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Sorbs
Sorbs
(Upper Sorbian: Serbja, Lower Sorbian: Serby, German: Sorben), known also by their former autonyms Lusatians and Wends, are a West Slavic ethnic group predominantly inhabiting their homeland in Lusatia, a region divided between Germany
Germany
(the states of Saxony
Saxony
and Brandenburg) and Poland
Poland
(the provinces of Lower Silesia
Silesia
and Lubusz). According to Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos, Serbs
Serbs
from the Balkan peninsula have the same origins as Lusatians and Kashubians. He also claims that Serbs
Serbs
inhabited the areas between the rivers Elbe
Elbe
and Vistula, on the southern coast of the Baltic sea. They traditionally speak the Sorbian languages
Sorbian languages
(also known as "Wendish" and "Lusatian"), closely related to the Polish, Kashubian, Czech and Slovak languages.[5] Sorbian is an officially recognized minority language in Germany. The Sorbs
Sorbs
are linguistically and genetically closest to the Czechs
Czechs
and Poles. Due to a gradual and increasing assimilation between the 17th and 20th centuries, virtually all Sorbs
Sorbs
also spoke German by the late 19th century and much of the recent generations no longer speak the language. The community is divided religiously between Roman Catholicism (the majority) and Lutheranism. The former Prime Minister of Saxony, Stanislaw Tillich, is a Sorb.

Contents

1 Ethnology 2 Population 3 Medieval heritage

3.1 Early Middle Ages 3.2 High and Late Middle Ages

4 Modern history

4.1 Early modern period 4.2 Late modern period 4.3 Contemporary history

5 Language and culture

5.1 Traditions

6 Regions of Lusatia

6.1 Region of Catholic
Catholic
Lusatia 6.2 Region of Hoyerswerda
Hoyerswerda
(Wojerecy) and Schleife
Schleife
(Slepo) 6.3 Region of Lower Lusatia

7 Genetics 8 Lusatian anthem

8.1 in Lower Sorbian 8.2 in Upper Sorbian

9 The Sorbs
Sorbs
and Poland 10 Diaspora 11 See also 12 References 13 Sources 14 Bibliography 15 External links

Ethnology[edit] The ethnonym "Sorbs" (Serbja, Serby) derives from the medieval ethnic groups called Sorbs
Sorbs
(Surbi, Sorabi). The original ethnonym, Srbi, was retained by the Sorbs
Sorbs
and Serbs
Serbs
in the Balkans.[6] By the 6th century, Slavs
Slavs
occupied the area west of the Oder
Oder
formerly inhabited by Germanic peoples.[6] The Sorbs
Sorbs
are first mentioned in the 7th century. In the 19th century the autonym of the Slavic population of Lusatia (the Sorbs) was "Lusatians".[7] The name "Lusatia" was originally applied only to Lower Lusatia, which had been inhabited by Slavs
Slavs
known as Luzici, who may be regarded ancestors of the Lower Sorbs, while Upper Lusatia
Lusatia
was inhabited by Slavs
Slavs
known as Milceni, the supposed ancestors of Upper Sorbs.[6] According to a genetic study published in May 2011, Sorbs
Sorbs
show the greatest genetic similarity to Poles, followed by Czechs, consistent with their West Slavic language.[8] They show subtle evidence of genetic isolation but less than Sardinians and French Basques.[8] Population[edit] Estimates of demographic history of the Sorb population since 1500:[3][9][10]

Year 1500 1700 1750 1790 1860 1880 1900 1905 1945

Population 160,000 250,000 200,000 250,000 138,000 166,000 146,000 157,000 145,700

Sorbs
Sorbs
are divided into two ethnographical groups:

Upper Sorbs, who speak Upper Sorbian
Upper Sorbian
(about 45-60,000 people).[11][3] Lower Sorbs, who speak Lower Sorbian
Lower Sorbian
(about 15-20,000 people).[12][3]

The dialects spoken vary in intelligibility in different areas.

Map of approximate Sorb-inhabited area in Germany.

Map of area and towns inhabited by Sorbs.

Detailed map of Sorb-inhabited area in Germany
Germany
(in Lower Sorbian).

Medieval heritage[edit] Early Middle Ages[edit] Main article: Sorbs
Sorbs
(tribe)

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The reconstructed Lusatian gord (fortification) of Raduš (Raddusch), near Vetschau
Vetschau
in Lower Lusatia.

Sorbs
Sorbs
arrived in the area extending between the Bober, Kwisa, and Oder rivers to the East and the Saale
Saale
and Elbe
Elbe
rivers to the West during the 6th century. In the north, the area of their settlement reached Berlin. The earliest surviving mention of the tribe was in 631 A.D., when Fredegar's Chronicle described them as Surbi and as under the rule of a Dervan, an ally of Samo. The Annales Regni Francorum state that in 806 A.D. Sorbian Duke Miliduch fought against the Franks and was killed. In 840, Sorbian Duke Czimislav was killed. In 932, Henry I conquered Lusatia
Lusatia
and Milsko. Gero II, Margrave
Margrave
of the Saxon Ostmark, reconquered Lusatia
Lusatia
the following year and, in 939, murdered 30 Sorbian princes during a feast. As a result, there were many Sorbian uprisings against German rule. A reconstructed castle, at Raddusch in Lower Lusatia, is the sole physical remnant from this early period. Lusatian tribes are noted in the work of the Bavarian Geographer. The document contains a list of the tribes in Central- Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
east of the Elbe
Elbe
and north of the Danube
Danube
to the Volga
Volga
rivers to the Black and Caspian Sea most of them of Slavic origin.[13][14] Having settled by the Elbe, Spree
Spree
and Neisse in the 6th century, Sorbian tribes divided into two main groups, which have taken their names from the characteristics of the area where they had settled. Sorbs
Sorbs
living on the swampy broads of the Lower Spree
Spree
have taken their name from the word marsh. The Milceni
Milceni
(ancestors of Upper Sorbs) settled on fertile soil around Upper Spree, the name derives from the word měl’ (loess soil). The two groups were separated from each other by a wide and uninhabited forest range. The rest of the tribes settled themselves between the Elbe
Elbe
and Saale. Among the many Slavic tribes, the Bavarian Geographer also noted a few Lusatian tribes: Glomacze
Glomacze
- Dolomici, Milceni, Chutizi and Sitice. The Israeli Slavic linguist Paul Wexler has argued that the Yiddish language structure provides "compelling evidence of an intimate Jewish contact with the Slavs
Slavs
in the German and Bohemian lands as early as the 9th century," and has theorized that Sorbs
Sorbs
may have been contributors to the Ashkenazic Jewish population in Europe
Europe
from the same period.[15][16] High and Late Middle Ages[edit] During the reign of Boleslaw I of Poland
Poland
in 1002-1018, three Polish-German wars were waged which caused Lusatia
Lusatia
to come under the domination of new rulers. In 1018, on the strength of peace in Bautzen, Lusatia
Lusatia
became a part of Poland; however, it returned to German rule before 1031. From the 11th to the 15th century, agriculture in Lusatia
Lusatia
developed and colonization by Frankish, Flemish and Saxon settlers intensified. In 1327 the first prohibitions on using Sorbian in Altenburg, Zwickau
Zwickau
and Leipzig
Leipzig
appeared. Modern history[edit]

