PRUNUS CERASUS (SOUR CHERRY , TART CHERRY, or DWARF CHERRY ) is a
Prunus in the subgenus Cerasus (cherries ), native to much
The tree is smaller than the sweet cherry (growing to a height of 4–10 m), has twiggy branches, and its crimson-to-near-black cherries are borne upon shorter stalks. There are several varieties of the SOUR CHERRY: the dark-red MORELLO CHERRY and the lighter-red varieties including the AMARELLE CHERRY, and the popular MONTMORENCY CHERRY . The Montmorency cherry is the most popular type of sour cherry. The reason for its popularity is its use in baking and recipe creation. including cherry pies, cherry desserts and other cherry-based recipes.
* 1 Origins and cultivation
* 2 Uses
* 2.1 Culinary
* 3 See also * 4 References
ORIGINS AND CULTIVATION
Illustration of Morello
Prunus cerasus is thought to have originated as a natural hybrid
Prunus avium and
Prunus fruticosa in the
Iranian Plateau or
Cultivated sour cherries were selected from wild specimens of Prunus
cerasus and the doubtfully distinct P. acida from around the Caspian
and Black Seas , and were known to the Greeks in 300 BC. They were
also extremely popular with Persians and the Romans who introduced
them into Britain long before the 1st century AD. The fruit remains
popular in modern-day
In Britain, their cultivation was popularised in the 16th century in
the time of Henry VIII . They became a popular crop amongst Kentish
growers, and by 1640 over two dozen named cultivars were recorded. In
Before the Second World War there were more than fifty cultivars of sour cherry in cultivation in England; today, however, few are grown commercially, and despite the continuation of named cultivars such as 'Kentish Red', 'Amarelles', 'Griottes' and 'Flemish', only the generic Morello is offered by most nurseries. This is a late-flowering variety, and thus misses more frosts than its sweet counterpart and is therefore a more reliable cropper. The Morello cherry ripens in mid to late summer, toward the end of August in southern England. It is self-fertile, and would be a good pollenizer for other varieties if it did not flower so late in the season. Worldwide sour cherry production
Sour cherries require similar cultivation conditions to pears , that
is, they prefer a rich, well-drained, moist soil , although they
demand more nitrogen and water than sweet cherries. Trees will do
badly if waterlogged, but have greater tolerance of poor drainage than
sweet varieties. As with sweet cherries, Morellos are traditionally
cultivated by budding onto strong growing rootstocks, which produce
trees too large for most gardens, although newer dwarfing rootstocks
such as Colt and Gisella are now available. During spring, flowers
should be protected, and trees weeded, mulched and sprayed with
natural seaweed solution. This is also the time when any required
pruning should be carried out (note that cherries should not be pruned
during the dormant winter months). Morello cherry trees fruit on
younger wood than sweet varieties, and thus can be pruned harder. They
are usually grown as standards, but can be fan trained, cropping well
even on cold walls, or grown as low bushes. Ripe sour cherries
Sour cherries suffer fewer pests and diseases than sweet cherries, although they are prone to heavy fruit losses from birds . In summer, fruit should be protected with netting. When harvesting fruit, they should be cut from the tree rather than risking damage by pulling the stalks.
Unlike most sweet cherry varieties, sour cherries are self fertile or self pollenizing (sometimes inaccurately referred to as self-pollinating ). Two implications of this are that seeds generally run true to the cultivar, and that much smaller pollinator populations are needed because pollen only has to be moved within individual flowers. In areas where pollinators are scarce, growers find that stocking beehives in orchards improves yields.
Some cultivars of sour cherry trees, such as Montmorency and North Star , have been documented to perform better than other cherry trees in Colorado's Front Range region.
TOP 10 SOUR CHERRY PRODUCERS IN 2012
COUNTRY PRODUCTION (TONNES ) FOOTNOTE
United States 38,601
WORLD 1,149,531 A
* = Unofficial figure = Official data A = May include official, semi-official or estimated data F = FAO estimate Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology M = Data not available
Source: UN Food "> Kriek lambic is infused with sour cherries
Dried sour cherries are used in cooking including soups , pork dishes, cakes , tarts , and pies .
Sour cherries or sour cherry syrup are used in liqueurs and drinks .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to PRUNUS CERASUS .
* ^ illustration from Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's
* ^ "The
Wikimedia Commons has media related to PRUNUS CERASUS .
* ^ http://www.denverpost.com/2011/05/26/finally-a-list-of-trees-that-thrive-along-colorados-front-range/ * ^ http://www.csmonitor.com/The-Culture/Gardening/diggin-it/2011/0729/Growing-cherries-on-the-Colorado-Front-Range * ^ "Major Food And Agricultural Commodities And Producers – Countries By Commodity". Fao.org. Retrieved Feb 3, 2015. * ^ Jackson, Michael (1997). The Simon Schuster Pocket Guide to Beer. Simon and Schuster. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-684-84381-0 .
* v * t * e
SWEET (BIGAROON, MAZZARD)
* Angela * Bing * Chelan * Chinook * Emperor Francis * Hudson * Lambert * Lapins * Rainier * Regina * Royal Ann (Napoleon) * Sam * Schmidt * Skeena * Stella * Sweetheart * Tieton * Ulster * Van
SOUR (AMARELLE, MORELLO)
* Amarena * Balaton * Evans * Griotte de Kleparow * Marasca * Montmorency * North Star
* GND : 4132266-6