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Song of the South
Song of the South
is a 1946 American live-action/animated musical film produced by Walt Disney
Walt Disney
and released by RKO Radio Pictures. It is based on the collection of Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
stories as adapted by Joel Chandler Harris, and stars James Baskett
James Baskett
as Uncle Remus. The film takes place in the southern United States
United States
during the Reconstruction Era, a period of American history shortly after the end of the American Civil War
American Civil War
and the abolition of slavery. The story follows 7-year-old Johnny (Bobby Driscoll) who is visiting his grandmother's plantation for an extended stay. Johnny befriends Uncle Remus, one of the workers on the plantation, and takes joy in hearing his tales about the adventures of Br'er Rabbit, Br'er Fox, and Br'er Bear. Johnny learns from the stories how to cope with the challenges he is experiencing living on the plantation. Walt Disney
Walt Disney
had wanted to produce a film based on the Uncle Remus stories for some time. It was not until 1939 that he began negotiating with the Harris family for film rights, and later in 1944, filming for Song of the South
Song of the South
finally began. The studio constructed a plantation set for the outdoor scenes in Phoenix, Arizona, and some other scenes were filmed in Hollywood. The film is mostly live action, but includes three animated segments, which were later released as stand-alone television features. Some scenes also feature a combination of live action with animation. Song of the South
Song of the South
premiered in Atlanta
Atlanta
in November 1946 and the remainder of its initial theater run was a financial success. The song "Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah" won the 1947 Academy Award for Best Song and Baskett received an Honorary Academy Award for his performance as Uncle Remus. Since its release, Song of the South
Song of the South
has remained a subject of controversy. Some critics have described the film's portrayal of African Americans
African Americans
as racist and offensive, pointing out the black vernacular and other qualities as stereotypes. In addition, the plantation setting is sometimes criticized as idyllic and glorified. Because of this controversy, Disney has yet to release Song of the South on any home video format in the United States. Some of the musical and animated sequences have been released through other means, and the full film has seen home video distribution in other countries around the world. The cartoon characters from the film have continued to remain popular for decades, being featured in a variety of books, comics, and other media. The Disney theme park ride Splash Mountain
Splash Mountain
is also based on the film.

Contents

1 Synopsis

1.1 Setting 1.2 Plot

2 Cast

2.1 Voices

3 Production

3.1 Background 3.2 Casting 3.3 Filming 3.4 Animation 3.5 Music

4 Release

4.1 Home media

5 Reception

5.1 Accolades 5.2 Controversies

6 Legacy 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Synopsis[edit] Setting[edit] The film is set on a plantation in the southern United States, specifically in the state of Georgia, some distance from Atlanta. Although sometimes misinterpreted as taking place before the U.S. Civil War while slavery was still legal in the region, the film takes place during the Reconstruction Era
Reconstruction Era
after slavery was abolished.[5][6][7][8] Harris' original Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
stories were all set after the American Civil War
American Civil War
and the abolition of slavery. Harris himself, born in 1848, was a racial reconciliation activist writer and journalist of the Reconstruction Era. The film makes several indirect references to the Reconstruction Era: clothing is in the newer late-Victorian style; Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
is free to leave the plantation at will; black field hands are sharecroppers, etc.[9] Plot[edit] 7-year-old Johnny (Bobby Driscoll) is excited about what he believes to be a vacation at his grandmother's Georgia plantation with his parents, John Sr. (Erik Rolf) and Sally (Ruth Warrick). When they arrive at the plantation, he discovers that his parents will be living apart for a while, and he is to live at the plantation with his mother and grandmother (Lucile Watson) while his father returns to Atlanta
Atlanta
to continue his controversial editorship in the city's newspaper. Johnny, distraught because of his father's departure, secretly sets off that night for Atlanta
Atlanta
with only a bindle. As Johnny sneaks away from the plantation, he is attracted by the voice of Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
(James Baskett) telling tales of a character named Br'er Rabbit. By this time, word had gotten out that Johnny was missing, and some plantation residents are looking for him. Johnny evades being discovered, but Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
catches up with him. They befriend each other and Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
offers him some food for his journey, taking him back to his cabin. Back at the cabin, Uncle Remus tells Johnny the traditional African-American folktale, "Br'er Rabbit Earns a Dollar a Minute". In the story, Br'er Rabbit
Br'er Rabbit
(Johnny Lee) attempts to run away from home only to change his mind after an encounter with Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear
Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear
( James Baskett
James Baskett
and Nick Stewart). Johnny takes the advice and changes his mind about leaving the plantation, letting Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
take him back to his mother. Johnny makes friends with Toby (Glenn Leedy), a young black boy who lives on the plantation, and Ginny Favers (Luana Patten), a poor white girl. Ginny gives Johnny a puppy after her two older brothers, Joe (Gene Holland) and Jake (George Nokes), threaten to drown it. Johnny's mother refuses to let him take care of the puppy, so he takes the dog to Uncle Remus. Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
takes the dog in and delights Johnny and his friends with the fable of Br'er Rabbit
Br'er Rabbit
and the Tar-Baby, stressing that people shouldn't get involved with something they have no business with in the first place. Johnny heeds the advice of how Br'er Rabbit used reverse psychology on Br'er Fox and begs the Favers Brothers not to tell their mother (Mary Field) about the dog. The reverse psychology works, and the boys go to speak with their mother. After being spanked, they realize that Johnny had fooled them. In an act of revenge, they tell Sally about the dog. She becomes upset that Johnny and Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
kept the dog despite her order (which was unknown to Uncle Remus). She instructs Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
not to tell any more stories to her son. Johnny's birthday arrives and Johnny picks up Ginny to take her to his party. On the way there, Joe and Jake push Ginny into a mud puddle. With her dress ruined, Ginny is unable to go to the party and runs off crying. Johnny begins fighting with the boys, but their fight is broken up by Uncle Remus. Johnny runs off to comfort Ginny. He explains that he does not want to go either, especially since his father will not be there. Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
discovers both dejected children and cheers them up by telling the story of Br'er Rabbit
Br'er Rabbit
and his "Laughing Place". When the three return to the plantation, Sally becomes angry at Johnny for missing his own birthday party, and tells Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
not to spend any more time with him. Saddened by the misunderstanding of his good intentions, Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
packs his bags and leaves for Atlanta. Johnny rushes to intercept him, but is attacked by a bull and seriously injured after taking a shortcut through a pasture. While Johnny hovers between life and death, his father returns. Johnny calls for Uncle Remus, who is then escorted in by his grandmother. Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
begins telling a tale of Br'er Rabbit and the Laughing Place, and the boy miraculously survives. Johnny, Ginny, and Toby are next seen skipping along and singing while Johnny's returned puppy runs alongside them. Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
is also in the vicinity and he is shocked when Br'er Rabbit
Br'er Rabbit
and several of the other characters from his stories appear in front of them and interact with the children. Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
rushes to join the group, and they all skip away singing. Cast[edit]

Clockwise from left: Ginny (Luana Patten), Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
(James Baskett), Johnny (Bobby Driscoll) and Toby (Glenn Leedy)

James Baskett
James Baskett
as Uncle Remus Bobby Driscoll
Bobby Driscoll
as Johnny Luana Patten
Luana Patten
as Ginny Favers Glenn Leedy
Glenn Leedy
as Toby Ruth Warrick
Ruth Warrick
as Sally Lucile Watson
Lucile Watson
as Grandmother Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
as Aunt Tempy Erik Rolf as John Olivier Urbain as Mr. Favers (uncredited) Mary Field as Mrs. Favers Anita Brown as Maid George Nokes as Jake Favers Gene Holland as Joe Favers

Voices[edit]

Johnny Lee as Br'er Rabbit James Baskett
James Baskett
as Br'er Fox Nick Stewart
Nick Stewart
as Br'er Bear Roy Glenn
Roy Glenn
as Br'er Frog (uncredited) Clarence Nash
Clarence Nash
as Bluebird (uncredited) Helen Crozier as Mother Possum (uncredited)

Production[edit] Background[edit] Walt Disney
Walt Disney
had long wanted to produce a film based on the Uncle Remus storybook, but it was not until the mid-1940s that he had found a way to give the stories an adequate film equivalent in scope and fidelity. "I always felt that Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
should be played by a living person", Disney commented, "as should also the young boy to whom Harris' old Negro philosopher relates his vivid stories of the Briar Patch. Several tests in previous pictures, especially in The Three Caballeros, were encouraging in the way living action and animation could be dovetailed. Finally, months ago, we 'took our foot in hand,' in the words of Uncle Remus, and jumped into our most venturesome but also more pleasurable undertaking."[10] Disney first began to negotiate with Harris' family for the rights in 1939, and by late summer of that year he already had one of his storyboard artists summarize the more promising tales and draw up four boards' worth of story sketches.[4] In November 1940, Disney visited the Harris' home in Atlanta. He told Variety that he wanted to "get an authentic feeling of Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
country so we can do as faithful a job as possible to these stories."[4] Roy Oliver Disney
Roy Oliver Disney
had misgivings about the project, doubting that it was "big enough in caliber and natural draft" to warrant a budget over $1 million and more than twenty-five minutes of animation, but in June 1944, Disney hired Southern-born writer Dalton Reymond to write the screenplay, and he met frequently with King Vidor, whom he was trying to interest in directing the live-action sequences.[4] Dalton Reymond wrote a treatment for the film.[5] Because Reymond was not a professional screenwriter, Maurice Rapf, who had been writing live-action features at the time, was asked by Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Productions to work with Reymond and co-writer Callum Webb to turn the treatment into a shootable screenplay.[5] According to Neal Gabler, one of the reasons Disney had hired Rapf to work with Reymond was to temper what Disney feared would be Reymond's "white Southern slant".

