, Barberton, Eureka City, FairView, Moodies, Jamestown Middelburg district: Middelburg, Roossenekal Heidelberg district: Heidelberg, Johannesburg, Elsburg, Boksburg, Krugersdorp Wakkerstroom
Wakkerstroom
district: Wakkerstroom, Amersfoort Piet Retief district: Piet Retief Utrecht district: Utrecht, Luneburg Bloemhof
Bloemhof
district: Christiania, Bloemhof, Schweizer-Reneke Marico district: Zeerust, Jacobsdal, Ottoshoop Lichtenburg district: Lichtenburg Standerton
Standerton
district: Standerton, Bethal Ermelo district: Ermelo, Amsterdam, Carolina Vryheid
Vryheid
district: Vryheid

Economy and transport[edit]

Map showing the railway lines in the South African Republic (Transvaal), as they were in 1899 at the outbreak of the Anglo-Boer War. All lines, except the lines in grey, were constructed by the Netherlands-South African Railway Company.

The discovery of gold during the Witwatersrand Gold Rush
Witwatersrand Gold Rush
in 1886 changed the economic fortunes of the formerly impoverished ZAR. The city of Johannesburg
Johannesburg
was founded as a gold mining town in the same year. Within ten years it would be the largest city in the entire Southern Africa, surpassing Cape Town. The discovery of gold allowed the construction of a railway network in the ZAR. Most railroads in the ZAR, including the line from Pretoria
Pretoria
to Lourenço Marques
Lourenço Marques
in Portuguese East Africa, were constructed by the Netherlands-South African Railway Company (NZASM). The construction of the Pretoria- Lourenço Marques
Lourenço Marques
line allowed the ZAR access to harbour facilities not controlled by the British Empire, a key policy of Paul Kruger who deemed it vital to the country's long term survival. Flag[edit] Main article: Flag of Transvaal The national flag of the ZAR featured three horizontal stripes of red, white, and blue (mirroring the Dutch national flag), with a vertical green stripe at the hoist, and was known as the Vierkleur (literally four colours). The former national flag of South Africa
South Africa
(from 1927 to 1994) had, as part of a feature contained within its central white bar, a horizontal flag of the Transvaal Republic
Republic
(ZAR). See also[edit]

Orange Free State

References[edit]

^ Alexander Mackay (1870). Manual of modern geography, mathematical, physical, and political. p. 484.  ^ Tamarkin (1996). Cecil Rhodes and the Cape Afrikaners. pp. 249–250.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Eybers (1917). Select constitutional documents illustrating South African history 1795–1910. pp. 455–463.  ^ Irish University Press Series: British Parliamentary Papers Colonies Africa, (BPPCA Transvaal Vol 37 (1971) No 41 at 267) ^ Entry: South African Law Review1954. Butterworth's South African Law Review, 1954 ^ a b c d e f g h Kruger, Paul (1902). Memoirs of Paul Kruger. Canada: George R Morang and Co. p. 59.  ^ "Origin of the Anglo-Boer War Revealed – C. H. Thomas (originally published in 1899 by Hodder & Stoughton)".  ^ Standaard Afrikaans
Afrikaans
(PDF). Abel Coetzee. Afrikaner Pers. 1948. Retrieved 2014-09-17.  ^ Law number 1, Article 7 of 1882, Locale Wetten der Z.A Rep. I, 1071. ^ Law articles 1017/1025 dd. 13 Juli 1888 & article 1026/1027, dd. 14 Juli 1888 & article 1030, dd. 16 Juli 1888. ^ Kachru, Braj; Kachru, Yamuna; Nelson, Cecil (2009). The Handbook of World Englishes. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 160–61. ISBN 1-40518831-6.  ^ De Villiers, John (1896). The Transvaal. London: Chatto & Windus. p. 14.  ^ a b c d Kinsey, H.W. "THE SEKUKUNI WARS". Military History Journal Vol 2 No 5 - June 1973. Die Suid-Afrikaanse Krygshistoriese Vereniging. Retrieved 28 September 2014.  ^ Australian War Memorial
Australian War Memorial
(2008). "Australian Military Statistics". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 10 May 2008.  ^ Marshall, Robert. "Boer War Remembered". Maclean's.  ^ New Zealand History Online (2008). "Brief history – New Zealand in the South African ('Boer') War". New Zealand History. Retrieved 10 May 2008.  ^ HOBHOUSE, E (1902). THE BRUNT OF THE WAR. METHUEN & CO.  ^ Totten, Samuel; Bartrop, Paul R. (2008). "Concentration Camps, South African War". Dictionary of Genocide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 84–85. ISBN 9780313346415.  ^ De Villiers, John (1896). The Transvaal. London: Chatto & Windus. p. 15. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to South African Republic.