"House of the Sorbs" (Serbski dom) in Bautzen

Early modern period[edit] Between 1376 and 1635 Lusatia
Lusatia
was part of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, under the rule of the Luxembourgs, Habsburgs and other kings. From the beginning of the 16th century the whole Sorbian-inhabited area, with the exception of Lusatia, underwent Germanization. In 1635 Lusatia
Lusatia
became a fiefdom of Saxon electors. The Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
and the plague of the 17th century caused terrible devastation in Lusatia. This led to further German colonization and Germanization. In 1667 the Prince of Brandenburg, Frederick Wilhelm, ordered the immediate destruction of all Sorbian printed materials and banned saying masses in this language. At the same time the Evangelical Church supported printing Sorbian religious literature as a means of fighting the Counterreformation. In 1706 the Sorbian Seminary, the main centre for the education of Sorbian Catholic
Catholic
priests, was founded in Prague. Evangelical students of theology formed the Sorbian College of Ministers. Late modern period[edit] The Congress of Vienna, in 1815, gave part of Upper Lusatia
Lusatia
to Saxony, but most of Lusatia
Lusatia
to Prussia. More and more bans on the use of Sorbian languages
Sorbian languages
appeared from then until 1835 in Saxony
Saxony
and Prussia; emigration of the Sorbs, mainly to the town of Serbin in Texas
Texas
and to Australia, increased. In 1848, 5000 Sorbs
Sorbs
signed a petition to the Saxon Government, in which they demanded equality for the Sorbian language with the German one in churches, courts, schools and Government departments. From 1871 the whole of Lusatia
Lusatia
became a part of united Germany
Germany
and was divided between two parts; Prussia
Prussia
(Silesia and Brandenburg), and Saxony. In 1871 the industrialization of the region and German immigration began; official Germanization
Germanization
intensified. Although the Weimar Republic guaranteed constitutional minority rights, it did not practice them.[citation needed] Contemporary history[edit] Throughout the Third Reich, Sorbians were described as a German tribe who spoke a Slavic language and their national poet Handrij Zejler
Handrij Zejler
was German. Sorbian costume, culture, customs, and the language was said to be no indication of a non-German origin. The Reich declared that there were truly no "Sorbs" or "Lusatians", only Wendish-Speaking Germans. As such, while the Sorbs
Sorbs
were largely safe from the Reich's policies of ethnic cleansing, the cultivation of "Wendish" customs and traditions was to be encouraged in a controlled manner and it was expected that the Slavic language would decline due to natural causes. Young Sorbs
Sorbs
enlisted in the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
and were sent to the front. Entangled lives of the Sorbs
Sorbs
during World War II
World War II
are exemplified by life stories of Mina Witkojc, Měrčin Nowak-Njechorński and Jan Skala. The first Lusatian cities were captured in April 1945, when the Red Army and the Polish Second Army
Polish Second Army
crossed the river Queis (Kwisa). The defeat of Nazi Germany
Germany
changed the Sorbs’ situation considerably. The regions in East Germany
Germany
(the German Democratic Republic) faced heavy industrialisation and a large influx of expelled Germans.[citation needed] The East German authorities tried to counteract this development by creating a broad range of Sorbian institutions. The Sorbs
Sorbs
were officially recognized as an ethnic minority, more than 100 Sorbian schools and several academic institutions were founded, the Domowina
Domowina
and its associated societies were re-established and a Sorbian theatre was created. Owing to the suppression of the church and forced collectivization, however, these efforts were severely affected and consequently over time the number of people speaking Sorbian languages
Sorbian languages
decreased by half. Sorbs
Sorbs
caused the communist government of East Germany
Germany
plenty of trouble, mainly because of the high levels of religious observance and resistance to the nationalisation of agriculture. During the compulsory collectivization campaign, a great many unprecedented incidents were reported. Thus, throughout the Uprising of 1953 in East Germany, violent clashes with the police were reported in Lusatia. An open uprising took place in three upper communes of Błot. After the reunification of Germany
Germany
on 3 October 1990, Lusatians made efforts to create an autonomous administrative unit; however, Helmut Kohl’s government did not agree to it. After 1989 the Sorbian movement revived, however, it still encounters many obstacles. Although Germany
Germany
supports national minorities, Sorbs
Sorbs
claim that their aspirations are not sufficiently fulfilled[citation needed]. The desire to unite Lusatia
Lusatia
in one of the federal states has not been taken into consideration. Upper Lusatia
Lusatia
still belongs to Saxony
Saxony
and Lower Lusatia
Lower Lusatia
to Brandenburg. Liquidations of Sorbian schools, even in areas mostly populated by Sorbs, still happen, under the pretext of financial difficulties or demolition of whole villages to create lignite quarries.[citation needed] Faced with growing threat of cultural extinction, the Domowina
Domowina
issued a memorandum in March 2008[17] and called for "help and protection against the growing threat of their cultural extinction, since an ongoing conflict between the German government, Saxony
Saxony
and Brandenburg about the financial distribution of help blocks the financing of almost all Sorbian institutions". The memorandum also demands a reorganisation of competence by ceding responsibility from the Länder to the federal government and an expanded legal status. The call has been issued to all governments and heads of state of the European Union.[18] On 28 May 2008, the Sorbian politician Stanislaw Tillich, member of the governing Christian Democrats, was elected as Minister President of the State of Saxony. Language and culture[edit]

Bautzen, German-Sorbian folk theatre

Main article: Sorbian languages The oldest known relic of Sorbian literature originated in about 1530 – the Bautzen
Bautzen
townsmen’s oath. In 1548 Mikołaj Jakubica – Lower Sorbian vicar, from the village called Lubanice, wrote the first unprinted translation of the New Testament
New Testament
into Lower Sorbian. In 1574 the first Sorbian book was printed: Albin Mollers’ songbook. In 1688 Jurij Hawštyn Swětlik translated the Bible for Catholic Sorbs. From 1706 to 1709 the New Testament
New Testament
was printed in the Upper Sorbian translation was done by Michał Frencel and in Lower Sorbian by Jan Bogumił Fabricius (1681–1741). Jan Bjedrich Fryco (a.k.a. Johann Friedrich Fritze) (1747–1819), translated the Old Testament for the first time into Lower Sorbian, published in 1790. Other Sorbian Bible translators include Jakub Buk (1825–1895), Michał Hórnik (Michael Hornig) (1833–1894), Jurij Łušćanski (a.k.a. Georg Wuschanski) (1839–1905). In 1809 for the short period of time, there was the first printed Sorbian newspaper. In 1767 Jurij Mjeń publishes the first secular Sorbian book. Between 1841 and 1843, Jan Arnošt Smoler and Leopold Haupt published two-volume collection of Wendish folk-songs in Upper and Lower Lusatia. From 1842, the first Sorbian publishing companies started to appear: the poet Handrij Zejler
Handrij Zejler
set up a weekly magazine, the precursor of today’s Sorbian News. In 1845 in Bautzen
Bautzen
the first festival of Sorbian songs took place.

1982 stamps from the East German period

In 1875, Jakub Bart-Ćišinski, the poet and classicist of Upper Sorbian literature, and Karol Arnošt Muka created a movement of young Sorbians influencing Lusatian art, science and literature for the following 50 years. Similar movement in Lower Lusatia
Lower Lusatia
was organized around the most prominent Lower Lusatian poets Mato Kósyk
Mato Kósyk
(Mato Kosyk) and Bogumił Šwjela. In 1904, mainly thanks to the Sorbs’ contribution, the most important Sorbian cultural centre (the Sorbian House) was built in Bautzen. In 1912, the social and cultural organization of Lusatian Sorbs
Sorbs
was created, the Domowina
Domowina
Institution - the union of Sorbian organizations. In 1919 it had 180,000 members. In 1920 Jan Skala
Jan Skala
set up a Sorbian party and in 1925 in Berlin, Skala started Kulturwille- the newspaper for the protection of national minorities in Germany. In 1920 the Sokol
Sokol
Movement was founded (youth movement and gymnastic organization). From 1933 the Nazi party started to repress the Sorbs. At that time the Nazis also dissolved the Sokol
Sokol
Movement and began to combat every sign of Sorbian culture. In 1937 activities of the Domowina
Domowina
Institution and other organizations were banned as anti-national. Sorbian clergymen and teachers were forcedly deported from Lusatia; Nazi German authorities confiscated the Sorbian House, other buildings and crops. On May 10, 1945, in Crostwitz, after the Red Army’s invasion, the Domowina
Domowina
Institution renewed its activity. In 1948 Landtag
Landtag
of Saxony passed an Act guaranteeing protection to Sorbian Lusatians; in 1949 Brandenburg
Brandenburg
resolved a similar law. In the times of the German Democratic Republic, Sorbian organizations were financially supported by the country, but at the same time the authorities encouraged Germanization
Germanization
of Sorbian youth as a means of incorporating them into the system of "building Socialism". Sorbian language and culture could only be publicly presented as long as they promoted socialist ideology. For over 1000 years the Sorbs
Sorbs
were able to maintain and even develop their national culture, despite escalating Germanization
Germanization
and Polonization, mainly due to the high level of religious observance, cultivation of their tradition and strong families (Sorbian families still often have five children). In the middle of the 20th century, the revival of the Central European nations included some Sorbs, who became strong enough to attempt twice to regain their independence. After World War II, the Lusatian National Committee in Prague
Prague
claimed the right to self-government and separation from Germany
Germany
and the creation of a Lusatian Free State or attachment to Czechoslovakia. The majority of the Sorbs
Sorbs
were organized in the Domowina, though, and did not wish to split from Germany.[citation needed] Claims asserted by the Lusatian National movement were postulates of joining Lusatia
Lusatia
to Poland
Poland
or Czechoslovakia. Between 1945–1947 they postulated about ten petitions[19] to the United Nations, the United States, Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, Poland
Poland
and Czechoslovakia, however, it did not bring any results. On April 30, 1946, the Lusatian National Committee also postulated a petition to the Polish Government, signed by Pawoł Cyž – the minister and an official Sorbian delegate in Poland. There was also a project of proclaiming a Lusatian Free State, whose Prime Minister was supposed to be a Polish archaeologist of Lusatian origin- Wojciech Kóčka. The most radical postulates in this area (" Na swobodu so ńečeka, swobodu so beŕe!")[20] were expressed by the Lusatian youth organization- Narodny Partyzan Łužica.

