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PRUNUS CERASUS (SOUR CHERRY , TART CHERRY, or DWARF CHERRY ) is a species of Prunus in the subgenus Cerasus (cherries ), native to much of Europe
Europe
and southwest Asia
Asia
. It is closely related to the sweet cherry ( Prunus avium ), but has a fruit that is more acidic .

The tree is smaller than the sweet cherry (growing to a height of 4–10 m), has twiggy branches, and its crimson-to-near-black cherries are borne upon shorter stalks. There are several varieties of the SOUR CHERRY: the dark-red MORELLO CHERRY and the lighter-red varieties including the AMARELLE CHERRY, and the popular MONTMORENCY CHERRY . The Montmorency cherry is the most popular type of sour cherry. The reason for its popularity is its use in baking and recipe creation. including cherry pies, cherry desserts and other cherry-based recipes.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins and cultivation

* 2 Uses

* 2.1 Culinary

* 3 See also * 4 References

ORIGINS AND CULTIVATION

Illustration of Morello Cherry
Cherry

Prunus cerasus is thought to have originated as a natural hybrid between Prunus avium and Prunus fruticosa in the Iranian Plateau or Eastern Europe
Europe
where the two species come into contact. Prunus fruticosa is believed to have provided its smaller size and sour tasting fruit. The hybrids then stabilised and interbred to form a new, distinct species.

Cultivated sour cherries were selected from wild specimens of Prunus cerasus and the doubtfully distinct P. acida from around the Caspian and Black Seas , and were known to the Greeks in 300 BC. They were also extremely popular with Persians and the Romans who introduced them into Britain long before the 1st century AD. The fruit remains popular in modern-day Iran
Iran
.

In Britain, their cultivation was popularised in the 16th century in the time of Henry VIII . They became a popular crop amongst Kentish growers, and by 1640 over two dozen named cultivars were recorded. In the Americas, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
colonists planted the first sour cherry, 'Kentish Red', when they arrived. A blooming sour cherry tree

Before the Second World War there were more than fifty cultivars of sour cherry in cultivation in England; today, however, few are grown commercially, and despite the continuation of named cultivars such as 'Kentish Red', 'Amarelles', 'Griottes' and 'Flemish', only the generic Morello is offered by most nurseries. This is a late-flowering variety, and thus misses more frosts than its sweet counterpart and is therefore a more reliable cropper. The Morello cherry ripens in mid to late summer, toward the end of August in southern England. It is self-fertile, and would be a good pollenizer for other varieties if it did not flower so late in the season. Worldwide sour cherry production

Sour cherries require similar cultivation conditions to pears , that is, they prefer a rich, well-drained, moist soil , although they demand more nitrogen and water than sweet cherries. Trees will do badly if waterlogged, but have greater tolerance of poor drainage than sweet varieties. As with sweet cherries, Morellos are traditionally cultivated by budding onto strong growing rootstocks, which produce trees too large for most gardens, although newer dwarfing rootstocks such as Colt and Gisella are now available. During spring, flowers should be protected, and trees weeded, mulched and sprayed with natural seaweed solution. This is also the time when any required pruning should be carried out (note that cherries should not be pruned during the dormant winter months). Morello cherry trees fruit on younger wood than sweet varieties, and thus can be pruned harder. They are usually grown as standards, but can be fan trained, cropping well even on cold walls, or grown as low bushes. Ripe sour cherries (Somogy , Hungary
Hungary
) Ripe sour cherries and their leaves (Karaj , Iran
Iran
) A sour cherry Beauty Sheet

Sour cherries suffer fewer pests and diseases than sweet cherries, although they are prone to heavy fruit losses from birds . In summer, fruit should be protected with netting. When harvesting fruit, they should be cut from the tree rather than risking damage by pulling the stalks.

Unlike most sweet cherry varieties, sour cherries are self fertile or self pollenizing (sometimes inaccurately referred to as self-pollinating ). Two implications of this are that seeds generally run true to the cultivar, and that much smaller pollinator populations are needed because pollen only has to be moved within individual flowers. In areas where pollinators are scarce, growers find that stocking beehives in orchards improves yields.

Some cultivars of sour cherry trees, such as Montmorency and North Star , have been documented to perform better than other cherry trees in Colorado's Front Range region.

