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[Note 1]

11 languages

Afrikaans Northern Sotho English Southern Ndebele Southern Sotho Swazi Tsonga Tswana Venda Xhosa Zulu

Ethnic groups (2014[3])

80.2% Black 8.8% Coloured 8.4% White 2.5% Asian

Religion See Religion in South Africa

Demonym South African

Government Unitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic

• President

Cyril Ramaphosa

• Deputy President

David Mabuza

• Chairperson of the National Council of Provinces

Thandi Modise

• Speaker of the National Assembly

Baleka Mbete

• Chief Justice

Mogoeng Mogoeng

Legislature Parliament

• Upper house

National Council

• Lower house

National Assembly

Independence from the United Kingdom

• Union

31 May 1910

• Self-governance

11 December 1931

• Republic

31 May 1961

• Current constitution

4 February 1997

Area

• Total

1,221,037 km2 (471,445 sq mi) (24th)

• Water (%)

0.380

Population

• 2015 estimate

54,956,900[4] (25th)

• 2011 census

51,770,560[5]:18

• Density

42.4/km2 (109.8/sq mi) (169th)

GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate

• Total

$742.461 billion[6] (30th)

• Per capita

$13,591[6] (90th)

GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate

• Total

$326.541 billion[6] (35th)

• Per capita

$6,292[6] (88th)

Gini (2009) 63.1[7] very high

HDI (2014)  0.666[8] medium · 116th

Currency South African rand
South African rand
(ZAR)

Time zone SAST (UTC+2)

Drives on the left

Calling code +27

ISO 3166 code ZA

Internet TLD .za

South Africa, officially the Republic
Republic
of South Africa
Africa
(RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded on the south by 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline of Southern Africa
Southern Africa
stretching along the South Atlantic
South Atlantic
and Indian Oceans;[9][10][11] on the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and on the east and northeast by Mozambique
Mozambique
and Swaziland; and surrounds the kingdom of Lesotho.[12] South Africa
Africa
is the largest country in Southern Africa[13] and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with close to 56 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World
Old World
or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry,[5] divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status.[11] The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European (white), Asian (Indian), and multiracial (coloured) ancestry. South Africa
Africa
is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures, languages, and religions. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, which is among the highest number of any country in the world.[11] Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans
Afrikaans
developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most white and coloured South Africans; English reflects the legacy of British colonialism, and is commonly used in public and commercial life, though it is fourth-ranked as a spoken first language.[11] The country is one of the few in Africa
Africa
never to have had a coup d'état, and regular elections have been held for almost a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans
South Africans
were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress
African National Congress
and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa
Africa
is often referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity, especially in the wake of apartheid.[14] The World Bank
World Bank
classifies South Africa
Africa
as an upper-middle-income economy, and a newly industrialised country.[15][16] Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 34th-largest in the world.[6] In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa
Africa
has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However, poverty and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day.[17][18] Nevertheless, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence.[19][20]

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Prehistoric archaeology 2.2 Bantu expansion 2.3 Portuguese contacts 2.4 Dutch colonisation 2.5 British colonisation

2.5.1 Independence 2.5.2 Beginning of apartheid

2.6 Republic

2.6.1 End of apartheid

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Biodiversity

3.2.1 Animals 3.2.2 Fungi 3.2.3 Plants

3.3 Conservation issues

4 Politics and government

4.1 Law 4.2 Foreign relations 4.3 Military 4.4 Administrative divisions

5 Economy

5.1 Labour market 5.2 Science and technology 5.3 Water supply and sanitation

6 Demographics

6.1 Languages 6.2 Urban centres 6.3 Religion

7 Culture

7.1 Arts 7.2 Popular culture 7.3 Cuisine 7.4 Sports

8 Education 9 Health

9.1 HIV/AIDS

10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Name See also: Official names of South Africa The name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation the country was named the Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa
in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four formerly separate British colonies. Since 1961 the long form name in English has been the " Republic
Republic
of South Africa". In Dutch the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans
Afrikaans
Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994 the Republic
Republic
has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa,[21][22] while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".[23] History Main article: History of South Africa Prehistoric archaeology South Africa
Africa
contains some of the oldest archaeological and human-fossil sites in the world.[24][25][26] Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. The area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been termed[by whom?] "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include Sterkfontein, one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Swartkrans, Gondolin Cave
Gondolin Cave
Kromdraai, Coopers Cave
Coopers Cave
and Malapa. Raymond Dart
Raymond Dart
identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child
Taung Child
(found near Taung) in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat
Makapansgat
in Limpopo, Cornelia and Florisbad
Florisbad
in the Free State, Border Cave
Border Cave
in KwaZulu-Natal, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
and Pinnacle Point, Elandsfontein and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape. These finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa
Africa
from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus.[27] There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi
Homo naledi
and modern humans (Homo sapiens). Modern humans
Modern humans
have inhabited Southern Africa
Southern Africa
for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley.[28][29] Bantu expansion

Mapungubwe Hill, the site of the former capital of the Kingdom of Mapungubwe

Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were already present south of the Limpopo River (now the northern border with Botswana
Botswana
and Zimbabwe) by the 4th or 5th century CE. (See Bantu expansion.) They displaced, conquered and absorbed the original Khoisan
Khoisan
speakers, the Khoikhoi
Khoikhoi
and San peoples. The Bantu slowly moved south. The earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province
KwaZulu-Natal Province
are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people. The Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age
Iron Age
populations displaced or assimilated earlier peoples. In Mpumalanga, several stone circles have been found along with the stone arrangement that has been named Adam's Calendar.[citation needed] Portuguese contacts At the time of European contact, the dominant ethnic group were Bantu-speaking peoples who had migrated from other parts of Africa about one thousand years before. The two major historic groups were the Xhosa and Zulu peoples. In 1487, the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias
Bartolomeu Dias
led the first European voyage to land in southern Africa.[30] On 4 December, he landed at Walfisch Bay
Walfisch Bay
(now known as Walvis Bay in present-day Namibia). This was south of the furthest point reached in 1485 by his predecessor, the Portuguese navigator Diogo Cão
Diogo Cão
(Cape Cross, north of the bay). Dias continued down the western coast of southern Africa. After 8 January 1488, prevented by storms from proceeding along the coast, he sailed out of sight of land and passed the southernmost point of Africa
Africa
without seeing it. He reached as far up the eastern coast of Africa
Africa
as, what he called, Rio do Infante, probably the present-day Groot River, in May 1488, but on his return he saw the Cape, which he first named Cabo das Tormentas (Cape of Storms). His King, John II, renamed the point Cabo da Boa Esperança, or Cape of Good Hope, as it led to the riches of the East Indies.[31] Dias' feat of navigation was later immortalised in Luís de Camões' Portuguese epic poem, The Lusiads (1572). Dutch colonisation See also: History of Cape Colony
History of Cape Colony
and Dutch Cape Colony

Charles Davidson Bell's 19th-century painting of Jan van Riebeeck, who founded the first European settlement in South Africa, arrives in Table Bay
Table Bay
in 1652.

By the early 17th century, Portugal's maritime power was starting to decline, and English and Dutch merchants competed to oust Lisbon from its lucrative monopoly on the spice trade.[32] Representatives of the British East India Company
British East India Company
did call sporadically at the Cape in search of provisions as early as 1601, but later came to favour Ascension Island and St. Helena
St. Helena
as alternative ports of refuge.[33] Dutch interest was aroused after 1647, when two employees of the Dutch East India
India
Company (VOC) were shipwrecked there for several months. The sailors were able to survive by obtaining fresh water and meat from the natives.[33] They also sowed vegetables in the fertile soil.[34] Upon their return to Holland they reported favourably on the Cape's potential as a "warehouse and garden" for provisions to stock passing ships for long voyages.[33] In 1652, a century and a half after the discovery of the Cape sea route, Jan van Riebeeck
Jan van Riebeeck
established a victualing station at the Cape of Good Hope, at what would become Cape Town, on behalf of the Dutch East India
India
Company.[35][36] In time, the Cape become home to a large population of "vrijlieden", also known as "vrijburgers" (free citizens), former Company employees who stayed in Dutch territories overseas after serving their contracts.[36] Dutch traders also imported thousands of slaves to the fledgling colony from Indonesia, Madagascar, and parts of eastern Africa.[37] Some of the earliest mixed race communities in the country were later formed through unions between vrijburgers, their slaves, and various indigenous peoples.[38] This led to the development of a new ethnic group, the Cape Coloureds, most of whom adopted the Dutch language
Dutch language
and Christian faith.[38] The eastward expansion of Dutch colonists ushered in a series of wars with the southwesterly migrating Xhosa tribe, as both sides competed for the pastureland necessary to graze their cattle near the Great Fish River.[39] Vrijburgers who became independent farmers on the frontier were known as Boers, with some adopting semi-nomadic lifestyles being denoted as trekboers.[39] The Boers
Boers
formed loose militias, which they termed commandos, and forged alliances with Khoisan
Khoisan
groups to repel Xhosa raids.[39] Both sides launched bloody but inconclusive offensives, and sporadic violence, often accompanied by livestock theft, remained common for several decades.[39] British colonisation Great Britain
Great Britain
occupied Cape Town
Cape Town
between 1795 and 1803 to prevent it from falling under the control of the French First Republic, which had invaded the Low Countries.[39] Despite briefly returning to Dutch rule under the Batavian Republic
Republic
in 1803, the Cape was occupied again by the British in 1806.[40] Following the end of the Napoleonic Wars, it was formally ceded to Great Britain
Great Britain
and became an integral part of the British Empire.[41] British immigration to South Africa
Africa
began around 1818, subsequently culminating in the arrival of the 1820 Settlers.[41] The new colonists were induced to settle for a variety of reasons, namely to increase the size of the European workforce and to bolster frontier regions against Xhosa incursions.[41]

