The region is mainly inhabited by people from the Somali ethnic group, with Habar Jeclo & Habar Yoonis sub-clans of Isaaq and Dhulbahante subdivision of the Harti Darod especially well represented.
Under the government of Siad Barre of Somali Republic, Sool was not a separate region but part of the larger Burco province (there were two provinces in Somaliland, Burco and Hargeisa, with its capital at Burao.) It was Siad Barre's government that made Sool a region in the 80s, with its capital at Lasanod.
In the late 2000s, HBM-SSC (Hoggaanka Badbaadada iyo Mideynta SSC), a local unionist opposition group whose goal is to establish its own regional administration (Sool, Sanaag and Cayn or SSC), was formed. The group engaged with talks with the government of Somaliland which resulted in their participation in the political process, and as a result of the negotiations SSC has been included in the current government of Somaliland 
The Sool region consists of four districts: