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The SOPWITH CAMEL was a British First World War
First World War
single-seat biplane fighter aircraft introduced on the Western Front in 1917. It was developed by the Sopwith Aviation Company as a successor to the earlier Sopwith Pup
Sopwith Pup
and became one of the most iconic fighter aircraft of the First World War.

The Camel
Camel
was powered by a single rotary engine and was armed with twin synchronized machine guns. Though proving difficult to handle, it provided for a high level of manoeuvrability to an experienced pilot, an attribute which was highly valued in the type's principal use as a fighter aircraft. In total, Camel
Camel
pilots have been credited with the shooting down of 1,294 enemy aircraft, more than any other Allied fighter of the conflict. Towards the end of the Great War, the type had also seen use as a ground-attack aircraft, partially due to it having become increasingly outclassed as the capabilities of fighter aircraft on both sides was rapidly advancing at that time.

The main variant of the Camel
Camel
was designated as the F.1; several dedicated variants were built for a variety of roles, including the 2F.1 Ship's Camel, which was used for operating from the flight decks of aircraft carriers , the COMIC night fighter variant, and the T.F.1, a dedicated 'trench fighter' that had been armoured for the purpose of conducting ground attacks upon heavily defended enemy lines. The Camel also saw use as a two-seat trainer aircraft. In January 1920, the last aircraft of the type were withdrawn from RAF service.

CONTENTS

* 1 Development

* 2 Design

* 2.1 Overview * 2.2 Flight characteristics

* 3 Operational history

* 3.1 Western front * 3.2 Home defence and night fighting * 3.3 Shipboard and Parasite fighter * 3.4 Ground attack * 3.5 Postwar service

* 4 Variants

* 4.1 Sopwith Camel
Camel
F.1 * 4.2 Sopwith Camel
Camel
2F.1 * 4.3 Sopwith Camel
Camel
"Comic" Night fighter
Night fighter
* 4.4 F.1/1 * 4.5 T.F.1 * 4.6 Trainer

* 5 Operators

* 6 Survivors

* 6.1 Reproductions

* 7 Specifications (F.1 Camel) * 8 Notable appearances in media * 9 See also

* 10 References

* 10.1 Notes * 10.2 Citations * 10.3 Bibliography

* 11 External links

DEVELOPMENT

Harry Cobby sitting in the cockpit of a Sopwith Camel
Camel

The Camel's predecessor, the Sopwith Pup
Sopwith Pup
, was no longer competitive against newer German fighters such as the Albatros D.III , and thus the Camel
Camel
was developed specifically to replace the Pup, as well as the Nieuport 17s that had been purchased from the French as an interim measure. It was recognised that the new fighter needed to be faster and have a heavier armament. The design effort to produce this successor, initially designated as the _Sopwith F.1_, was headed by Sopwith's chief designer, Herbert Smith .

Early in its development, the new aircraft was simply referred to as the _"Big Pup"_. A metal fairing over the gun breeches, intended to protect the guns from freezing at altitude, created a "hump" that led pilots to refer to the aircraft by the name Camel
Camel
. However, the Camel name never had any official status in regards to the aircraft. On 22 December 1916, the prototype Camel
Camel
was first flown by Harry Hawker at Brooklands
Brooklands
, Weybridge , Surrey
Surrey
, it was powered by a 110 hp Clerget 9Z.

In May 1917, the first production contract for an initial batch of 250 Camels was issued by the British War Office . Throughout 1917, a total of 1,325 Camels were manufactured, consisting almost entirely of the initial F.1 variant. By the time that production of the type came to an end, approximately 5,490 Camels of all types had been built. In early 1918, production of the navalised "Ship's" Camel
Camel
2F.1 began.

DESIGN

OVERVIEW

Replica Sopwith Camel
Camel
showing internal structure

The Camel
Camel
had a mostly conventional design for its era, featuring a wooden box-like fuselage structure, an aluminium engine cowling, plywood panels around the cockpit, and fabric-covered fuselage, wings and tail. While possessing some clear similarities with the Pup, it was furnished with a noticeably bulkier fuselage. For the first time on an operational British-designed fighter, two 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns were mounted directly in front of the cockpit, synchronised to fire forwards through the propeller disc. In addition to the machine guns, a total of four Cooper bombs could be carried for ground attack purposes.