Depiction of a Zulu attack on a Boer
Boer
camp in February 1838

In the first two decades of the 19th century, the Zulu people
Zulu people
grew in power and expanded their territory under their leader, Shaka.[42] Shaka's warfare led indirectly to the Mfecane
Mfecane
("crushing"), killing 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 people, that devastated and depopulated the inland plateau in the early 1820s.[43][44] An offshoot of the Zulu, the Matabele people created a larger empire that included large parts of the highveld under their king Mzilikazi. During the early 1800s, many Dutch settlers departed from the Cape Colony, where they had been subjected to British control. They migrated to the future Natal, Orange Free State, and Transvaal regions. The Boers
Boers
founded the Boer
Boer
Republics: the South African Republic
Republic
(now Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
and North West provinces) and the Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(Free State). The discovery of diamonds in 1867 and gold in 1884 in the interior started the Mineral Revolution
Mineral Revolution
and increased economic growth and immigration. This intensified British efforts to gain control over the indigenous peoples. The struggle to control these important economic resources was a factor in relations between Europeans and the indigenous population and also between the Boers
Boers
and the British.[45] The Anglo-Zulu War
Anglo-Zulu War
was fought in 1879 between the British Empire
British Empire
and the Zulu Kingdom. Following Lord Carnarvon's successful introduction of federation in Canada, it was thought that similar political effort, coupled with military campaigns, might succeed with the African kingdoms, tribal areas and Boer
Boer
republics in South Africa. In 1874, Sir Henry Bartle Frere was sent to South Africa
Africa
as High Commissioner for the British Empire
British Empire
to bring such plans into being. Among the obstacles were the presence of the independent states of the South African Republic
Republic
and the Kingdom of Zululand and its army. The Zulu nation spectacularly defeated the British at the Battle of Isandlwana. Eventually though the war was lost resulting in the end of the Zulu nation's independence.

Boers
Boers
in combat (1881)

The Boer Republics
Boer Republics
successfully resisted British encroachments during the First Boer
Boer
War (1880–1881) using guerrilla warfare tactics, which were well suited to local conditions. The British returned with greater numbers, more experience, and new strategy in the Second Boer War (1899–1902) but suffered heavy casualties through attrition; nonetheless, they were ultimately successful. Independence Within the country, anti-British policies among white South Africans focused on independence. During the Dutch and British colonial years, racial segregation was mostly informal, though some legislation was enacted to control the settlement and movement of native people, including the Native Location Act of 1879 and the system of pass laws.[46][47][48][49][50] Eight years after the end of the Second Boer
Boer
War and after four years of negotiation, an act of the British Parliament (South Africa
Africa
Act 1909) granted nominal independence, while creating the Union of South Africa
Africa
on 31 May 1910. The Union was a dominion that included the former territories of the Cape and Natal colonies, as well as the republics of Orange Free State
Orange Free State
and Transvaal.[51] The Natives' Land Act
Natives' Land Act
of 1913 severely restricted the ownership of land by blacks; at that stage natives controlled only 7% of the country. The amount of land reserved for indigenous peoples was later marginally increased.[52] In 1931 the union was fully sovereign from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
with the passage of the Statute of Westminster, which abolished the last powers of the British Government on the country. In 1934, the South African Party and National Party merged to form the United Party, seeking reconciliation between Afrikaners and English-speaking "Whites". In 1939 the party split over the entry of the Union into World War II
World War II
as an ally of the United Kingdom, a move which the National Party followers strongly opposed. Beginning of apartheid

"For use by white persons" – apartheid sign

In 1948, the National Party was elected to power. It strengthened the racial segregation begun under Dutch and British colonial rule. The Nationalist Government classified all peoples into three races and developed rights and limitations for each. The white minority (less than 20%[53]) controlled the vastly larger black majority. The legally institutionalized segregation became known as apartheid.[54] While whites enjoyed the highest standard of living in all of Africa, comparable to First World
First World
Western nations, the black majority remained disadvantaged by almost every standard, including income, education, housing, and life expectancy. The Freedom Charter, adopted in 1955 by the Congress Alliance, demanded a non-racial society and an end to discrimination. Republic On 31 May 1961, the country became a republic following a referendum in which white voters narrowly voted in favour thereof (the British-dominated Natal province rallied against the issue).[55] Queen Elizabeth II was stripped of the title Queen of South Africa, and the last Governor-General, Charles Robberts Swart, became State President. As a concession to the Westminster system, the presidency remained parliamentary appointed and virtually powerless until P. W. Botha's Constitution Act of 1983, which (intact in these regards) eliminated the office of Prime Minister and instated a near-unique "strong presidency" responsible to parliament. Pressured by other Commonwealth of Nations countries, South Africa
Africa
withdrew from the organisation in 1961, and rejoined it only in 1994. Despite opposition both within and outside the country, the government legislated for a continuation of apartheid. The security forces cracked down on internal dissent, and violence became widespread, with anti-apartheid organisations such as the African National Congress, the Azanian People's Organisation, and the Pan-Africanist Congress carrying out guerrilla warfare[56] and urban sabotage.[57] The three rival resistance movements also engaged in occasional inter-factional clashes as they jockeyed for domestic influence.[58] Apartheid
Apartheid
became increasingly controversial, and several countries began to boycott business with the South African government because of its racial policies. These measures were later extended to international sanctions and the divestment of holdings by foreign investors.[59][60]

F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
and Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
shake hands in January 1992

In the late 1970s, South Africa
Africa
initiated a programme of nuclear weapons development. In the following decade, it produced six deliverable nuclear weapons.[61][62] End of apartheid The Mahlabatini Declaration
Mahlabatini Declaration
of Faith, signed by Mangosuthu Buthelezi and Harry Schwarz
Harry Schwarz
in 1974, enshrined the principles of peaceful transition of power and equality for all, the first of such agreements by black and white political leaders in South Africa. Ultimately, F. W. de Klerk opened bilateral discussions with Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
in 1993 for a transition of policies and government. In 1990 the National Party government took the first step towards dismantling discrimination when it lifted the ban on the African National Congress and other political organisations. It released Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
from prison after 27 years' serving a sentence for sabotage. A negotiation process followed. With approval from a predominantly white referendum, the government repealed apartheid legislation. South Africa
Africa
also destroyed its nuclear arsenal and acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. South Africa
Africa
held its first universal elections in 1994, which the ANC won by an overwhelming majority. It has been in power ever since. The country rejoined the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
and became a member of the Southern African Development Community
Southern African Development Community
(SADC).

Nelson Mandela, first black African President of Republic
Republic
of South Africa

In post-apartheid South Africa, unemployment has been extremely high as the country has struggled with many changes. While many blacks have risen to middle or upper classes, the overall unemployment rate of blacks worsened between 1994 and 2003.[63] Poverty among whites, previously rare, increased.[64] In addition, the current government has struggled to achieve the monetary and fiscal discipline to ensure both redistribution of wealth and economic growth. Since the ANC-led government took power, the United Nations Human Development Index
Human Development Index
of South Africa
Africa
has fallen, while it was steadily rising until the mid-1990s.[65] Some may be attributed to the HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
pandemic, and the failure of the government to take steps to address it in the early years.[66] In May 2008, riots left over 60 people dead.[67] The Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions estimates over 100,000 people were driven from their homes.[68] The targets were mainly migrants and refugees seeking asylum, but a third of the victims were South African citizens.[67] In a 2006 survey, the South African Migration Project concluded that South Africans
South Africans
are more opposed to immigration than anywhere else in the world.[69] The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
in 2008 reported over 200,000 refugees applied for asylum in South Africa, almost four times as many as the year before.[70] These people were mainly from Zimbabwe, though many also come from Burundi, Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo, Rwanda, Eritrea, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Somalia.[70] Competition over jobs, business opportunities, public services and housing has led to tension between refugees and host communities.[70] While xenophobia is still a problem, recent violence has not been as widespread as initially feared.[70] Geography Main article: Geography of South Africa

A map of South Africa
Africa
showing the main topographic features: the Central Plateau edged by the Great Escarpment, and the Cape Fold Belt in the south-west corner of the country

Important geographical regions in South Africa. The thick line traces the course of the Great Escarpment which edges the central plateau. The eastern portion of this line, coloured red, is known as the Drakensberg. The Escarpment rises to its highest point, at over 3000 m, where the Drakensberg
Drakensberg
forms the border between KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
and Lesotho. None of the regions indicated on the map has a sharp well-defined border, except where the Escarpment, or a range of mountains forms a clear dividing line between two regions. Some of the better known regions are coloured in; the others are simply indicated by their names, as they would be in an atlas.

South Africa
Africa
is located at the southernmost region of Africa, with a long coastline that stretches more than 2,500 km (1,553 mi) and along two oceans (the South Atlantic
South Atlantic
and the Indian). At 1,219,912 km2 (471,011 sq mi),[71] According to the UN Demographic Yearbook,[72] South Africa
Africa
is the 25th-largest country in the world. It is about the same size as Colombia, twice the size of France, three times as big as Japan, four times the size of Italy
Italy
and five times the size of the United Kingdom.[73] Mafadi
Mafadi
in the Drakensberg
Drakensberg
at 3,450 m (11,320 ft) is the highest peak in South Africa. Excluding the Prince Edward Islands, the country lies between latitudes 22° and 35°S, and longitudes 16° and 33°E. The interior of South Africa
Africa
consists of a vast, in most places almost flat, plateau with an altitude of between 1,000 m (3,300 ft) and 2,100 m (6,900 ft), highest in the east and sloping gently downwards towards the west and north, and slightly less noticeably so to the south and south-west.[74] This plateau is surrounded by the Great Escarpment[75] whose eastern, and highest, stretch is known as the Drakensberg.[76] The south and south-western parts of the plateau (at approximately 1100–1800 m above sea level), and the adjoining plain below (at approximately 700–800 m above sea level – see map on the right) is known as the Great Karoo, which consists of sparsely populated scrubland. To the north the Great Karoo
Karoo
fades into the even drier and more arid Bushmanland, which eventually becomes the Kalahari desert in the very north-west of the country. The mid-eastern, and highest part of the plateau is known as the Highveld. This relatively well-watered area is home to a great proportion of the country’s commercial farmlands, and contains its largest conurbation (Gauteng Province). To the north of Highveld, from about the 25° 30' S line of latitude, the plateau slopes downwards into the Bushveld, which ultimately gives way to the Limpopo
Limpopo
lowlands or Lowveld.[75]

Flat topped hills (called Karoo
Karoo
Koppies) are highly characteristic of the southern and southwestern Karoo
Karoo
landscape. These hills are capped by hard, erosion resistant dolerite sills. This is solidified lava that was forced under high pressure between the horizontal strata of the sedimentary rocks that make up most of the Karoo’s geology about 180 million years ago. Since then Southern Africa
Southern Africa
has undergone a prolonged period of erosion removing the relatively soft Karoo
Karoo
rocks, except where they are protected by a cap of dolerite. This photograph was taken near Cradock in the Eastern Cape.