Bilingual names of streets in Cottbus

Similarly, in Czechoslovakia, where before the Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
in Prague, 300,000 people demonstrated for the independence of Lusatia. The endeavours to separate Lusatia
Lusatia
from Germany
Germany
did not succeed because of various individual and geopolitical interests. The following statistics indicates the progression of cultural change among Sorbs: by the end of the 19th century, about 150,000 people spoke Sorbian languages. In 1920 almost all Sorbs
Sorbs
mastered Sorbian and German to the same degree. Nowadays the number of people using Sorbian languages has been estimated to be no more than 40,000. Traditions[edit] Zapust is the most popular tradition of the Sorbs, deeply linked to the working life of the community. Traditionally, festivities would last one week ahead of the spring sowing of the fields and would feature traditional dress, parade and dancing.[21] Egg decorating (pisanici) is a Slavic Easter
Easter
tradition maintained by Sorbs
Sorbs
since the 17th century.[22][better source needed] Regions of Lusatia[edit] There are three main regions of Lusatia
Lusatia
that differ in language, religion and customs. Region of Catholic
Catholic
Lusatia[edit]

The Flag of Upper Lusatia

Catholic
Catholic
Lusatia
Lusatia
encompasses 85 towns in the districts of Bautzen, Kamenz, and Hoyerswerda, where Upper Sorbian
Upper Sorbian
language, customs, and tradition are still thriving. In some of these places (e.g., Radibor or Radwor in Sorbian, Crostwitz
Crostwitz
or Chrósćicy, and Rosenthal or Róžant), Sorbs
Sorbs
constitute the majority of the population, and children grow up speaking Sorbian. On Sundays, during holidays, and at weddings, people wear regional costumes, rich in decoration and embroidery, encrusted with pearls. Some of the customs and traditions observed include Bird Wedding (25 January), Easter
Easter
Cavalcade of Riders, Witch Burning (30 April), Maik, singing on St. Martin's Day
St. Martin's Day
(Nicolay), and the celebrations of Saint Barbara’s Day and Saint Nicholas’s Day. Region of Hoyerswerda
Hoyerswerda
(Wojerecy) and Schleife
Schleife
(Slepo)[edit] In the area from Hoyerswerda
Hoyerswerda
to Schleife, a dialect of Sorbian which combines characteristic features of both Upper and Lower Sorbian
Lower Sorbian
is spoken. The region is predominantly Protestant, highly devastated by the brown coal mining industry, sparsely populated, and to a great extent germanicized. Most speakers of Sorbian are over 60 years old. The region distinguishes itself through many examples of Slavic wooden architecture monuments including churches and regular houses, a diversity of regional costumes (mainly worn by elderly women) that feature white-knitting with black, cross-like embroidery, and a tradition of playing bagpipes. In several villages, residents uphold traditional festivities such as expelling of winter, Maik, Easter
Easter
and Great Friday
Great Friday
singing, and the celebration of dźěćetko (disguised child or young girl giving Christmas
Christmas
presents). Region of Lower Lusatia[edit]