The bottom wing was rigged with 3° dihedral while the top wing lacked any dihedral; this meant that the gap between the wings was less at the tips than at the roots; this change had been made at the suggestion of Fred Sigrist , the Sopwith works manager, as a measure to simplify the aircraft's construction. The upper wing featured a central cutout section for the purpose of providing improved upwards visibility for the pilot.

Production Camels were powered by various rotary engines , most commonly either the Clerget 9B or the Bentley BR1 . In order to evade a potential manufacturing bottleneck being imposed upon the overall aircraft in the event of an engine shortage, several other engines were also adopted to power the type as well.

FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS

Unlike the preceding Pup and Triplane , the Camel
Camel
was considered to be difficult to fly. The type owed both its extreme manoeuvrability and its difficult handling to the close placement of the engine, pilot, guns and fuel tank (some 90% of the aircraft's weight) within the front seven feet of the aircraft, and to the strong gyroscopic effect of the rotating mass of the cylinders common to rotary engines . Aviation author Robert Jackson notes that: "in the hands of a novice it displayed vicious characteristics that could make it a killer; but under the firm touch of a skilled pilot, who knew how to turn its vices to his own advantage, it was one of the most superb fighting machines ever built".

The Camel
Camel
soon gained an unfortunate reputation with pilots. Some inexperienced pilots crashed on take-off when the full fuel load pushed the aircraft's centre of gravity beyond the rearmost safe limits. When in level flight, the Camel
Camel
was markedly tail-heavy. Unlike the Sopwith Triplane, the Camel
Camel
lacked a variable incidence tailplane, so that the pilot had to apply constant forward pressure on the control stick to maintain a level attitude at low altitude. The aircraft could be rigged so that at higher altitudes it could be flown "hands off". A stall immediately resulted in a dangerous spin .

A two-seat trainer version of the Camel
Camel
was later built to ease the transition process: in his _Recollections of an Airman_ Lt Col L.A. Strange, who served with the central flying school, wrote: "In spite of the care we took, Camels continually spun down out of control when flew by pupils on their first solos. At length, with the assistance of Lieut Morgan, who managed our workshops, I took the main tank out of several Camels and replaced with a smaller one, which enabled us to fit in dual control." Such conversions, and dual instruction, went some way to alleviating the previously unacceptable casualties incurred during the critical type-specific solo training stage.

OPERATIONAL HISTORY

WESTERN FRONT

Camels being prepared for a sortie.

In June 1917, the Sopwith Camel
Camel
entered service with No. 4 Squadron of the Royal Naval Air Service , which was stationed near Dunkirk , France; this was the first Squadron to operate the type. Its first combat flight and reportedly its first victory claim were both made on 4 July 1917. By the end of July 1917, the Camel
Camel
also equipped No. 3 and No. 9 Naval Squadrons; and it had become operational with No. 70 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps
Royal Flying Corps
. By February 1918, 13 squadrons had Camels as their primary equipment.

The Camel
Camel
proved to have better manoeuvrability than the Albatros D.III and D.V and offered heavier armament and better performance than the Pup and Triplane. Its controls were light and sensitive. The Camel turned more slowly to the left, which resulted in a nose-up attitude due to the torque of the rotary engine. But the engine torque also resulted in the ability to turn to the right quicker than other fighters, although that resulted in a tendency towards a nose-down attitude from the turn. Because of the faster turning capability to the right, to change heading 90° to the left, some pilots preferred to do it by turning 270° to the right.

Agility in combat made the Camel
Camel
one of the best-remembered Allied aircraft of the First World War
First World War
. RFC crew used to joke that it offered the choice between "a wooden cross , the Red Cross , or a Victoria Cross " Together with the S.E.5a and the SPAD S.XIII , the Camel
Camel
helped to re-establish the Allied aerial superiority that lasted well into 1918.

Major William Barker 's Sopwith Camel
Camel
(serial no . _B6313_, the aircraft in which he scored the majority of his victories), was used to shoot down 46 aircraft and balloons from September 1917 to September 1918 in 404 operational flying hours, more than any other single RAF fighter.