The coastal belt, below the Great Escarpment, moving clockwise from the northeast, consists of the Limpopo
Limpopo
Lowveld, which merges into the Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
Lowveld, below the Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
Drakensberg
Drakensberg
(the eastern portion of the Great Escarpment).[77] This is hotter, drier and less intensely cultivated than the Highveld
Highveld
above the escarpment.[75] The Kruger National Park, located in the provinces of Limpopo
Limpopo
and Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
in northeastern South Africa, occupies a large portion of the Lowveld
Lowveld
covering 19,633 square kilometres (7,580 sq mi.) [78] South of the Lowveld
Lowveld
the annual rainfall increases as one enters KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
Province, which, especially near the coast, is subtropically hot and humid. The KwaZulu-Natal – Lesotho international border is formed by the highest portion of the Great Escarpment, or Drakensberg, which reaches an altitude of over 3,000 m (9,800 ft).[79] The climate at the foot of this part of the Drakensberg
Drakensberg
is temperate.

Drakensberg, the eastern and highest portion of the Great Escarpment which surrounds the east, south and western borders of the central plateau of Southern Africa

The coastal belt below the south and south-western stretches of the Great Escarpment contains several ranges of Cape Fold Mountains which run parallel to the coast, separating the Great Escarpment from the ocean.[80][81] (These parallel ranges of fold mountains are shown on the map, above left. Note the course of the Great Escarpment to the north of these mountain ranges.) The land (at approximately 400–500 m above sea level) between two of these ranges of fold mountains in the south (i.e. between the Outeniqua and Langeberg ranges to the south and the Swartberg
Swartberg
range to the north) is known as the Little Karoo,[75] which consists of semi-desert scrubland similar to that of the Great Karoo, except that its northern strip along the foothills of the Swartberg
Swartberg
Mountains, has a somewhat higher rainfall and is therefore more cultivated than the Great Karoo. The Little Karoo
Karoo
is historically, and still, famous for its ostrich farming around the town of Oudtshoorn. The lowland area (700–800 m above sea level) to the north of the Swartberg
Swartberg
mountain range up to the Great Escarpment is the lowland part of the Great Karoo
Karoo
(see map at top right), which is climatically and botanically almost indistinguishable from the Karoo
Karoo
above the Great Escarpment. The narrow coastal strip between the most seaward Cape Fold Mountain range (i.e., the Langeberg–Outeniqua mountains) and the ocean has a moderately high year-round rainfall, especially in the George-Knysna-Plettenberg Bay region, which is known as the Garden Route. It is famous for the most extensive areas of indigenous forests in South Africa
Africa
(a generally forest-poor country). In the south-west corner of the country the Cape Peninsula
Cape Peninsula
forms the southernmost tip of the coastal strip which borders the Atlantic Ocean, and ultimately terminates at the country’s border with Namibia
Namibia
at the Orange River. The Cape Peninsula
Cape Peninsula
has a Mediterranean climate, making it and its immediate surrounds the only portion of Africa
Africa
south of the Sahara which receives most of its rainfall in winter.[82][83] The greater Cape Town
Cape Town
metropolitan area is situated on the Cape Peninsula
Cape Peninsula
and is home to 3.7 million people according to the 2011 population census. It is the country's legislative capital.

Spring flowers in Namaqualand

The coastal belt to the north of the Cape Peninsula
Cape Peninsula
is bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean and the first row of north-south running Cape Fold Mountains to the east. The Cape Fold Mountains peter out at about the 32° S line of latitude,[81] after which the coastal plain is bounded by the Great Escarpment itself. The most southerly portion of this coastal belt is known as the Swartland
Swartland
and Malmesbury Plain, which is an important wheat growing region, relying on winter rains. The region further north is known as Namaqualand,[84] which becomes more and more arid as one approaches the Orange River. The little rain that falls, tends to fall in winter,[83] which results in one of the world’s most spectacular displays of flowers carpeting huge stretches of veld in spring (August–September).

Cape Floral Region Protected Areas.

South Africa
Africa
also has one possession, the small sub-Antarctic archipelago of the Prince Edward Islands, consisting of Marion Island (290 km2 or 110 sq mi) and Prince Edward Island (45 km2 or 17 sq mi) (not to be confused with the Canadian province of the same name). Climate Main article: Climate of South Africa

Köppen climate types of South Africa

South Africa
Africa
has a generally temperate climate, due in part to being surrounded by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans on three sides, by its location in the climatically milder Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
and due to the average elevation rising steadily towards the north (towards the equator) and further inland. Due to this varied topography and oceanic influence, a great variety of climatic zones exist. The climatic zones range from the extreme desert of the southern Namib in the farthest northwest to the lush subtropical climate in the east along the Mozambique
Mozambique
border and the Indian Ocean. Winters in South Africa
Africa
occur between June and August. The extreme southwest has a climate remarkably similar to that of the Mediterranean with wet winters and hot, dry summers, hosting the famous fynbos biome of shrubland and thicket. This area also produces much of the wine in South Africa. This region is also particularly known for its wind, which blows intermittently almost all year. The severity of this wind made passing around the Cape of Good Hope particularly treacherous for sailors, causing many shipwrecks. Further east on the south coast, rainfall is distributed more evenly throughout the year, producing a green landscape. This area is popularly known as the Garden Route. The Free State
Free State
is particularly flat because it lies centrally on the high plateau. North of the Vaal River, the Highveld
Highveld
becomes better watered and does not experience subtropical extremes of heat. Johannesburg, in the centre of the Highveld, is at 1,740 m (5,709 ft) and receives an annual rainfall of 760 mm (29.9 in). Winters in this region are cold, although snow is rare. The high Drakensberg
Drakensberg
mountains, which form the south-eastern escarpment of the Highveld, offer limited skiing opportunities in winter. The coldest place on mainland South Africa
Africa
is Sutherland in the western Roggeveld Mountains, where midwinter temperatures can reach as low as −15 °C (5 °F). The Prince Edward Islands have colder average annual temperatures, but Sutherland has colder extremes. The deep interior of mainland South Africa
Africa
has the hottest temperatures: a temperature of 51.7 °C (125.06 °F) was recorded in 1948 in the Northern Cape
Northern Cape
Kalahari
Kalahari
near Upington,[85] but this temperature is unofficial and was not recorded with standard equipment, the official highest temperature is 48.8 °C (119.84 °F) at Vioolsdrif in January 1993.[86] Biodiversity See also: Wildlife of South Africa
Africa
and Protected areas of South Africa South Africa
Africa
signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity
Convention on Biological Diversity
on 4 June 1994, and became a party to the convention on 2 November 1995.[87] It has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which was received by the convention on 7 June 2006.[88] The country is ranked sixth out of the world's seventeen megadiverse countries.[89] Animals

South African giraffe, Kruger National Park

African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) male with red-billed oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorhynchus), Phinda Private Game Reserve, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa

Numerous mammals are found in the bushveld including Transvaal lions, African leopards, South African cheetahs, southern white rhinos, blue wildebeest, kudus, impalas, hyenas, hippopotamuses and South African giraffes. A significant extent of the bushveld exists in the north-east including Kruger National Park
Kruger National Park
and the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, as well as in the far north in the Waterberg Biosphere. South Africa
Africa
houses many endemic species, among them the critically endangered riverine rabbit (Bunolagus monticullaris) in the Karoo. Fungi Up to 1945, more than 4900 species of fungi (including lichen-forming species) had been recorded.[90] In 2006, the total number of fungi which occur in South Africa
Africa
was conservatively estimated at about 200,000 species, but that did not take into account fungi associated with insects.[91] If correct, then the number of South African fungi dwarfs that of its plants. In at least some major South African ecosystems, an exceptionally high percentage of fungi are highly specific in terms of the plants with which they occur.[92] The country's biodiversity strategy and action plan does not mention fungi (including lichen-forming fungi).[88] Plants