 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Transvaal". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  American Library of Congress Documents Illustrating South African History 1795-1910

v t e

Boer Republics
Boer Republics
and Griqua States in Southern Africa
Southern Africa
1795–1902

Est. 1795–1830

Swellendam Graaff-Reinet Philippolis
Philippolis
/ Adam Kok's Land Waterboer's Land

Est. 1830–1840

Zoutpansberg Winburg Potchefstroom Winburg-Potchefstroom Natalia Republic

Est. 1840–1870

South African Republic Lydenburg
Lydenburg
Republic Orange Free State Utrecht Republic Griqualand East Griqualand West

Est. 1880–1902

Goshen Small Free State New Republic Stellaland United States of Stellaland Republic
Republic
of Upingtonia
Upingtonia
/ Lijdensrust

v t e

Political history of South Africa

Defunct polities

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97) Natalia Republic
Republic
(1839–43) Natal Colony (1843–1910) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) South African Republic
Republic
(1856–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91) Orange River Colony
Orange River Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Transvaal Colony
(1902–10) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94)

Events

1652–1815

Dutch settlement French Huguenot settlement Khoikhoi–Dutch Wars Xhosa Wars Battle of Muizenberg Battle of Blaauwberg Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814

1815–1910

Mfecane 1820 Settlers Great Trek Boer Republics Transvaal Civil War Mineral Revolution Witwatersrand Gold Rush South African Wars South Africa
South Africa
Act 1909

1910–1948

Maritz Rebellion Rand Rebellion Great Depression 1946 African Mine Workers' Union strike Bantustans

Apartheid
Apartheid
era

1948 general election Apartheid
Apartheid
legislation

Pass laws

Internal resistance Coloured-vote constitutional crisis Defiance Campaign Congress of the People

Freedom Charter

Women's March 1956 1957 Alexandra bus boycott Sharpeville massacre 1960 republic referendum International isolation

Academic boycott Disinvestment Sporting boycott

Olympics Rugby union

Rivonia Trial Tar Baby Option Durban Moment Border War Israeli alliance

Israel– South Africa
South Africa
Agreement

Soweto Uprising Weapons of mass destruction Project Coast Constructive engagement Church Street bombing 1983 constitutional reform referendum Langa massacre Rubicon speech Dakar Conference Third Force CODESA 1992 apartheid referendum Saint James Church massacre Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
crisis Shell House massacre

Post-apartheid

1994 general election Government of National Unity Reconstruction and Development Programme Truth and Reconciliation Commission Arms Deal Floor crossing Soweto bombings African Renaissance Xenophobia Marikana massacre 2012 Western Cape farm workers' strike Nkandlagate 2014 platinum strike #RhodesMustFall protests # FeesMustFall
FeesMustFall
student protests Tshwane riots

Political culture

African nationalism Afrikaner Calvinism Afrikaner nationalism Azania Baasskap Boerehaat Black Consciousness Movement Day of the Vow Greater South Africa Honorary whites Rooi gevaar Slavery Swart gevaar Uitlander Volkstaat

Defunct organisations

Civic and political organisations

Afrikaner Bond Afrikaner Broederbond Afrikaner Party AITUP APO AVF BPC Black Sash CDA CTEG COD Congress Alliance COSG CP Dominion Party DP (1973–1977) DP (1989–2000) DPP ECC FA FD Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners GNP Het Volk HNP IDASA ID IP ISL Jeugkrag Johannesburg
Johannesburg
Reform Committee Labour Party (1910–1958) Labour Party (1969–1994) Liberal Party (1953–1968) NA NCP Natal Indian Congress NLP NNP NP NPP NRP NUSAS PFP Progressive Party (Cape Colony) Progressive Party PRP Radio Freedom Reform Party SABP SADECO SAIC SASO SAYCO SAYRCO South African Party (Cape Colony) South African Party (1911–1934) South African Party (1977–1980) TNIP Torch Commando UFP United Party Unionist Party Volksparty Workers Party WOSA

Trade unions and social movements

APF BCM BLATU CNETU CTSWU FCWU FNETU FOSATU ICU IWW MUSA NEUM NURHS PAWE SAAPAWU SACTU SAIF SARHU SATUC Die Spoorbund UDF Umkosi Wezintaba

Paramilitary and terrorist organisations

APLA ARM BBB Boeremag Greyshirts MK Ossewabrandwag Orde van die Dood SANF

Histories of political parties

African National Congress Democratic Alliance Pan Africanist Congress of Azan

.