Rapf was a minority, a Jew, and an outspoken left-winger, and he himself feared that the film would inevitably be Uncle Tomish. "That's exactly why I want you to work on it," Walt told him, "because I know that you don't think I should make the movie. You're against Uncle Tomism, and you're a radical."[4]

Rapf initially hesitated, but when he found out that most of the film would be live-action and that he could make extensive changes, he accepted the offer.[5] Rapf worked on Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
for about seven weeks. When he got into a personal dispute with Reymond, Rapf was taken off the project.[5] According to Rapf, Walt Disney
Walt Disney
"ended every conference by saying 'Well, I think we've really licked it now.' Then he'd call you the next morning and say, 'I've got a new idea.' And he'd have one. Sometimes the ideas were good, sometimes they were terrible, but you could never really satisfy him."[4] Morton Grant was assigned to the project.[5] Disney sent out the script for comment both within the studio and outside the studio.[4] Casting[edit] Song of the South
Song of the South
was the first live-action dramatic film made by Disney.[11] James Baskett
James Baskett
was cast as Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
after responding to an ad for providing the voice of a talking butterfly. "I thought that, maybe, they'd try me out to furnish the voice for one of Uncle Remus' animals," Baskett is quoted as saying. Upon review of his voice, Disney wanted to meet Baskett personally, and had him tested for the role of Uncle Remus. Not only did Baskett get the part of the butterfly's voice, but also the voice of Br'er Fox and the live-action role of Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
as well.[12] Additionally, Baskett filled in as the voice of Br'er Rabbit
Br'er Rabbit
for Johnny Lee in the "Laughing Place" scene after Lee was called away to do promotion for the picture.[11] Disney liked Baskett, and told his sister Ruth that Baskett was "the best actor, I believe, to be discovered in years". Even after the film's release, Disney maintained contact with Baskett.[4] Disney also campaigned for Baskett to be given an Academy Award
Academy Award
for his performance, saying that he had worked "almost wholly without direction" and had devised the characterization of Remus himself. Thanks to Disney's efforts, Baskett won an honorary Oscar in 1948.[4][5] After Baskett's death, his widow wrote Disney and told him that he had been a "friend indeed and [we] certainly have been in need".[4] Also cast in the production were child actors Bobby Driscoll, Luana Patten, and Glenn Leedy
Glenn Leedy
(his only screen appearance). Driscoll was the first actor to be under a personal contract with the Disney studio.[13] Patten had been a professional model since age 3, and caught the attention of Disney when she appeared on the cover of Woman's Home Companion magazine.[14] Leedy was discovered on the playground of the Booker T. Washington school in Phoenix, Arizona, by a talent scout from the Disney studio.[15] Ruth Warrick
Ruth Warrick
and Erik Rolf, cast as Johnny's mother and father, had actually been married during filming, but divorced in 1946.[16][17] Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel
also appeared in the role of Aunt Tempy. Filming[edit] Production started under the title Uncle Remus.[4][5] The budget was originally $1,350,000.[18] The animated segments of the film were directed by Wilfred Jackson, while the live-action segments were directed by Harve Foster.[4] Filming began in December 1944 in Phoenix, where the studio had constructed a plantation and cotton fields for outdoor scenes, and Disney left for the location to oversee what he called "atmospheric shots".[4] Back in Hollywood, the live action scenes were filmed at the Samuel Goldwyn Studio. On the final day of shooting, Jackson discovered that the scene in which Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
sings the film's signature song, "Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah", had not been properly blocked. According to Jackson, "We all sat there in a circle with the dollars running out, and nobody came up with anything. Then Walt suggested that they shoot Baskett in close-up, cover the lights with cardboard save for a sliver of blue sky behind his head, and then remove the cardboard from the lights when he began singing so that he would seem to be entering a bright new world of animation. Like Walt's idea for Bambi
Bambi
on ice, it made for one of the most memorable scenes in the film."[4] Animation[edit]

Br'er Rabbit
Br'er Rabbit
takes Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear
Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear
to his "laughing place"

There are three animated segments in the film (in all, they last a total of 25 minutes). The last few minutes of the film also contain combine animation with live-action. The three sequences were later shown as stand-alone cartoon features on television.

