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SORGHUM BICOLOR, commonly called SORGHUM (/ˈsɔːrɡəm/ ) and also known as GREAT MILLET, DURRA, JOWARI, or MILO, is a grass species cultivated for its grain, which is used for food for humans, animal feed, and ethanol production. Sorghum
Sorghum
originated in northern Africa, and is now cultivated widely in tropical and subtropical regions. Sorghum
Sorghum
is the world's fifth-most important cereal crop after rice , wheat , maize , and barley . S. bicolor is typically an annual, but some cultivars are perennial. It grows in clumps that may reach over 4 m high. The grain is small, ranging from 2 to 4 mm in diameter. Sweet sorghums are sorghum cultivars that are primarily grown for foliage, syrup production, and ethanol; they are taller than those grown for grain.

Sorghum
Sorghum
bicolor is the cultivated species of sorghum; its wild relatives make up the botanical genus Sorghum
Sorghum
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Cultivation * 2 Uses * 3 Agricultural uses * 4 Research * 5 Genome * 6 Pests "> Seed head of sorghum in India
India
Sorghum
Sorghum
with a recurved peduncle trait, Turpan basin, Xinjiang, China
China
In some varieties and in certain conditions, the heavy panicle will make the young soft peduncle bend, which then will lignify in this position. Combined with awned inflorescence, this forms a two-fold defence against birds.

The leading producers of sorghum bicolor in 2011 were Nigeria (12.6%), India
India
(11.2%), Mexico (11.2%), and the United States
United States
(10.0%). Sorghum
Sorghum
grows in a wide range of temperature, high altitudes, toxic soils and can recover growth after some drought. It has four features that make it one of the most drought-resistant crops:

* It has a very large root-to-leaf surface area ratio. * In times of drought, it will roll its leaves to lessen water loss by transpiration. * If drought continues, it will go into dormancy rather than dying. * Its leaves are protected by a waxy cuticle.

Richard Pankhurst reports (citing Augustus B. Wylde) that in 19th-century Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, durra was "often the first crop sown on newly cultivated land", explaining that this cereal did not require the thorough ploughing other crops did, and its roots not only decomposed into a good fertilizer, but they also helped to break up the soil while not exhausting the subsoil .

USES

Red on white sorghum grains

Sorghum
Sorghum
is cultivated in many parts of the world today. In the past 50 years, the area planted with sorghum worldwide had increased 66%. In many parts of Asia and Africa, its grain is used to make flat breads that form the staple food of many cultures. The grains can also be popped in a similar fashion to popcorn.

Sorghum
Sorghum
NUTRITIONAL VALUE PER 100 G (3.5 OZ)

ENERGY 1,418 kJ (339 kcal)

CARBOHYDRATES 74.63 g

DIETARY FIBER 6.3 g

FAT 3.30 g

PROTEIN 11.30 g

* Units * μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams * IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

The species can be used as a source for making ethanol fuel , and in some environments may be better than maize or sugarcane , as it can grow under harsher conditions. It typically has protein levels around 9%, enabling dependent human populations to subsist on it in times of famine, in contrast to regions where maize has become the staple crop. It is also used for making a traditional corn broom .

The reclaimed stalks of the sorghum plant are used to make a decorative millwork material marketed as Kirei board .

Sweet sorghum syrup is known as molasses in some parts of the U.S., although it is not true molasses .

In China
China
, sorghum is known as gaoliang (高粱), and is fermented and distilled to produce one form of clear spirits known as baijiu 白酒 of which the most famous is Moutai (or Maotai ). Sorghum
Sorghum
was ground and the flour was the main alternative to wheat in northern China
China
for a long time.

In India
India
, where it is commonly called jwaarie, jowar, jola, or jondhalaa, sorghum is one of the staple sources of nutrition. An Indian bread called bhakri , jowar roti, or jolada rotti , is prepared from this grain. In some countries, sweet sorghum stalks are used for producing biofuel by squeezing the juice and then fermenting it into ethanol . Texas A"> Research is being done to find a process that will predigest the grain. One study on cattle showed that steam-flaked sorghum was preferable to dry-rolled sorghum because it improved daily weight gain. In hogs, sorghum has been shown to be a more efficient feed choice than corn when both grains were processed in the same way.