HOME DEFENCE AND NIGHT FIGHTING

An important role for the Camel
Camel
was home defence. The RNAS flew Camels from Eastchurch and Manston airfields against daylight raids by German bombers, including Gothas , from July 1917. The public outcry against the night raids and the poor response of London's defences resulted in the RFC deciding to divert Camels that had been heading to the frontlines in France
France
to Britain for the purposes of home defence; in July 1917, 44 Squadron RFC reformed and reequipped with the Camel to conduct the home defence mission. By March 1918, the home defence squadrons had been widely equipped with the Camel; by August 1918, a total of seven home defence squadrons were operating Camels.

When the Germans switched to performing their attacks during nighttime, the Camel
Camel
proved capable of being flown at night as well. Accordingly, those aircraft assigned to home defence squadrons were quickly modified with navigation lights in order that they could serve as night fighters. A smaller number of Camels were more extensively reconfigured; on these aircraft, the Vickers machine guns were replaced by overwing Lewis guns and the cockpit was moved rearwards so the pilot could reload the guns. This modification, which became known as the "Sopwith Comic" allowed the guns to be fired without affecting the pilot's night vision, and allowed the use of new, more effective incendiary ammunition that was considered unsafe to fire from synchronised Vickers guns.

The Camel
Camel
was successfully used to intercept and shoot down German bombers on multiple occasions during 1918, serving in this capacity through to the final German bombing raid upon Britain on the night of the 20/21 May 1918. During this final air raid, a combined force of 74 Camels and Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5s intercepted 28 Gothas and Zeppelin-Staaken R.VIs ; three German bombers were shot down, while two more were downed by anti-aircraft fire from the ground and a further aircraft was lost to engine failure, the heaviest losses suffered by German bombers during a single night's operation over England. _ Navalised Camels on the aircraft carrier HMS Furious_ prior to raiding the Tondern airship hangars

The Camel
Camel
night fighter was also operated by 151 Squadron to intercept German night bombers operating over the Western Front. These aircraft were not only deployed defensively, but often carried out night intruder missions against German airstrips. After five months of operations, 151 Squadron had claimed responsibility for downing a total of 26 German aircraft.

SHIPBOARD AND PARASITE FIGHTER

Sopwith 2F.1 Camel
Camel
suspended from airship R 23 prior to a test flight

The RNAS operated a number of 2F.1 Camels that were suitable for launching from platforms mounted on the turrets of major warships as well as from some of the earliest aircraft carriers to be built. Furthermore, the Camel
Camel
could be deployed from _aircraft lighters_, which were specially-modified barges; these had to be towed fast enough that a Camel
Camel
could successfully take off. The aircraft lighters served as means of launching interception sorties against incoming enemy air raids from a more advantageous position than had been possible when using shore bases alone.

During the summer of 1918, a single 2F.1 Camel
Camel
(_N6814_) participated in a series of trials as a parasite fighter . The aircraft used Airship
Airship
_R23 _ as a mothership .

GROUND ATTACK

By mid-1918, the Camel
Camel
had become obsolescent as a day fighter as its climb rate, level speed and performance at altitudes over 12,000 ft (3,650 m) were outclassed by the latest German fighters, such as the Fokker D.VII . However, it remained viable as a ground-attack and infantry support aircraft and instead was increasingly used in that capacity. The Camel
Camel
inflicted high losses on German ground forces, albeit suffering from a high rate of losses itself in turn, through the dropping of 25 lb (11 kg) Cooper bombs and low-level strafing runs. The protracted development of the Camel's replacement, the Sopwith Snipe
Sopwith Snipe
, resulted in the Camel
Camel
remaining in service in this capacity until well after the signing of the Armistice
Armistice
.

During the German Spring Offensive of March 1918, squadrons of Camels participated in the defence of the Allied lines, harassing the advancing German Army from the skies. Jackson observed that "some of the most intense air operations took place" during the retreat of the British Fifth Army , in which the Camel
Camel
provided extensive aerial support. Camels flew at multiple altitudes, some as low as 500 feet for surprise strafing attacks upon ground forces, while being covered from attack by hostile fighters by the higher altitude aircraft. Strafing attacks formed a major component of British efforts to contain the offensive, the attacks often having the result of producing confusion and panic amongst the advancing German forces. As the March offensive waned, the Camel
Camel
was able to operate within and maintain aerial superiority for the remainder of the war.

POSTWAR SERVICE

In the aftermath of the First World War, the Camel
Camel
saw further combat action. Multiple British squadrons were deployed into Russia
Russia
as a part of the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War . Between the Camel
Camel
and the S.E.5, which were the two main types deployed to the Caspian Sea area in order to bomb Bolshevik
Bolshevik
bases and to provide aerial support to the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
warships present, Allied control of the Caspian region had been achieved by May 1919. Starting in March 1919, direct support was also provided for White Russian forces , carrying out reconnaissance, ground attack, and escort operations. During the summer of 1919, Camels of No. 47 Squadron conducted offensive operations in the vicinity of Tsaritsyn , primarily against Urbabk airfield ; targets including enemy aircraft, cavalry formations, and river traffic. In September 1919, 47 Squadron was related to Kotluban , where its aircraft operations mainly focused on harassing enemy communication lines. During late 1919 and early 1920, the RAF detachment operated in support of General Vladimir May-Mayevsky 's counter-revolutionary volunteer army during intense fighting around Kharkov
Kharkov
. In March 1920, the remainder of the force was evacuated and their remaining aircraft were deliberately destroyed to avoid them falling into enemy hands.

VARIANTS

Camels were powered by several rotary engines :

* 130 hp Clerget 9B rotary (standard powerplant) * 140 hp Clerget 9Bf rotary * 110 hp Le Rhône 9J rotary * 150 hp Bentley BR1 rotary (gave best performance – standard for R.N.A.S. machines) * 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape 9B-2 rotary * 150 hp Gnome Monosoupape 9N rotary

SOPWITH CAMEL F.1

The F.1 was the main production version. It was armed with twin synchronised Vickers guns. The Sopwith 2F.1 Camel
Camel
used to shoot down Zeppelin
Zeppelin
L 53 , at the Imperial War Museum
Imperial War Museum
, London. Note mounting of twin Lewis guns over the top wing

SOPWITH CAMEL 2F.1

The 2F.1 was a shipboard variant, flown from HMS _Furious_ (47) . It had a slightly shorter wingspan and a Bentley BR1 as its standard engine. Additionally, one Vickers gun was replaced by an overwing Lewis gun .

SOPWITH CAMEL "COMIC" NIGHT FIGHTER

The "Comic" was a Camel
Camel
variant designed specifically for night-fighting duties. The twin Vickers guns were replaced by two Lewis guns on Foster mountings firing forward over the top wing, as the muzzle flash of the Vickers guns could blind the pilot. To allow reloading of the guns, the pilot was moved about 12 inches (30 cm) to the rear and to compensate the fuel tank was moved forward. It served with Home Defence Squadrons against German air raids. The "Comic" nickname was unofficial, and was shared with the night fighter version of the Sopwith 1½ Strutter .

F.1/1

The F1/1 was a version with tapered wings.

T.F.1

The T.F.1 was an experimental trench fighter used for development work for Sopwith Salamander . Its machine guns were angled downwards for efficient strafing , and it featured armour plating for protection.

TRAINER

The trainer variant had a second cockpit behind the normal pilot's position. The weapons were removed, although the hump was sometimes kept.

OPERATORS

Belgian Sopwith Camel
Camel
flown by Adj. Léon Cremers with n° 11 Squadron "Cocotte" marking Portrait of Major Wilfred Ashton McCloughry MC, the Commanding Officer of No. 4 Squadron AFC, and his Sopwith Camel, 6 June 1918 A downed Sopwith Camel
Camel
near Zillebeke , West Flanders , Belgium
Belgium
, 26 September 1917 Australia
Australia

* Australian Flying Corps

* No. 4 Squadron AFC in France. * No. 5 (Training) Squadron AFC in the United Kingdom. * No. 6 (Training) Squadron AFC in the United Kingdom. * No. 8 (Training) Squadron AFC in the United Kingdom.

Belgium
Belgium

* Aviation Militaire Belge

* 1ère Escadrille de Chasse

* Groupe de Chasse

* 9ème Escadrille de Chasse * 11ème Escadrille de Chasse

Canada
Canada

* Royal Canadian Air Force

Estonia
Estonia

* Estonian Air Force

France
France

* French Government

* Georgian Air Force - 3-4 aircraft, 1920

Greece
Greece

* Hellenic Navy

Latvia
Latvia

* Latvian Air Force

Netherlands
Netherlands

* Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Air Force

Poland
Poland

* Polish Air Force operated 1 Camel
Camel
post-war (1921)

Russia
Russia

* Imperial Russian Air Service

Soviet Union
Soviet Union

* Soviet Air Force - Postwar.