TOP 10 SOUR CHERRY PRODUCERS IN 2012

COUNTRY PRODUCTION (TONNES ) FOOTNOTE

Turkey
Turkey
187,941

Russia
Russia
183,300 *

Poland
Poland
175,391

Ukraine
Ukraine
172,800

Iran
Iran
105,000 F

Serbia
Serbia
74,656

Hungary
Hungary
53,425

United States 38,601

Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
34,000 F

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
23,085

WORLD 1,149,531 A

* = Unofficial figure = Official data A = May include official, semi-official or estimated data F = FAO estimate Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology M = Data not available

Source: UN Food "> Kriek lambic is infused with sour cherries

CULINARY

Dried sour cherries are used in cooking including soups , pork dishes, cakes , tarts , and pies .

Sour cherries or sour cherry syrup are used in liqueurs and drinks . In Turkey
Turkey
, Greece
Greece
and Cyprus
Cyprus
, sour cherries are especially prized for making spoon sweets by slowly boiling pitted sour cherries and sugar; the syrup thereof is used for vişne şurubu or vyssináda, a beverage made by diluting the syrup with ice-cold water. A particular use of sour cherries is in the production of kriek lambic , a cherry-flavored variety of a naturally fermented beer made in Belgium.

SEE ALSO

* Fruit
Fruit
trees * Fruit
Fruit
tree forms * Fruit
Fruit
tree propagation * Ginjinha , a Portuguese liqueur made from Sour Cherry * Griotte de Kleparow * Kirsch
Kirsch
* Kriek , a traditional Belgian beer made with sour cherries * Marasca cherry ( Prunus cerasus var. marasca) * Amarena cherry ( Prunus cerasus var. amarena) * North Star cherry , a dwarf variety * Pruning
Pruning
fruit trees * Sour cherry soup
Sour cherry soup
* Syzygium corynanthum
Syzygium corynanthum
, an Australian rainforest tree also known as the Sour cherry * Vişinată , a Romanian liqueur made with sour cherries (vişina in Romanian) * Vişne , Vişne Receli is a sour cherry preserve and Vişne Suyu is a popular fruit juice in Turkey

REFERENCES

Wikimedia Commons has media related to PRUNUS CERASUS .

* ^ illustration from Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen 1897 * ^ "The Plant
Plant
List: A Working List of All Plant
Plant
Species". Retrieved January 27, 2014. * ^ " Prunus cerasus". Natural Resources Conservation Service
Natural Resources Conservation Service
PLANTS Database. USDA . Retrieved 14 October 2015. * ^ "BSBI List 2007" (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Retrieved 2014-10-17. * ^ Webster’s New International Dictionary of the English Language. Springfield, Massachusetts: G. & C. Merriam Co., 1913. See amarelle at p. 67. * ^ " Tart Cherry
Cherry
Recipes". Tart Cherry
Cherry
Recipes. * ^ Stocks, Christopher (2009). "Britain’s forgotten fruits". Flora. 1: 1–200. * ^ https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/naldc/download.xhtml?id=CAT87208505&content=PDF * ^ https://www.oakgov.com/msu/Documents/publications/oc0089_cherries.pdf

Wikimedia Commons has media related to PRUNUS CERASUS .

* ^ http://www.denverpost.com/2011/05/26/finally-a-list-of-trees-that-thrive-along-colorados-front-range/ * ^ http://www.csmonitor.com/The-Culture/Gardening/diggin-it/2011/0729/Growing-cherries-on-the-Colorado-Front-Range * ^ "Major Food And Agricultural Commodities And Producers – Countries By Commodity". Fao.org. Retrieved Feb 3, 2015. * ^ Jackson, Michael (1997). The Simon Schuster Pocket Guide to Beer. Simon and Schuster. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-684-84381-0 .

* v * t * e

Cherry
Cherry
cultivars

SWEET (BIGAROON, MAZZARD)

* Angela * Bing * Chelan * Chinook * Emperor Francis * Hudson * Lambert * Lapins * Rainier * Regina * Royal Ann (Napoleon) * Sam * Schmidt * Skeena * Stella * Sweetheart * Tieton * Ulster * Van

SOUR (AMARELLE, MORELLO)

* Amarena * Balaton * Evans * Griotte de Kleparow * Marasca * Montmorency * North Star

OTHER EDIBLE

* Nanking

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* GND : 4132266-6

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