The Flag of Lower Lusatia

There are 60 towns from the area of Cottbus
Cottbus
belonging to this region, where most of the older people over 60 but few young people and children can speak the Lower Sorbian
Lower Sorbian
language; the local variant often incorporates many words taken from the German language, and in conversations with the younger generation, German is generally preferred. Some primary schools in the region teach bilingually, and in Cottbus
Cottbus
there is an important Gymnasium whose main medium of instruction is Lower Sorbian. The region is predominantly Protestant, again highly devastated by the brown coal mining industry. The biggest tourist attraction of the region and in the whole Lusatia
Lusatia
are the marshlands, with many Spreewald/Błóta canals, picturesque broads of the Spree. Worn mainly by older but on holidays by young women, regional costumes are colourful, including a large headscarf called "lapa", rich in golden embroidering and differing from village to village. In some villages, following traditions are observed: Shrovetide, Maik, Easter
Easter
bonfires, Roosters catching/hunting. In Jänschwalde (Sorbian: Janšojcach) so-called Janšojki bog (disguised young girl) gives Christmas
Christmas
presents. Genetics[edit] According to a 2015 study, the most common Y-DNA haplogroup among the Sorbs
Sorbs
in Lusatia
Lusatia
(n=123) is R1a, which is carried by 65% of the Sorb males. It is followed in frequency by I1 (9.8%), R1b (9.8%), E1b1b (4.9%), I2 (4.1%), J (3.3%) and G (2.4%). Other haplogroups are less than 1%.[23] A study from 2003, reported a similar frequency of 63.4% of haplogroup R1a among Sorbian males (n=112).[24] Other studies that covered aspects of Sorbian Y-DNA include Rodig et al. 2007[25], Immel et al. 2006[26] and Krawczak et al. 2008.[27] A 2011 paper on the Sorbs' autosomal DNA reported that the Sorbs
Sorbs
showed greatest autosomal genetic similarity to Poles
Poles
and Czechs, consistent with the linguistic proximity of Sorbian to other West Slavic languages.[28] In Harvard's Human Origins dataset, Sorbs
Sorbs
cluster autosomally with Poles.[29] See also: Greater Poland
Poland
§ Genetics Lusatian anthem[edit] Main article: Lusatian anthem in Lower Sorbian[edit]

New Lower Sorbian
Lower Sorbian
- Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Flag

Rědna Łužyca

Rědna Łužyca, spšawna, pśijazna, mojich serbskich woścow kraj, mojich glucnych myslow raj, swěte su mě twoje strony. Cas ty pśichodny, zakwiś radostny! Och, gab muže stanuli, za swoj narod źěłali, godne nimjer wobspomnjeśa!

in Upper Sorbian[edit]

New Upper Sorbian
Upper Sorbian
- Saxon Flag since 2006

Rjana Łužica

Rjana Łužica, sprawna přećelna, mojich serbskich wótcow kraj, mojich zbóžnych sonow raj, swjate su mi twoje hona! Časo přichodny, zakćěj radostny! Ow, zo bychu z twojeho klina wušli mužojo, hódni wěčnoh wopomnjeća!

The Sorbs
Sorbs
and Poland[edit]

Lusatia
Lusatia
was part of the Polish state between 1002 and 1031 under the rule of Bolesław I.