United Kingdom
United Kingdom

* Royal Flying Corps
Royal Flying Corps
/ Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force

* 3 Squadron * 17 Squadron * 28 Squadron * 37 Squadron * 43 Squadron * 44 Squadron * 45 Squadron * 46 Squadron * 47 Squadron * 50 Squadron * 51 Squadron * 54 Squadron * 61 Squadron

* 65 Squadron * 66 Squadron * 70 Squadron * 71 Squadron * 73 Squadron * 75 Squadron * 78 Squadron * 80 Squadron * 81 Squadron * 89 Squadron * 94 Squadron * 112 Squadron * 139 Squadron

* 143 Squadron * 150 Squadron * 151 Squadron * 152 Squadron * 155 Squadron * 187 Squadron * 188 Squadron * 189 Squadron * 198 Squadron * 201 Squadron * 203 Squadron * 204 Squadron * 208 Squadron

* 209 Squadron * 210 Squadron * 212 Squadron * 213 Squadron * 219 Squadron * 220 Squadron * 222 Squadron * 225 Squadron * 230 Squadron * 233 Squadron * 273 Squadron

* Royal Naval Air Service

* No. 1 Squadron RNAS * No. 3 Squadron RNAS * No. 4 Squadron RNAS * No. 6 Squadron RNAS * No. 8 Squadron RNAS * No. 9 Squadron RNAS * No. 10 Squadron RNAS * No. 12 Squadron RNAS * No. 13 Squadron RNAS

USAS Sopwith Camel
Camel
United States
United States

* American Expeditionary Force

* United States
United States
Army Air Service

* 9th Aero Squadron * 17th Aero Squadron * 27th Aero Squadron * 37th Aero Squadron * 148th Aero Squadron

* United States
United States
Navy

SURVIVORS

Media related to Sopwith Camel
Camel
museum aircraft at Wikimedia Commons Sopwith Camel
Camel
at the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
Museum

There are only eight known original Sopwith Camels left:

* B5747 – F.1 on static display at the Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and Military History in Brussels
Brussels
. * B6291 – F.1 airworthy with the Javier Arango Collection in Paso Robles, California . It was previously owned by Anthony John Edmund Ditheridge in the United Kingdom. * B7280 – F.1 on static display at the Polish Aviation Museum in Kraków, Lesser Poland
Poland
. The aircraft was built in Lincoln by Clayton & Shuttleworth . On 5 September 1918, when being flown by Captain Herbert A. Patey of No. 210 Squadron RAF over Belgium, it was shot down by Ludwig Beckmann of _ Jasta 56 _. Patey survived and was taken prisoner. The Germans repaired the aircraft and flew it until the end of the war. It was then taken to Berlin and exhibited in an air museum. During World War II it was moved to Poland
Poland
for safekeeping, and put into storage. Restoration began in 2007 and was completed by 2010. * C8228 – F.1 on static display at the National Naval Aviation Museum in Pensacola, Florida . * F6314 – F.1 on static display at the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
Museum London
London
in London
London
. It was built by Boulton "> It was previously registered as N6254.

REPRODUCTIONS

_ Media related to Sopwith Camel
Camel
replicas at Wikimedia Commons Replica of Camel
Camel
F.1 flown by Lt. George Vaughn Jr., 17th Aero Squadron at the USAF Museum