Sub-tropical forest near Durban

Lowveld
Lowveld
vegetation of the Kruger National Park

With more than 22,000 different higher plants, or about 9% of all the known species of plants on Earth,[93] South Africa
Africa
is particularly rich in plant diversity. The most prevalent biome in South Africa
Africa
is the grassland, particularly on the Highveld, where the plant cover is dominated by different grasses, low shrubs, and acacia trees, mainly camel-thorn and whitethorn. Vegetation becomes even more sparse towards the northwest due to low rainfall. There are several species of water-storing succulents like aloes and euphorbias in the very hot and dry Namaqualand
Namaqualand
area. The grass and thorn savannah turns slowly into a bush savannah towards the north-east of the country, with denser growth. There are significant numbers of baobab trees in this area, near the northern end of Kruger National Park.[94] The fynbos biome, which makes up the majority of the area and plant life in the Cape floristic region, one of the six floral kingdoms, is located in a small region of the Western Cape
Western Cape
and contains more than 9,000 of those species, making it among the richest regions on earth in terms of plant diversity.[citation needed] Most of the plants are evergreen hard-leaf plants with fine, needle-like leaves, such as the sclerophyllous plants. Another uniquely South African flowering plant group is the genus Protea. There are around 130 different species of Protea
Protea
in South Africa. While South Africa
Africa
has a great wealth of flowering plants, only 1% of South Africa
Africa
is forest, almost exclusively in the humid coastal plain of KwaZulu-Natal, where there are also areas of Southern Africa mangroves in river mouths. There are even smaller reserves of forests that are out of the reach of fire, known as montane forests. Plantations of imported tree species are predominant, particularly the non-native eucalyptus and pine. Conservation issues South Africa
Africa
has lost a large area of natural habitat in the last four decades, primarily due to overpopulation, sprawling development patterns and deforestation during the 19th century. South Africa
Africa
is one of the worst affected countries in the world when it comes to invasion by alien species with many (e.g. black wattle, Port Jackson willow, Hakea, Lantana
Lantana
and Jacaranda) posing a significant threat to the native biodiversity and the already scarce water resources. The original temperate forest found by the first European settlers was exploited ruthlessly until only small patches remained. Currently, South African hardwood trees like real yellowwood (Podocarpus latifolius), stinkwood (Ocotea bullata), and South African black ironwood (Olea laurifolia) are under government protection. Statistics from the South African Environmental Affairs department show a record 1215 rhinos have been killed in 2014.[95] Climate change
Climate change
is expected to bring considerable warming and drying to much of this already semi-arid region, with greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as heatwaves, flooding and drought. According to computer generated climate modelling produced by the South African National Biodiversity Institute[96] parts of southern Africa
Africa
will see an increase in temperature by about one degree Celsius along the coast to more than four degrees Celsius in the already hot hinterland such as the Northern Cape
Northern Cape
in late spring and summertime by 2050. The Cape Floral Kingdom, been identified as one of the global biodiversity hotspots, it will be hit very hard by climate change. Drought, increased intensity and frequency of fire and climbing temperatures are expected to push many rare species towards extinction.

Biodiversity of South Africa

King protea, national flower

Fynbos, Cape Floristic Region

Blue crane, national bird

Flowers in the West Coast National Park

Politics and government Main articles: Government of South Africa, Politics of South Africa, Law of South Africa, and Human rights in South Africa

Union Buildings
Union Buildings
in Pretoria, seat of the executive

Houses of Parliament in Cape Town, seat of the legislature

South Africa
Africa
is a parliamentary republic, although unlike most such republics the President is both head of state and head of government, and depends for his tenure on the confidence of Parliament. The executive, legislature and judiciary are all subject to the supremacy of the Constitution, and the superior courts have the power to strike down executive actions and acts of Parliament if they are unconstitutional. The National Assembly, the lower house of Parliament, consists of 400 members and is elected every five years by a system of party-list proportional representation. The National Council of Provinces, the upper house, consists of ninety members, with each of the nine provincial legislatures electing ten members. After each parliamentary election, the National Assembly elects one of its members as President; hence the President serves a term of office the same as that of the Assembly, normally five years. No President may serve more than two terms in office.[97] The President appoints a Deputy President and Ministers, who form the Cabinet which consists of Departments and Ministries. The President and the Cabinet may be removed by the National Assembly by a motion of no confidence. In the most recent election, held on 7 May 2014, the African National Congress (ANC) won 62.2% of the vote and 249 seats, while the main opposition, the Democratic Alliance (DA) won 22.2% of the vote and 89 seats. The Economic Freedom Fighters, founded by Julius Malema, the former President of the ANC's Youth Wing who was later expelled from the ANC, won 6.4% of the vote and 25 seats. The ANC has been the governing political party in South Africa
Africa
since the end of apartheid. South Africa
Africa
has no legally defined capital city. The fourth chapter of the Constitution of South Africa, states that "The seat of Parliament is Cape Town, but an Act of Parliament enacted in accordance with section 76(1) and (5) may determine that the seat of Parliament is elsewhere."[98] The country's three branches of government are split over different cities. Cape Town, as the seat of Parliament, is the legislative capital; Pretoria, as the seat of the President and Cabinet, is the administrative capital; and Bloemfontein, as the seat of the Supreme Court of Appeal, is the judicial capital, while the Constitutional Court of South Africa
Africa
sits in Johannesburg. Most foreign embassies are located in Pretoria. Since 2004, South Africa
Africa
has had many thousands of popular protests, some violent, making it, according to one academic, the "most protest-rich country in the world".[99] There have been a number of incidents of political repression as well as threats of future repression in violation of this constitution leading some analysts and civil society organisations to conclude that there is or could be a new climate of political repression,[100][101] or a decline in political tolerance.[102] In 2008, South Africa
Africa
placed 5th out of 48 sub-Saharan African countries on the Ibrahim Index of African Governance. South Africa scored well in the categories of Rule of Law, Transparency & Corruption and Participation & Human Rights, but was let down by its relatively poor performance in Safety & Security.[103] In November 2006, South Africa
Africa
became the first African country to legalise same-sex marriage.[104] Law See also: Crime in South Africa

Constitutional Court in Johannesburg

The Constitution of South Africa
Constitution of South Africa
is the supreme rule of law in the country. The primary sources of South African law
South African law
are Roman-Dutch mercantile law and personal law with English Common law, as imports of Dutch settlements and British colonialism.[105] The first European based law in South Africa
Africa
was brought by the Dutch East India
India
Company and is called Roman-Dutch law. It was imported before the codification of European law into the Napoleonic Code
Napoleonic Code
and is comparable in many ways to Scots law. This was followed in the 19th century by English law, both common and statutory. After unification in 1910, South Africa
Africa
had its own parliament which passed laws specific for South Africa, building on those previously passed for the individual member colonies. The judicial system consists of the magistrates' courts, which hear lesser criminal cases and smaller civil cases; the High Courts, which are courts of general jurisdiction for specific areas; the Supreme Court of Appeal, which is the highest court in all but constitutional matters; and the Constitutional Court, which hears only constitutional matters.

Soweto Pride 2012 participants protest against violence against lesbians. The country has strong human rights laws but some groups are still discriminated against. It is the first country in Africa
Africa
to recognise same sex marriage.

Nearly 50 murders are committed each day in South Africa.[106] In the year ended March 2014 there were 17,068 murders and the murder rate was 32.2 per 100,000 – about five times higher than the global average of 6 per 100,000.[107] Middle-class South Africans
South Africans
seek security in gated communities.[108] The private security industry in South Africa
Africa
is the largest in the world,[109] with nearly 9,000 registered companies and 400,000 registered active private security guards, more than the South African police and army combined.[110] Many emigrants from South Africa
Africa
also state that crime was a major factor in their decision to leave.[111] Crime against the farming community has continued to be a major problem.[112] It is estimated that 500,000 women are raped in South Africa
Africa
every year[113] with the average woman more likely to be raped than complete secondary school.[114] A 2009 survey found one in four South African men admitted to raping someone[115] and another survey found one in three women out of 4000 surveyed said they had been raped in the past year.[116] Rapes are also perpetrated by children (some as young as ten).[117] Child and baby rape incidences are some of the highest in the world, largely as a result of the virgin cleansing myth, and a number of high-profile cases (sometimes as young as eight months[117]) have outraged the nation.[118] Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of South Africa

Leaders of the BRICS
BRICS
nations at the G-20 summit in Hangzhou, 2016

As the Union of South Africa, the country was a founding member of the United Nations. The then Prime Minister Jan Smuts
Jan Smuts
wrote the preamble to the United Nations Charter.[119][120] South Africa
Africa
is one of the founding members of the African Union
African Union
(AU), and has the second largest economy of all the members. It is also a founding member of the AU's New Partnership for Africa's Development
New Partnership for Africa's Development
(NEPAD). South Africa
Africa
has played a key role as a mediator in African conflicts over the last decade, such as in Burundi, the Democratic Republic
Republic
of Congo, the Comoros, and Zimbabwe. After apartheid ended, South Africa was readmitted to the Commonwealth of Nations. The country is a member of the Group of 77
Group of 77
and chaired the organisation in 2006. South Africa is also a member of the Southern African Development Community, South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, Southern African Customs Union, Antarctic
Antarctic
Treaty System, World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund, G20, G8+5, and the Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa. South African President Jacob Zuma
Jacob Zuma
and Chinese President Hu Jintao upgraded bilateral ties between the two countries on 24 August 2010, when they signed the Beijing Agreement, which elevated South Africa's earlier "strategic partnership" with China
China
to the higher level of "comprehensive strategic partnership" in both economic and political affairs, including the strengthening of exchanges between their respective ruling parties and legislatures.[121][122] In April 2011, South Africa
Africa
formally joined the Brazil-Russia-India- China
China
(BRICS) grouping of countries, identified by President Zuma as the country's largest trading partners, and also the largest trading partners with Africa
Africa
as a whole. Zuma asserted that BRICS
BRICS
member countries would also work with each other through the UN, the Group of Twenty (G20) and the India, Brazil
Brazil
South Africa
Africa
(IBSA) forum.[123] Military Main article: South African National Defence Force

SANDF soldiers

The South African National Defence Force
South African National Defence Force
(SANDF) was created in 1994,[124][125] as an all volunteer force composed of the former South African Defence Force, the forces of the African nationalist groups ( Umkhonto we Sizwe
Umkhonto we Sizwe
and Azanian People's Liberation Army), and the former Bantustan defence forces.[124] The SANDF is subdivided into four branches, the South African Army, the South African Air Force, the South African Navy, and the South African Military Health Service.[126] In recent years, the SANDF has become a major peacekeeping force in Africa,[127] and has been involved in operations in Lesotho, the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo,[127] and Burundi,[127] amongst others. It has also served in multi-national UN peacekeeping forces such as the United Nations Force Intervention Brigade for example. South Africa
Africa
is the only African country to have successfully developed nuclear weapons. It became the first country (followed by Ukraine) with nuclear capability to voluntarily renounce and dismantle its programme and in the process signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1991.[128] South Africa
Africa
undertook a nuclear weapons programme in the 1970s[128] According to former state president FW de Klerk, the decision to build a "nuclear deterrent" was taken "as early as 1974 against a backdrop of a Soviet expansionist threat."[129] South Africa
Africa
is alleged to have conducted a nuclear test over the Atlantic in 1979,[130] although this is officially denied. Former president FW de Klerk
FW de Klerk
maintained that South Africa
Africa
had "never conducted a clandestine nuclear test."[129] Six nuclear devices were completed between 1980 and 1990, but all were dismantled before South Africa
Africa
signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
in 1991.[129] Administrative divisions Main article: Provinces of South Africa

Provinces of South Africa

Each of the nine provinces is governed by a unicameral legislature, which is elected every five years by party-list proportional representation. The legislature elects a Premier as head of government, and the Premier appoints an Executive Council as a provincial cabinet. The powers of provincial governments are limited to topics listed in the Constitution; these topics include such fields as health, education, public housing and transport. The provinces are in turn divided into 52 districts: 8 metropolitan and 44 district municipalities. The district municipalities are further subdivided into 226 local municipalities. The metropolitan municipalities, which govern the largest urban agglomerations, perform the functions of both district and local municipalities.