Bolesław I had taken control of the marches of Lusatia
Lusatia
(Łużyce), Sorbian Meissen
Meissen
(Miśnia), and the cities of Budziszyn (Bautzen) and Meissen
Meissen
in 1002, and refused to pay the tribute to the Empire
Empire
from the conquered territories. Bolesław, after the Polish-German War (1002–1018), signed the Peace of Bautzen
Bautzen
on 30 January 1018, which made Bolesław I a clear winner. The Polish ruler was able to keep the contested marches of Lusatia
Lusatia
and Sorbian Meissennot as fiefs, but as part of Polish territory.[30][31] The Polish prince Mieszko destroyed a 100 Sorbian villages in 1030 and expelled them from urban areas, exception made of fisherman and carpenters, who were allowed to live in the outskirts.[32] One of the pioneers of the cooperation between the two nations was Polish historian Wilhelm Bogusławski, who lived in the 19th century and wrote the first book on Polish-Sorbian history Rys dziejów serbołużyckich (Polish title), it was published in Saint Petersburg in 1861. The book was expanded and published again in cooperation with Michał Hórnik in 1884 in Bautzen, under a new title Historije serbskeho naroda. Alfons Parczewski was another friend of Sorbs, who from 1875 was involved in Sorbs' rights protection, participating in Sorbian meetings in Bautzen. It was thanks to him, among others, that Józef Ignacy Kraszewski
Józef Ignacy Kraszewski
founded a scholarship for Sorbian students. An association of friends of Sorbian Nation was established at the University of Warsaw
University of Warsaw
in 1936 (Polish full name: Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Narodu Serbo-Łużyckiego). It gathered people not only from the university. Its president was Professor Stanisław Słoński, and the deputy president was Julia Wieleżyńska. The association was a legal entity. There were three individual organizations devoted to Sorbian matters. Prołuż founded in Krotoszyn, expanded to all Poland (3000 members). It was the biggest non-communist organization that dealt with foreign affairs. This youth organization was created during the Soviet occupation and its motto was "Polish guard over Lusatia" (pl. Nad Łużycami polska straż). Its highest activity was in Greater Poland
Poland
(Polish: Wielkopolska, a district of western Poland). After the creation of East Germany, Prołuż was dissolved, and its president historian from Poznań Alojzy Stanisław Matyniak was arrested.[33] Diaspora[edit] During the 1840s, many Sorbian émigrés travelled to Australia, along with many ethnic Germans. The first was Jan Rychtar, a Wendish Moravian Brethren
Moravian Brethren
missionary who settled in Sydney
Sydney
during 1844.[34] There were two major migrations of Upper Sorbs
Sorbs
and Lower Sorbs
Sorbs
to Australia, in 1848 and 1850 respectively. The diaspora settled mainly in South Australia
Australia
– especially the Barossa Valley
Barossa Valley
– as well as Victoria and New South Wales. Many Wends
Wends
also migrated from Lusatia
Lusatia
to the United States, especially Texas.[35] See also[edit]

List of Sorbs Lusatia Polabian Slavs Serbs Wends Milceni Pavle Jurišić Šturm Wendish People's Party Wends
Wends
of Texas List of Medieval Slavic tribes

References[edit]

^ Catherine Hickley. Germany's Sorb Minority Fights to Save Villages From Vattenfall. Bloomberg. December 18, 2007. ^ " Sorbs
Sorbs
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Sources[edit]

Stone, Gerald (2015). The Smallest Slavonic Nation: The Sorbs
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Bibliography[edit]

Filip Gańczak Mniejszość w czasach popkultury, Newsweek, nr 22/2007, 03.06.2007. W kręgu Krabata. Szkice o Juriju Brězanie, literaturze, kulturze i językach łużyckich, pod red. J.Zarka, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego, Katowice, 2002. Mirosław Cygański, Rafał Leszczyński Zarys dziejów narodowościowych Łużyczan PIN, Instytut Śląski, Opole 1997. Die Sorben in Deutschland, pod red. M.Schiemann, Stiftung für das sorbische Volk, Görlitz 1997. Mały informator o Serbołużyczanach w Niemczech, pod red. J.Pětrowej, Załožba za serbski lud, 1997. Dolnoserbske nałogi/Obyczaje Dolnych Łużyc, pod red. M.Stock, Załožba za serbski lud, 1997. "Rys dziejów serbołużyckich" Wilhelm Bogusławski Piotrogród 1861 "Prołuż Akademicki Związek Przyjaciół Łużyc" Jakub Brodacki. Polska Grupa Marketingowa 2006 ISBN 83-60151-00-8. "Polska wobec Łużyc w drugiej połowie XX wieku. Wybrane problemy", Mieczkowska Małgorzata, Szczecin 2006 ISBN 83-7241-487-4. "A Rock Against Alien Waves: A History of the Wends". Charles Wukasch. Austin: Concordia University Press, 2004. "Sorbs," David Zersen, in Germans and the Americas: Culture, Politics and History, 3 vols., edited by Thomas Adam. ABC-CLIO, 2005.

External links[edit]

 "Sorbs". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). 1911.  The Domowina
Domowina
Institution SERBSKE NOWINY - Sorbian Newspaper SERBSKI INSTITUT - Sorbian history and culture - independent Sorbian internet magazine in Upper Sorbian
Upper Sorbian
(hsb) Sorbian emigration into Australia Project Rastko - Lusatia, Electronic Library of Sorbian-Serbian Ties Texas
Texas
Wendish Heritage Society Wendish Heritage Society of Australia

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