* Replica – Type T.57 on static display at the Fleet Air Arm Museum at RNAS Yeovilton near Yeovil, Somerset . It was built in 1969 Slingsby for use in a Biggles film. It has a Warner Scarab engine installed and is painted as B6401_. * Replica – F.1 on static display at the National Museum of the United States
United States
Air Force in Dayton, Ohio
Dayton, Ohio
. This aircraft was built by museum personnel from original First World War
First World War
factory drawings and was completed in 1974. It is painted and marked as the Camel
Camel
flown by Lt. George A. Vaughn Jr. while flying with the 17th Aero Squadron . * Replica – F.1 airworthy at the Cavanaugh Flight Museum
Cavanaugh Flight Museum
in Addison, Texas . It was built by Dick Day from original factory drawings. The aircraft is fitted with original instruments, machine guns and an original Gnome rotary engine. It is painted in the scheme of the World War I
World War I
flying ace Captain Arthur Roy Brown, a Canadian who flew with the Royal Air Force. * Replica – F.1 on display at the Brooklands
Brooklands
Museum in Weybridge, Surrey
Surrey
. It was built in 1977 by Viv Bellamy at Lands End, as a flyable reproduction for Leisure Sport Ltd. Painted to represent _B7270_ of 209 Squadron, RAF, the machine which Captain Roy Brown flew when officially credited with downing Baron Manfred von Richthofen , it has a Clerget rotary engine of 1916 and was registered as G-BFCZ until 2003. First displayed at the museum in January 1988 for Sir Thomas Sopwith ’s 100th birthday celebrations, it was purchased by the museum later that year. * Replica – Unknown airworthy at the Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome in Red Hook, New York . It was completed in 1992 with a 160 hp Gnome Monosoupape model 9N rotary, built by Nathaniel deFlavia and Cole Palen. It replaced one of the Dick Day-built and -flown Camel reproductions formerly flown at Old Rhinebeck by Mr. Day in their weekend vintage airshows, which had left the Aerodrome's collection some years earlier. * Replica – F.1 airworthy with the Javier Arango Collection in Paso Robles, California. It was constructed by Dick Day, is powered by a 160 hp Gnome Monosoupape rotary, and is registered as _N8343_. * Replica – Unknown airworthy with the Vintage Aviator Collection in Masterton, New Zealand . It was originally built by Carl Swanson for Gerry Thornhill. It is powered by a 160 hp Gnome Monosoupape rotary engine and is painted as _B3889_. * Replica – F.1 on static display at the Canadian Museum of Flight in Langley, British Columbia . Lacking an engine, a full reproduction 130 hp rotary engine has been installed. * Replica – F.1 on static display at the Aviation Heritage Museum in Bull Creek, Western Australia
Australia
. The engine is original and the propeller is suspected to also be genuine. * Replica – F.1 undergoing work to airworthy at the Shuttleworth Collection in Old Warden, Bedfordshire . It was built by the Northern Aeroplane Workshops. * Replica – F.1 under construction by Koz Aero in Comstock Park, Michigan . It is based on original factory drawings and using many original parts, including an original engine and instruments. * Replica – F.1 under construction by John S. Shaw. It has an original Le Clerget 130 9B engine. * Replica – F.1 under construction by John S. Shaw. It has a new build Gnome Monosoupe 100 hp engine. * Replica – F.1 on static display at Montrose Air Station Heritage Centre in Montrose, Angus . It is painted as _B5577_.

SPECIFICATIONS (F.1 CAMEL)

Sopwith F.1 Camel
Camel
drawing Pilot's view from the cockpit of a Camel, June 1918

_Data from_ Quest for Performance, Profile Publications

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

* CREW: 1 * LENGTH: 18 ft 9 in (5.72 m) * WINGSPAN : 28 ft 0 in (8.53 m) * HEIGHT: 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) * WING AREA: 231 ft2 (21.46 m2) * EMPTY WEIGHT : 930 lb (420 kg) * LOADED WEIGHT: 1,453 lb (659 kg) * ZERO-LIFT DRAG COEFFICIENT : 0.0378 * DRAG AREA : 8.73 square feet (0.811 m2) * ASPECT RATIO : 4.11 * POWERPLANT : 1 × Clerget 9B 9-cylinder Rotary engine , 130 hp (97 kW)

PERFORMANCE

* MAXIMUM SPEED : 113 mph (182 km/h) * STALL SPEED : 48 mph (77 km/h) * RANGE : 300 mi ferry (485 km) * SERVICE CEILING : 19,000 ft (5,791 m) * RATE OF CLIMB : 1,085 ft/min (5.5 m/s) * WING LOADING : 6.3 lb/ft2 (30.8 kg/m2)

* POWER/MASS : 0.09 hp/lb (150 W/kg) * LIFT-TO-DRAG RATIO : 7.7

ARMAMENT

* GUNS: 2× 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns

NOTABLE APPEARANCES IN MEDIA

Snoopy
Snoopy
piloting his "Sopwith Camel"

Biggles flies a Sopwith Camel
Camel
in the novels by W.E. Johns during Biggles's spell in 266 Squadron during the First World War. The first collection of Biggles stories, titled _The Camels are Coming_, was published in 1932.

The Camel
Camel
is the "plane" of Snoopy
Snoopy
in the _ Peanuts _ comic strip, when he imagines himself as a World War I
World War I
flying ace and the nemesis of the Red Baron .