Province Provincial capital Largest city Area (km2)[131] Population (2013)[4]

Eastern Cape Bhisho Port Elizabeth 168,966 6,620,100

Free State Bloemfontein Bloemfontein 129,825 2,753,200

Gauteng Johannesburg Johannesburg 18,178 12,728,400

KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg Durban 94,361 10,456,900

Limpopo Polokwane Polokwane 125,754 5,518,000

Mpumalanga Nelspruit Mbombela 76,495 4,128,000

North West Mahikeng Rustenburg 104,882 3,597,600

Northern Cape Kimberley Kimberley 372,889 1,162,900

Western Cape Cape Town Cape Town 129,462 6,016,900

Economy

Annual per capita personal income by race group in South Africa relative to white levels

Main article: Economy of South Africa

The JSE is the largest stock exchange on the African continent.

South Africa
Africa
has a mixed economy, the second largest in Africa
Africa
after Nigeria. It also has a relatively high GDP per capita compared to other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
($11,750 at PPP as of 2012). Despite this, South Africa
Africa
is still burdened by a relatively high rate of poverty and unemployment, and is also ranked in the top 10 countries in the world for income inequality,[132][133][134] measured by the Gini coefficient. Unlike most of the world's poor countries, South Africa
Africa
does not have a thriving informal economy. Only 15% of South African jobs are in the informal sector, compared with around half in Brazil
Brazil
and India
India
and nearly three-quarters in Indonesia. The OECD attributes this difference to South Africa's widespread welfare system.[135] World Bank research shows that South Africa
Africa
has one of the widest gaps between per capita GNP versus its Human Development Index
Human Development Index
ranking, with only Botswana
Botswana
showing a larger gap.[136] After 1994 government policy brought down inflation, stabilised public finances, and some foreign capital was attracted, however growth was still subpar.[137] From 2004 onward economic growth picked up significantly; both employment and capital formation increased.[137] During the presidency of Jacob Zuma, the government has begun to increase the role of state-owned enterprises. Some of the biggest state-owned companies are Eskom, the electric power monopoly, South African Airways (SAA), and Transnet, the railroad and ports monopoly. Some of these state-owned companies have not been profitable, such as SAA, which has required bailouts totaling 30 billion rand ($2.3 billion) over 20 years.[138] South Africa
Africa
is a popular tourist destination, and a substantial amount of revenue comes from tourism.[139] Illegal immigrants are involved in informal trading.[140] Many immigrants to South Africa continue to live in poor conditions, and the immigration policy has become increasingly restrictive since 1994.[141] Principal international trading partners of South Africa—besides other African countries—include Germany, the United States, China, Japan, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Spain.[142] The South African agricultural industry contributes around 10% of formal employment, relatively low compared to other parts of Africa, as well as providing work for casual labourers and contributing around 2.6% of GDP for the nation.[143] Due to the aridity of the land, only 13.5% can be used for crop production, and only 3% is considered high potential land.[144] In August 2013, South Africa
Africa
was ranked as the top African Country of the Future by FDi magazine based on the country's economic potential, labour environment, cost-effectiveness, infrastructure, business friendliness, and Foreign direct investment
Foreign direct investment
Strategy.[145] The FSI ranks South Africa
Africa
as the 36th safest tax haven in the world, ahead of the Philippines
Philippines
but behind the Bahamas. Labour market

Workers packing pears for export in the Ceres valley

During 1995–2003, the number of formal jobs decreased and informal jobs increased; overall unemployment worsened.[63] The government's Black Economic Empowerment policies have drawn criticism from Neva Makgetla, lead economist for research and information at the Development Bank of Southern Africa, for focusing "almost exclusively on promoting individual ownership by black people (which) does little to address broader economic disparities, though the rich may become more diverse."[146] Official affirmative action policies have seen a rise in black economic wealth and an emerging black middle class.[147] Other problems include state ownership and interference, which impose high barriers to entry in many areas.[148] Restrictive labour regulations have contributed to the unemployment malaise.[63] Along with many African nations, South Africa
Africa
has been experiencing a "brain drain" in the past 20 years. This is believed to be potentially damaging for the regional economy,[149][not in citation given][clarification needed] and is almost certainly detrimental for the well-being of those reliant on the healthcare infrastructure.[150] The skills drain in South Africa
Africa
tends to demonstrate racial contours given the skills distribution legacy of South Africa
Africa
and has thus resulted in large white South African communities abroad.[151] However, the statistics which purport to show a brain drain are disputed and also do not account for repatriation and expiry of foreign work contracts. According to several surveys[152][153] there has been a reverse in brain drain following the global financial crisis of 2008–2009 and expiration of foreign work contracts. In the first quarter of 2011, confidence levels for graduate professionals were recorded at a level of 84% in a PPS survey.[154] Science and technology Main article: Science and technology in South Africa

Mark Shuttleworth
Mark Shuttleworth
in space

Several important scientific and technological developments have originated in South Africa. The first human-to-human heart transplant was performed by cardiac surgeon Christiaan Barnard
Christiaan Barnard
at Groote Schuur Hospital in December 1967, Max Theiler
Max Theiler
developed a vaccine against yellow fever, Allan McLeod Cormack pioneered X-ray computed tomography, and Aaron Klug
Aaron Klug
developed crystallographic electron microscopy techniques. With the exception of that of Barnard, all of these advancements were recognised with Nobel Prizes. Sydney Brenner won most recently, in 2002, for his pioneering work in molecular biology. Mark Shuttleworth
Mark Shuttleworth
founded an early Internet security company Thawte, that was subsequently bought out by world-leader VeriSign. Despite government efforts to encourage entrepreneurship in biotechnology, IT and other high technology fields, no other notable groundbreaking companies have been founded in South Africa. It is the expressed objective of the government to transition the economy to be more reliant on high technology, based on the realisation that South Africa cannot compete with Far Eastern economies in manufacturing, nor can the republic rely on its mineral wealth in perpetuity. South Africa
Africa
has cultivated a burgeoning astronomy community. It hosts the Southern African Large Telescope, the largest optical telescope in the Southern Hemisphere. South Africa
Africa
is currently building the Karoo Array Telescope as a pathfinder for the €1.5 billion Square Kilometre Array project.[155] On 25 May 2012 it was announced that hosting of the Square Kilometer Array Telescope will be split over both the South African and the Australia/ New Zealand
New Zealand
sites.[156] Water supply and sanitation Main article: Water supply and sanitation in South Africa Two distinctive features of the South African water sector are the policy of free basic water and the existence of water boards, which are bulk water supply agencies that operate pipelines and sell water from reservoirs to municipalities. These features have led to significant problems concerning the financial sustainability of service providers, leading to a lack of attention to maintenance. Notwithstanding, in May 2014, Durban's Water and Sanitation Department won the Stockholm Industry Water Award "for its transformative and inclusive approach", calling it "one of the most progressive utilities in the world". The city was South Africa's first municipality to put free basic water for the poor into practice connecting 1.3 million additional people to piped water and provided 700,000 with access to toilets in 14 years. The city has also promoted Rainwater harvesting and mini hydropower.[157] Following the end of Apartheid, the country had made improvements in the levels of access to water as those with access increased from 66% to 79% from 1990 to 2010.[158] Sanitation access increased from 71% to 79% during the same period.[158] However, water supply and sanitation in South Africa
Africa
has come under increasing pressure in recent years despite a commitment made by the government to improve service standards and provide investment subsidies to the water industry.[159] On February 13, 2018, the country declared a national disaster in Cape Town as the city's water supply was predicted to run dry before the end of June. With its dams only 24.9% full, water-saving measures were in effect that required each citizen to use less than 50 litres a day. All nine of the country's provinces were affected by what the government characterized as the "magnitude and severity" of a three-year drought. The city is one of 11 major world cities that are predicted to run out of water according to UN-endorsed projections. [160] Demographics Main article: Demographics of South Africa

Migrations that formed the modern Rainbow nation

Map of population density in South Africa

  <1 /km2   1–3 /km2   3–10 /km2   10–30 /km2   30–100 /km2

  100–300 /km2   300–1000 /km2   1000–3000 /km2   >3000 /km2

South Africa
Africa
is a nation of about 55 million (2016) people of diverse origins, cultures, languages, and religions. The last census was held in 2011. South Africa
Africa
is home to an estimated 5 million illegal immigrants, including some 3 million Zimbabweans.[161][162][163] A series of anti-immigrant riots occurred in South Africa
Africa
beginning on 11 May 2008.[164][165] Statistics South Africa
Africa
asks people to describe themselves in the census in terms of five racial population groups.[166] The 2011 census figures for these groups were Black African at 79.2%, White at 8.9%, Coloured
Coloured
at 8.9%, Asian at 2.5%, and Other/Unspecified at 0.5%.[5]:21 The first census in South Africa
Africa
in 1911 showed that whites made up 22% of the population; it declined to 16% in 1980.[167] South Africa
Africa
hosts a sizeable refugee and asylum seeker population. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, this population numbered approximately 144,700 in 2007.[168] Groups of refugees and asylum seekers numbering over 10,000 included people from Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
(48,400), The Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo (24,800), and Somalia (12,900).[168] These populations mainly lived in Johannesburg, Pretoria, Durban, Cape Town, and Port Elizabeth.[168] Many refugees have now also started to work and live in rural areas in provinces such as Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
and the Eastern Cape. Languages Main article: Languages of South Africa

A map showing the dominant South African languages.