The introduction of improved varieties, along with improved management practices, has helped to increase sorghum productivity. In India, productivity increases are thought to have freed up six million hectares of land. The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics ( ICRISAT
ICRISAT
) in collaboration with partners produces improved varieties of crops including sorghum . Some 194 improved cultivars of sorghum from the institute have been released.

RESEARCH

Research is being conducted to develop a genetic cross that will make the plant more tolerant to colder temperatures and to unravel the drought tolerance mechanisms, since it is native to tropical climates In the United States, this is important because the cost of corn was steadily increasing due to its usage in ethanol production for addition to gasoline. Sorghum
Sorghum
silage can be used as a replacement of corn silage in the diet for dairy cattle . Other research has shown that a timely harvest of sorghum is essential for a safe feed product. The plants need to be harvested during the time when the plant's total moisture content is between 63 and 68%, to prevent lodging . Approximately, this is when the grain reaches the "soft dough" stage. More research has found that sorghum has higher nutritional value compared to corn when feeding dairy cattle, and the type of processing is also essential in harvesting the grain's maximum nutrition. Feeding steam-flaked sorghum showed an increase in milk production when compared to dry-rolling. When a grain is steam-flaked, it is cooked slightly, which makes certain nutrients more available to be digested.

Additional research is being done on sorghum as a potential food source to meet the increasing global food demand. Sorghum
Sorghum
is resistant to drought- and heat-related stress. The genetic diversity between subspecies of sorghum makes it more resistant to pests and pathogens than other less diverse food sources. In addition, it is highly efficient in converting solar energy to chemical energy, and also in use of water. All of these characteristics make it a promising candidate to help meet the increasing global food demand. As such, many groups around the world are pursuing research initiatives around sorghum (specifically Sorghum
Sorghum
bicolor): Purdue University
Purdue University
, HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, Danforth Plant
Plant
Science Center, and the University of Nebraska , among others.

Another research application of sorghum is as a biofuel. Sweet sorghum has a high sugar content in its stalk, which can be turned into ethanol. The biomass can be burned and turned into charcoal, syn-gas, and bio-oil.

GENOME

The genome of Sorghum
Sorghum
bicolor was sequenced between 2005 and 2007.

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* ^ "The Plant
Plant
List". * ^ " Sorghum
Sorghum
bicolor". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA . Retrieved 2 February 2016. * ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-02-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17. * ^ Dillon, Sally L.; Shapter, Frances M.; Henry, Robert J.; et al. (1 September 2007). "Domestication to Crop Improvement: Genetic Resources for Sorghum
Sorghum
and Saccharum (Andropogoneae)". NIH . PMC 2759214  . Missing or empty url= (help ) * ^ A B C "Grassland Index: Sorghum
Sorghum
bicolor (L.) Moench". * ^ "Sweet Sorghum". Sweet Sorghum
Sorghum
Ethanol
Ethanol
Producers. Retrieved 13 November 2012. * ^ A B C D Jeri Stroade; Michael Boland & Mykel Taylor. "AGMRC Sorghum
Sorghum
profile". * ^ Richard Pankhurst, Economic History of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(Addis Ababa: Haile Selassie I University, 1968), p. 193. * ^ O P Sharma (1993). Plant
Plant
Taxonomy. Tata McGraw-Hill. p. 439. ISBN 0-07-460373-6 . * ^ National Research Council (1996-02-14). "Sorghum". Lost Crops of Africa: Volume I: Grains. National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-04990-0 . Retrieved 2008-07-18. * ^ "How to make a broom". Ogden Publications, Inc. Retrieved 2010-03-16. * ^ "Sweet Sorghum
Sorghum
: A New "Smart Biofuel Crop". agribusinessweek.com. 30 June 2008. * ^ "Ceres and Texas A&M to Develop and Market High-Biomass Sorghum for Biofuels ( Texas A&M University System Agriculture Program)". gnewsarchive.tamu.edu. 1 October 2007. * ^ United Sorghum
Sorghum
Checkoff Program * ^ A B "