SEE ALSO

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

* Albatros D.V * Fokker D.VI * Fokker D.VII * Hanriot HD.1 * Nieuport 27 * Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5 * SPAD S.XIII * Vickers F.B.19

Related lists

* List of aircraft of the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ As compared with radial engines in which a conventional rotating crankshaft is driven by a fixed engine block. * ^ The ammunition in question was the RTS (Richard Thelfall and Sons) round, a combined incendiary and explosive round with a nitroglycerin and phosphorus filling. While more effective than earlier incendiary bullets like the phosphorus filled Buckingham bullet , they required careful handling, and were initially banned from synchronised weapons, both because of fears about the consequences of bullets striking the propeller of the fighter, and to prevent cooking off of the sensitive ammunition in the chambers of the Vickers guns, which fired from a closed bolt - a required feature for guns used in synchronized mounts - where heat could build up much quicker than in the open bolted Lewis gun.

CITATIONS

* ^ Mason 1992, p. 89. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Bruce _Flight_ 22 April 1955, p. 527. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bruce 1965, p. 3. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Jackson 2007, p. 2. * ^ Bruce 1965, pp. 4-5. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bruce 1965, p. 5. * ^ Bruce _Flight_ 29 April 1955, p. 563. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bruce 1965, p. 6. * ^ Bruce 1965, pp. 3-5. * ^ Bruce 1968, pp. 148-149. * ^ Bruce 1965, pp. 7-8. * ^ Bruce 1965, pp. 5-6. * ^ _A_ _B_ Jackson 2005, pp.15–16. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bruce 1965, p. 9. * ^ _A_ _B_ Jackson 2007, p. 3. * ^ Clark 1973, p. 134. * ^ Leinburger 2008, p. 30. * ^ Ralph 1999, p. 80. * ^ _A_ _B_ Davis 1999, p. 96. * ^ Davis 1999, p. 98. * ^ _A_ _B_ Davis 1999, p. 97. * ^ Bruce 1968, p. 151, 153. * ^ Williams and Gustin 2003, pp. 11, 14. * ^ Jackson 2007, pp. 3-6. * ^ Jackson 2007, p. 6. * ^ _A_ _B_ Davis 1999, pp. 98–99. * ^ Fitzsimons, p.521. * ^ _A_ _B_ Jackson 2007, pp. 7-8. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Jackson 2007, p. 8. * ^ Jackson 2007, pp. 8-10. * ^ _A_ _B_ Jackson 2007, p. 10. * ^ "Sopwith 2F.1 Ship\'s Camel". _Their Flying Machines_. Retrieved 10 June 2016. * ^ Mason 1992, p. 91. * ^ Davis 1999, p. 102. * ^ "9 Bomb Squadron (ACC)." _Air Force Historical Research Agency_. Retrieved: 19 December 2010. * ^ "17 Weapons Squadron (ACC)." _Air Force Historical Research Agency_. Retrieved: 19 December 2010. * ^ "27 Fighters Squadron (ACC)." _Air Force Historical Research Agency_. Retrieved: 19 December 2010. * ^ "37 Bomb Squadron (ACC)."_Air Force Historical Research Agency_. Retrieved: 19 December 2010. * ^ "Sopwith Camel". _Demobbed - Out of Service British Military Aircraft_. 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015. * ^ "Airframe Dossier - SopwithCamel, s/n B5747 RAF". _Aerial Visuals_. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 12 May 2017. * ^ "FAA REGISTRY ". _Federal Aviation Administration_. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 12 May 2017. * ^ "GINFO Search Results ". _Civil Aviation Authority_. Retrieved 12 May 2017. * ^ "Aeroplane: Sopwith F.1 Camel". _Polish Aviation Museum_. NeoServer. Retrieved 12 May 2017. * ^ "Lincoln-built Sopwith Camel
Camel
from the First World War
First World War
is restored to its former glory". _LincolnshireLive_. Local World. 22 July 2010. Retrieved 12 May 2017. * ^ "SOPWITH CAMEL". _National Naval Aviation Museum_. Naval Aviation Museum Foundation. Retrieved 12 May 2017. * ^ "Aircraft A5658 Data". _Airport-Data.com_. Airport-Data.com. Retrieved 12 May 2017. * ^ "Sopwith F1 Camel". _ Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
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