  Afrikaans   English   Ndebele   Xhosa   Zulu   Northern Sotho

  Sotho   Tswana   Swazi   Venda   Tsonga   None dominant

South Africa
Africa
has 11 official languages:[169] Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tswana, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa, and Zulu. In this regard it is third only to Bolivia
Bolivia
and India
India
in number. While all the languages are formally equal, some languages are spoken more than others. According to the 2011 census, the three most spoken first languages are Zulu (22.7%), Xhosa (16.0%), and Afrikaans (13.5%).[5] Despite the fact that English is recognised as the language of commerce and science, it ranked fourth, and was listed as the first language of only 9.6% of South Africans
South Africans
in 2011 but remains the de facto lingua franca of the nation.[5] The country also recognises several unofficial languages, including Fanagalo, Khoe, Lobedu, Nama, Northern Ndebele, Phuthi, and South African Sign Language.[170] These unofficial languages may be used in certain official uses in limited areas where it has been determined that these languages are prevalent. Many of the unofficial languages of the San and Khoikhoi
Khoikhoi
people contain regional dialects stretching northwards into Namibia
Namibia
and Botswana, and elsewhere. These people, who are a physically distinct population from other Africans, have their own cultural identity based on their hunter-gatherer societies. They have been marginalised to a great extent, and the remainder of their languages are in danger of becoming extinct. Many white South Africans
South Africans
also speak European languages, including Portuguese (also spoken by black Angolans and Mozambicans), German, and Greek, while some Asians in South Africa
Africa
speak Asian languages, such as Gujarati, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu. French is spoken in South Africa
Africa
by migrants from Francophone Africa. Urban centres

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in South Africa 2011 Census

Rank Name Province Pop.

City of Johannesburg

City of Cape Town 1 City of Johannesburg Gauteng 4,434,827[171]

EThekwini Metropolitan Municipality

Ekurhuleni

2 City of Cape Town Western Cape 3,740,026[172]

3 EThekwini Metropolitan Municipality KwaZulu-Natal 3,442,361[173]

4 Ekurhuleni Gauteng 3,178,470[174]

5 City of Tshwane Gauteng 2,921,488[175]

6 Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
Bay Eastern Cape 1,152,115[176]

7 Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality Eastern Cape 755,200[177]

8 Mangaung Free State 747,431[178]

9 Emfuleni Gauteng 721,663[179]

10 Polokwane
Polokwane
Local Municipality Limpopo 628,999 [180]

Religion Main article: Religion in South Africa

Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk
Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk
in Wolmaransstad

Religion in South Africa
Religion in South Africa
(2010)[181]

religion

percent

Protestant

73.2%

No religion

14.9%

Catholic

7.4%

Muslim

1.7%

Hindu

1.1%

Other faith

1.7%

According to the 2001 census, Christians accounted for 79.8% of the population, with a majority of them being members of various Protestant
Protestant
denominations (broadly defined to include syncretic African initiated churches) and a minority of Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
and other Christians. Christian category includes Zion Christian (11.1%), Pentecostal (Charismatic) (8.2%), Roman Catholic
Catholic
(7.1%), Methodist (6.8%), Dutch Reformed (Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk; 6.7%), Anglican (3.8%). Members of remaining Christian churches accounted for another 36% of the population. Muslims accounted for 1.5% of the population, Hindus 1.2%, traditional African religion 0.3% and Judaism
Judaism
0.2%. 15.1% had no religious affiliation, 0.6% were other and 1.4% were unspecified.[142][182][183] African initiated churches formed the largest of the Christian groups. It was believed that many of the persons who claimed no affiliation with any organised religion adhered to traditional African religion. There are an estimated 200,000 indigenous traditional healers in South Africa, and up to 60% of South Africans
South Africans
consult these healers,[184] generally called sangomas or inyangas. These healers use a combination of ancestral spiritual beliefs and a belief in the spiritual and medicinal properties of local fauna and flora, commonly known as muti, to facilitate healing in clients. Many peoples have syncretic religious practices combining Christian and indigenous influences.[185] South African Muslims comprise mainly those who are described as Coloureds
Coloureds
and those who are described as Indians. They have been joined by black or white South African converts as well as others from other parts of Africa.[186] South African Muslims claim that their faith is the fastest-growing religion of conversion in the country, with the number of black Muslims growing sixfold, from 12,000 in 1991 to 74,700 in 2004.[186][187] South Africa
Africa
is also home to a substantial Jewish population, descended from European Jews who arrived as a minority among other European settlers. This population peaked in the 1970s at 120,000, though only around 67,000 remain today, the rest having emigrated. Even so, these numbers make the Jewish community in South Africa
Africa
the twelfth largest in the world.[188] Ethnic Indian Hindus form another significant portion of the population.[182] Culture Main article: Culture of South Africa

Decorated houses, Drakensberg

The South African black majority still has a substantial number of rural inhabitants who lead largely impoverished lives. It is among these people that cultural traditions survive most strongly; as blacks have become increasingly urbanised and Westernised, aspects of traditional culture have declined. Members of the middle class, who are predominantly white but whose ranks include growing numbers of black, coloured and Indian people,[189] have lifestyles similar in many respects to that of people found in Western Europe, North America and Australasia. The South African Scout Association
South African Scout Association
was one of the first youth organisations to open its doors to youth and adults of all races in South Africa. This happened on 2 July 1977 at a conference known as Quo Vadis.[190] Arts

Eland, rock painting, Drakensberg

South African art
South African art
includes the oldest art objects in the world, which were discovered in a South African cave, and dated from 75,000 years ago.[191] The scattered tribes of Khoisan
Khoisan
peoples moving into South Africa
Africa
from around 10000 BC had their own fluent art styles seen today in a multitude of cave paintings. They were superseded by Bantu/Nguni peoples with their own vocabularies of art forms. New forms of art evolved in the mines and townships: a dynamic art using everything from plastic strips to bicycle spokes. The Dutch-influenced folk art of the Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Trekboers
Trekboers
and the urban white artists earnestly following changing European traditions from the 1850s onwards also contributed to this eclectic mix, which continues to evolve today.

Olive Schreiner

South African literature
South African literature
emerged from a unique social and political history. One of the first well known novels written by a black author in an African language was Solomon Thekiso Plaatje's Mhudi, written in 1930. During the 1950s, Drum magazine became a hotbed of political satire, fiction, and essays, giving a voice to urban black culture. Notable white South African authors include Alan Paton, who published the acclaimed novel Cry, the Beloved Country
Cry, the Beloved Country
in 1948. Nadine Gordimer became the first South African to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1991. Her most famous novel, July's People, was released in 1981. J.M. Coetzee won the Nobel Prize for Literature, in 2003. When awarding the prize, the Swedish Academy stated that Coetzee "in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider".[192] The plays of Athol Fugard
Athol Fugard
have been regularly premiered in fringe theatres in South Africa, London (The Royal Court Theatre) and New York. Olive Schreiner's The Story of an African Farm
The Story of an African Farm
(1883) was a revelation in Victorian literature: it is heralded by many as introducing feminism into the novel form. Breyten Breytenbach
Breyten Breytenbach
was jailed for his involvement with the guerrilla movement against apartheid. Andre Brink
Andre Brink
was the first Afrikaner
Afrikaner
writer to be banned by the government after he released the novel A Dry White Season. Popular culture The South African media sector is large, and South Africa
Africa
is one of Africa's major media centres. While South Africa's many broadcasters and publications reflect the diversity of the population as a whole, the most commonly used language is English. However, all ten other official languages are represented to some extent or another. There is great diversity in South African music. Black musicians have developed a unique style called Kwaito. Kwaito is said to have taken over radio, television, and magazines.[193] Of note is Brenda Fassie, who launched to fame with her song "Weekend Special", which was sung in English. More famous traditional musicians include Ladysmith Black Mambazo, while the Soweto String Quartet performs classic music with an African flavour. South Africa
Africa
has produced world-famous jazz musicians, notably Hugh Masekela, Jonas Gwangwa, Abdullah Ibrahim, Miriam Makeba, Jonathan Butler, Chris McGregor, and Sathima Bea Benjamin. Afrikaans
Afrikaans
music covers multiple genres, such as the contemporary Steve Hofmeyr, the punk rock band Fokofpolisiekar
Fokofpolisiekar
and the singer-songwriter Jeremy Loops. Although few South African film productions are known outside South Africa
Africa
itself, many foreign films have been produced about South Africa. Arguably, the most high-profile film portraying South Africa in recent years was District 9. Other notable exceptions are the film Tsotsi, which won the Academy Award for Foreign Language Film at the 78th Academy Awards
78th Academy Awards
in 2006 as well as U-Carmen e-Khayelitsha, which won the Golden Bear
Golden Bear
at the 2005 Berlin International Film Festival. In 2015, Oliver Hermanus film The Endless River became the first South African film selected for the Venice Film Festival. Cuisine Main article: South African cuisine

Meat on a traditional South African braai

South African culture is diverse; foods from many cultures are enjoyed by all and especially marketed to tourists who wish to sample the large variety of South African cuisine. In addition to food, music and dance feature prominently.[citation needed] South African cuisine
South African cuisine
is heavily meat-based and has spawned the distinctively South African social gathering known as a braai, or barbecue. South Africa
Africa
has also developed into a major wine producer, with some of the best vineyards lying in valleys around Stellenbosch, Franschhoek, Paarl
Paarl
and Barrydale.[194] Sports Main article: Sport in South Africa South Africa's most popular sports are soccer, rugby and cricket.[195] Other sports with significant support are swimming, athletics, golf, boxing, tennis, ringball, and netball. Although soccer commands the greatest following among the youth, other sports like basketball, surfing and skateboarding are increasingly popular. Soccer players who have played for major foreign clubs include Steven Pienaar, Lucas Radebe and Philemon Masinga, Benni McCarthy, Aaron Mokoena, and Delron Buckley. South Africa
Africa
hosted the 2010 FIFA World Cup, and FIFA president Sepp Blatter
Sepp Blatter
awarded South Africa
Africa
a grade 9 out of 10 for successfully hosting the event.[196]

The Springboks
Springboks
in a bus parade after winning the 2007 Rugby World Cup

Famous boxing personalities include Baby Jake Jacob Matlala, Vuyani Bungu, Welcome Ncita, Dingaan Thobela, Gerrie Coetzee and Brian Mitchell. Durban
Durban
Surfer Jordy Smith won the 2010 Billabong J-Bay competition making him the no 1 ranked surfer in the world. South Africa
Africa
produced Formula One
Formula One
motor racing's 1979 world champion Jody Scheckter. Famous current cricket players include AB de Villiers, Hashim Amla, Dale Steyn, Vernon Philander, Faf du Plessis etc. Most of them also participate in the Indian Premier League. South Africa
Africa
has also produced numerous world class rugby players, including Francois Pienaar, Joost van der Westhuizen, Danie Craven, Frik du Preez, Naas Botha
Naas Botha
and Bryan Habana. South Africa
Africa
hosted and won the 1995 Rugby World Cup
1995 Rugby World Cup
and won the 2007 Rugby World Cup
2007 Rugby World Cup
in France. It followed the 1995 Rugby World Cup
1995 Rugby World Cup
by hosting the 1996 African Cup of Nations, with the national team going on to win the tournament. It also hosted the 2003 Cricket
Cricket
World Cup, the 2007 World Twenty20 Championship. South Africa
Africa
has also won the inaugural edition of the 1998 ICC KnockOut Trophy
1998 ICC KnockOut Trophy
by defeating West Indies in the final.South Africa
Africa
team also went onto win the inaugural edition of the Blind Cricket
Cricket
World Cup in 1998. In 2004, the swimming team of Roland Schoeman, Lyndon Ferns, Darian Townsend and Ryk Neethling won the gold medal at the Olympic Games in Athens, simultaneously breaking the world record in the 4x100 freestyle relay. Penny Heyns
Penny Heyns
won Olympic Gold in the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games. In 2012 Oscar Pistorius
Oscar Pistorius
became the first double amputee sprinter to compete at the Olympic Games in London. In golf, Gary Player is generally regarded as one of the greatest golfers of all time, having won the Career Grand Slam, one of five golfers to have done so. Other South African golfers to have won major tournaments include Bobby Locke, Ernie Els, Retief Goosen, Tim Clark, Trevor Immelman, Louis Oosthuizen
Louis Oosthuizen
and Charl Schwartzel. Education Main article: Education in South Africa

Schoolchildren in Mitchell's Plain

The adult literacy rate in 2007 was 88.7%.[197] South Africa
Africa
has a 3 tier system of education starting with primary school, followed by high school and tertiary education in the form of (academic) universities and universities of technology. Learners have twelve years of formal schooling, from grade 1 to 12. Grade R is a pre-primary foundation year. [198] Primary schools span the first seven years of schooling.[199] High School education spans a further five years. The Senior Certificate examination takes place at the end of grade 12 and is necessary for tertiary studies at a South African university.[198] Public universities in South Africa
Africa
are divided into three types: traditional universities, which offer theoretically oriented university degrees; universities of technology ("Technikons"), which offer vocational oriented diplomas and degrees; and comprehensive universities, which offer both types of qualification. There are 23 public universities in South Africa: 11 traditional universities, 6 universities of technology and 6 comprehensive universities. Under apartheid, schools for blacks were subject to discrimination through inadequate funding and a separate syllabus called Bantu Education which was only designed to give them sufficient skills to work as labourers.[200] In 2004 South Africa
Africa
started reforming its higher education system, merging and incorporating small universities into larger institutions, and renaming all higher education institutions "university" to redress these imbalances. By 2015, 1.4  million students in higher education have benefited from a financial aid scheme which was promulgated in 1999.[201] Public expenditure on education was at 5.4% of the 2002–05 GDP.[202] Health Main article: Health in South Africa

AIDS
AIDS
has caused a fall in life expectancy.

According to the South African Institute of Race Relations, the life expectancy in 2009 was 71 years for a white South African and 48 years for a black South African.[203] The healthcare spending in the country is about 9% of GDP.[204] Only 16% of the population is covered by medical schemes.[205] About 20% use private healthcare.[206] The rest pay "out of pocket" or through hospital cash plans.[206] The three dominant hospital groups, Mediclinic, Life Healthcare and Netcare, together control 75% of the market.[206] About 84% of the population depend on the public healthcare system,[204] which is beset with chronic human resource shortages and limited resources.[207] South Africa
Africa
is home to the third largest hospital in the world, the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital.[208] HIV/AIDS Main article: HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
in South Africa According to the 2015 UN AIDS
AIDS
Report, South Africa
Africa
has an estimated 7 million people living with HIV – more than any other country in the world.[209] A 2008 study revealed that HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
infection in South Africa
Africa
is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.6% of blacks are HIV-positive, whereas only 0.3% of whites have the disease.[210] Most deaths are experienced by economically active individuals, resulting in many AIDS
AIDS
orphans who in many cases depend on the state for care and financial support.[211] It is estimated that there are 1,200,000 orphans in South Africa.[211] The link between HIV, a virus spread primarily by sexual contact, and AIDS
AIDS
was long denied by prior president Thabo Mbeki
Thabo Mbeki
and then health minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, who insisted that the many deaths in the country are due to malnutrition, and hence poverty, and not HIV.[212] In 2007, in response to international pressure, the government made efforts to fight AIDS.[213] After the 2009 General Elections, President Jacob Zuma
Jacob Zuma
appointed Dr Aaron Motsoaledi
Aaron Motsoaledi
as the new minister and committed his government to increasing funding for and widening the scope of AIDS
AIDS
treatment.[214] See also

South Africa
Africa
portal

Book: South Africa

Index of South Africa-related articles Outline of South Africa

Notes

^ The Khoi, Nama and San languages, South African Sign Language, German, Greek, Gujarati, Hindi, Portuguese, Telugu, Tamil, Urdu, Arabic, Hebrew, Sanskrit and "other languages used for religious purposes in South Africa" have a special status (Chapter 1, Article 6 of the South African Constitution).

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upgrade relations to "comprehensive strategic partnership"". Capetown.china-consulate.org. 25 August 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2013.  ^ "New era as South Africa
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joins BRICS". Southafrica.info. 11 April 2011. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2013. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "SA brings 'unique attributes' to BRICS". Southafrica.info. 14 April 2011. Archived from the original on 9 July 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2013. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ a b "Constitution of the Republic
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Act 200 of 1993 (Section 224)". South African Government. 1993. Archived from the original on 12 June 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2008.  ^ Col L B van Stade, Senior Staff Officer Rationalisation, SANDF (1997). "Rationalisation in the SANDF: The Next Challenge". Institute for Security Studies. Archived from the original on 16 March 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2008. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Defence Act 42 of 2002" (PDF). South African Government. 12 February 2003. p. 18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 June 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2008.  ^ a b c Mosiuoa Lekota (5 September 2005). "Address by the Minister of Defence at a media breakfast at Defence Headquarters, Pretoria". Department of Defence. Retrieved 23 June 2008.  ^ a b Lieutenant Colonel Roy E. Horton III (BS, Electrical Engineering; MS, Strategic Intelligence) (October 1999). "Out of (South) Africa: Pretoria's Nuclear Weapons Experience". USAF Institute for National Security Studies. Retrieved 23 June 2008. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b c Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, Inc. (May 1993). "South Africa
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Africa
2008: Achieving Accelerated and Shared Growth for South Africa". OECD. Archived from the original on 9 August 2009.  ^ "Commanding Plights." The Economist 29 August 2015: 37-38. Print. ^ "SA Economic Research – Tourism Update" (PDF). m/ Investec. October 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 June 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2008.  ^ Solomon, Hussein (1996). "Strategic Perspectives on Illegal Immigration
Immigration
into South Africa". African Security Review. 5 (4): 3. doi:10.1080/10246029.1996.9627681. Archived from the original on 19 October 2005.  ^ Mattes, Robert; Crush, Jonathan & Richmond, Wayne. "The Brain Gain: Skilled Migrants and Immigration
Immigration
Policy in Post- Apartheid
Apartheid
South Africa". Southern African Migration Project, Queens College, Canada. Archived from the original on 25 November 2005.  ^ a b "South Africa". The World Factbook. CIA.  ^ Unequal protection the state response to violent crime on South African farms. Human Rights Watch. 2001. ISBN 1-56432-263-7.  ^ Mohamed, Najma (2000). "Greening Land and Agrarian Reform: A Case for Sustainable Agriculture". In Ben Cousins. At the Crossroads: Land and Agrarian Reform in South Africa
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Into the 21st Century. Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies (PLAAS). ISBN 978-1-86808-467-8.  ^ "African Countries of the Future 2013/14". fDiIntelligence.com. Retrieved 4 December 2013.  ^ Neva Makgetla (31 March 2010). "Inequality on scale found in SA bites like acid". Business Day. South Africa. Retrieved 26 June 2013.  ^ "Black middle class boosts car sales in South Africa – Business – Mail & Guardian Online". Mail & Guardian. 15 January 2006. Retrieved 30 October 2011.  ^ "Economic Assessment of South Africa
Africa
2008". OECD. Archived from the original on 23 April 2009.  ^ Collier, P. (3 December 2004). "World Bank, IMF study 2004". Journal of African Economies. Jae.oxfordjournals.org. 13: ii15. doi:10.1093/jae/ejh042. Retrieved 30 May 2010.  ^ "Health Personnel in Southern Africa: Confronting maldistribution and brain drain" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2010.  ^ Haroon Bhorat; et al. (2002). "Skilled Labour Migration from Developing Countries: Study on South and Southern Africa" (PDF). International Labour Office. Retrieved 26 June 2013.  ^ "South Africa's brain-drain generation returning home". CNN World. 22 April 2009. Archived from the original on 16 December 2010. Retrieved 4 June 2011.  ^ "South Africa's brain drain reversing". Times Live. Retrieved 4 June 2011.  ^ "Graduates confident about SA". Times Live. Retrieved 4 June 2011.  ^ "SKA announces Founding Board and selects Jodrell Bank Observatory to host Project Office". SKA 2011. 2 April 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011.  ^ " Africa
Africa
and Australasia
Australasia
to share Square Kilometre Array". BBC. 25 May 2012.  ^ ""Most progressive water utility in Africa" wins 2014Stockholm Industry Water Award". Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI). Retrieved 8 June 2014.  ^ a b WHO/UNICEF:Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation:Data table South Africa
Africa
Archived 9 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine., 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2012 ^ http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/688965/?sc=c59 ^ "The 11 cities most likely to run out of drinking water - like Cape Town" 11 February 2018. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/amp/world-42982959. ^ "Anti-immigrant violence spreads in South Africa, with attacks reported in Cape Town – The New York Times". International Herald Tribune. 23 May 2008. Archived from the original on 21 February 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2011.  ^ "Escape From Mugabe: Zimbabwe's Exodus". Archived from the original on 24 January 2016.  ^ "More illegals set to flood SA". Fin24. Archived from the original on 14 February 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2011.  ^ "South African mob kills migrants". BBC. 12 May 2008. Retrieved 19 May 2008.  ^ Barry Bearak (23 May 2008). "Immigrants Fleeing Fury of South African Mobs". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 August 2008.  ^ Lehohla, Pali (5 May 2005). "Debate over race and censuses not peculiar to SA". Business Report. Archived from the original on 14 August 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2013. Others pointed out that the repeal of the Population Registration Act in 1991 removed any legal basis for specifying 'race'. The Identification Act of 1997 makes no mention of race. On the other hand, the Employment Equity Act speaks of 'designated groups' being 'black people, women and people with disabilities'. The Act defines 'black' as referring to 'Africans, coloureds and Indians'. Apartheid
Apartheid
and the racial identification which underpinned it explicitly linked race with differential access to resources and power. If the post-apartheid order was committed to remedying this, race would have to be included in surveys and censuses, so that progress in eradicating the consequences of apartheid could be measured and monitored. This was the reasoning that led to a 'self-identifying' question about 'race' or 'population group' in both the 1996 and 2001 population censuses, and in Statistics SA's household survey programme.  ^ Study Commission on U.S. Policy toward Southern Africa
Southern Africa
(U.S.) (1981). South Africa: time running out: the report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Africa. University of California Press. p. 42. ISBN 0-520-04547-5.  ^ a b c "World Refugee Survey 2008". U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. 19 June 2008. Archived from the original on 19 October 2014.  ^ "Constitution of South Africa, Chapter 1, Section 6". Fs.gov.za. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2010.  ^ "The languages of South Africa". SouthAfrica.info. 4 February 1997. Archived from the original on 4 March 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2010. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839 ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839 ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839 ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839 ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839 ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839 ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839 ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839 ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839 ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839 ^ http://www.globalreligiousfutures.org/countries/south-africa#/?affiliations_religion_id=11&affiliations_year=2010&region_name=All%20Countries&restrictions_year=2015 ^ a b "South Africa – Section I. Religious Demography". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 15 July 2006.  ^ Wessel Bentley; Dion Angus Forster (2008). "God's mission in our context, healing and transforming responses". Methodism in Southern Africa: A Celebration of Wesleyan Mission. AcadSA. pp. 97–98. ISBN 978-1-920212-29-2.  ^ van Wyk, Ben-Erik and van Oudtshoorn, Gericke N (1999). Medicinal Plants of South Africa. Pretoria: Briza Publications. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-875093-37-3. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "South Africa". State.gov. 15 September 2006. Retrieved 30 October 2011.  ^ a b "In South Africa, many blacks convert to Islam / The Christian Science Monitor". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 30 October 2011.  ^ "Muslims say their faith growing fast in Africa". Religionnewsblog.com. Retrieved 7 November 2010.  ^ Rebecca Weiner, Rebecca Weiner, ed. (2010), South African Jewish History and Information (PDF), Jewish Virtual Library, retrieved 13 August 2010  ^ "Black middle class explodes". FIN24. 22 May 2007. Archived from the original on 22 August 2007.  ^ "History of Scouting in South Africa". History of Scouting in South Africa. South African Scout Association. 2006. Retrieved 30 November 2006.  ^ Radford, Tim (16 April 2004). "World's Oldest Jewellery Found in Cave". London: Buzzle.com. Retrieved 16 April 2011.  ^ "The Nobel Prize in Literature: John Maxwell Coetzee". Swedish Academy. 2 October 2003. Retrieved 2 August 2009.  ^ "South African music after Apartheid: kwaito, the "party politic," and the appropriation of gold as a sign of success". Archived from the original on 13 June 2013.  ^ "South African Wine Guide: Stellenbosch, Constantia, Walker Bay and more". Thewinedoctor.com. Retrieved 30 October 2011.  ^ "Sport in South Africa". SouthAfrica.info. Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ Cooper, Billy (12 July 2010). "South Africa
Africa
gets 9/10 for World Cup". Mail & Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 July 2010. Retrieved 9 September 2010.  ^ "National adult literacy rates (15+), youth literacy rates (15–24) and elderly literacy rates (65+)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics.  ^ a b "A parent's guide to schooling". Retrieved 31 August 2010.  ^ "Education in South Africa". SouthAfrica.info. Archived from the original on 17 June 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2010.  ^ "Bantu Education". Overcoming Apartheid. Retrieved 20 June 2010.  ^ Cele, S'thembile; Masondo, Sipho (18 January 2015). "Shocking cost of SA's universities". fin24.com. City Press. Retrieved 19 January 2015.  ^ "Human Development Report 2009 – South Africa". Hdrstats.undp.org. Archived from the original on 15 April 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2010.  ^ Peoples Budget Coalition Comments on the 2011/12 Budget Archived 16 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b "'Clinic-in-a-Box' seeks to improve South African healthcare". SmartPlanet. Archived from the original on 30 July 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.  ^ "What does the demand for healthcare look like in SA?" (PDF). Mediclinic Southern Africa. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.  ^ a b c "Motsoaledi to reform private health care". Financial Mail. Retrieved 25 August 2013.  ^ "South Africa". ICAP at Columbia University. Retrieved 25 August 2013.  ^ "The Biggest Hospitals in the World". 2 January 2013.  ^ "HIV and AIDS
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AIDS
reforms". UNPAN. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 

Further reading

A History of South Africa, Third Edition. Leonard Thompson. Yale University Press. 1 March 2001. 384 pages. ISBN 0-300-08776-4. Economic Analysis and Policy Formulation for Post- Apartheid
Apartheid
South Africa: Mission Report, Aug. 1991. International Development Research Centre. IDRC Canada, 1991. vi, 46 p. Without ISBN Emerging Johannesburg: Perspectives on the Postapartheid City. Richard Tomlinson, et al. 1 January 2003. 336 pages. ISBN 0-415-93559-8. Making of Modern South Africa: Conquest, Segregation and Apartheid. Nigel Worden. 1 July 2000. 194 pages. ISBN 0-631-21661-8. South Africa: A Narrative History. Frank Welsh. Kodansha America. 1 February 1999. 606 pages. ISBN 1-56836-258-7. South Africa
Africa
in Contemporary Times. Godfrey Mwakikagile. New Africa Press. February 2008. 260 pages. ISBN 978-0-9802587-3-8. The Atlas of Changing South Africa. A. J. Christopher. 1 October 2000. 216 pages. ISBN 0-415-21178-6. The Politics of the New South Africa. Heather Deegan. 28 December 2000. 256 pages. ISBN 0-582-38227-0. Twentieth-Century South Africa. William Beinart Oxford University Press 2001, 414 pages, ISBN 0-19-289318-1

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Prince Edward Islands

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

"Peri-Antarctic" (meaning "close to the Antarctic") does not include territorial claims in Antarctica
Antarctica
itself.

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Members of the Commonwealth of Nations

Sovereign states (Members)

Antigua and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados Belize Botswana Brunei Cameroon Canada Cyprus Dominica Fiji Ghana Grenada Guyana India Jamaica Kenya Kiribati Lesotho Malawi Malaysia Malta Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Nauru New Zealand Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Swaziland Tanzania The Gambia Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Uganda United Kingdom Vanuatu Zambia

Dependencies of Members

Australia

Ashmore and Cartier Islands Australian Antarctic
Antarctic
Territory Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Coral Sea Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands Norfolk Island

New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue Ross Dependency Tokelau

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic
Antarctic
Territory British Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Montserrat Pitcairn Islands St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

Source: Commonwealth Secretariat - Member States

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English-speaking world

Click on a coloured area to see an article about English in that country or region

Further links

Articles

English-speaking world History of the English language British Empire English in the Commonwealth of Nations Anglosphere

Lists

List of countries by English-speaking population List of countries where English is an official language

 

Countries and territories where English is the national language or the native language of the majority

Africa

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

Americas

Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda The Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda British Virgin Islands Canada Cayman Islands Dominica Falkland Islands Grenada Guyana Jamaica Montserrat Saba Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Sint Eustatius Sint Maarten South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands United States United States
United States
Virgin Islands

Europe

Guernsey Ireland Isle of Man Jersey United Kingdom

Oceania

Australia New Zealand Norfolk Island Pitcairn Islands

 

Countries and territories where English is an official language, but not the majority first language

Africa

Botswana Cameroon The Gambia Ghana Kenya Lesotho Liberia Malawi Mauritius Namibia Nigeria Rwanda Sierra Leone Somaliland South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Americas

Puerto Rico

Asia

Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Hong Kong Special
Special
Administrative Region India Pakistan Philippines Singapore

Europe

Gibraltar Malta

Oceania

American Samoa Cook Islands Fiji Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia Nauru Niue Northern Mariana Islands Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tokelau Tuvalu Vanuatu

Dependencies shown in italics.

Coordinates: 30°S 25°E / 30°S 25°E / -30; 25

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 159069376 LCCN: n79023005 ISNI: 0000 0001 2167 3042 GND: 4078012-0 SUDOC: 028016009 BNF: cb11993638s (data) HDS: 3467 NLA: 3551

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