Br'er Rabbit
Br'er Rabbit
Runs Away: (~8 minutes) Based on " Br'er Rabbit
Br'er Rabbit
Earns a Dollar a Minute". Includes the song "Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah", Br'er Rabbit
Br'er Rabbit
and the Tar Baby: (~12 minutes) Based on "Tar-Baby". The segment is interrupted with a short live-action scene about two-thirds through.It features the song "How Do You Do?" Br'er Rabbit's Laughing Place: (~5 minutes) Based on "The Laughing Place". The song "Everybody's Got a Laughing Place" is featured.

Music[edit] Nine songs are heard in the film, with four reprises. Nearly all of the vocal performances are by the largely African-American cast, and the renowned all-black Hall Johnson
Hall Johnson
Choir sing four pieces: two versions of a blues number ("Let the Rain Pour Down"), one chain-reaction-style folk song[19] ("That's What Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
Said") and one spiritual ("All I Want"). The songs are, in film order, as follows:

"Song of the South": Written by Sam Coslow and Arthur Johnston; performed by the Disney Studio Choir " Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
Said": Written by Eliot Daniel, Hy Heath, and Johnny Lange; performed by the Hall Johnson
Hall Johnson
Choir "Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah": Written by Allie Wrubel and Ray Gilbert; performed by James Baskett "Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah": (reprise) Performed by Bobby Driscoll "Who Wants to Live Like That?": Written by Ken Darby and Foster Carling; performed by James Baskett "Let the Rain Pour Down": (uptempo) Written by Ken Darby and Foster Carling; performed by the Hall Johnson
Hall Johnson
Choir "How Do You Do?": Written by Robert MacGimsey; performed by Johnny Lee and James Baskett "How Do You Do?": (reprise) Performed by Bobby Driscoll
Bobby Driscoll
and Glenn Leedy "Sooner or Later": Written by Charles Wolcott and Ray Gilbert; performed by Hattie McDaniel "Everybody's Got a Laughing Place": Written by Allie Wrubel and Ray Gilbert; performed by James Baskett
James Baskett
and Nick Stewart "Let the Rain Pour Down": (downtempo) Written by Ken Darby and Foster Carling; performed by the Hall Johnson
Hall Johnson
Choir "All I Want": Traditional, new arrangement and lyrics by Ken Darby; performed by the Hall Johnson
Hall Johnson
Choir "Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah": (reprise) Performed by Bobby Driscoll, Luana Patten, Glenn Leedy, Johnny Lee, and James Baskett "Song of the South": (reprise) Performed by the Disney Studio Choir

"Let the Rain Pour Down" is set to the melody of "Midnight Special", a traditional blues song popularized by Lead Belly
Lead Belly
(Huddie William Ledbetter). The song title "Look at the Sun" appeared in some early press books, though it is not actually in the film.[citation needed] The song "Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah" was influenced by the chorus of the pre-Civil War folk song "Zip Coon", that is considered racist as it plays on an African American stereotype.[20][21] Release[edit]

The film premiered at the Fox Theatre in Atlanta
Atlanta
in 1946.

The film premiered on November 12, 1946, at the Fox Theater in Atlanta.[4] Walt Disney
Walt Disney
made introductory remarks, introduced the cast, then quietly left for his room at the Georgian Terrace Hotel across the street; he had previously stated that unexpected audience reactions upset him and he was better off not seeing the film with an audience. James Baskett
James Baskett
was unable to attend the film's premiere because he would not have been allowed to participate in any of the festivities, as Atlanta
Atlanta
was then a racially segregated city.[22] The film grossed $3.3 million at the box office.[4][23] As had been done earlier with Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Disney produced a Sunday comic strip titled Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
& His Tales of Br'er Rabbit
Br'er Rabbit
to give the film pre-release publicity. The strip was launched by King Features on October 14, 1945, more than a year before the film was released. Unlike the Snow White comic strip, which only adapted the film, Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
ran for decades, telling one story after another about the characters, some based on the legends and others new, until it ended on December 31, 1972.[24] Apart from the newspaper strips, Disney Br'er Rabbit
Br'er Rabbit
comics were also produced for comic books; the first such stories appeared in late 1946. Produced both by Western Publishing and European publishers such as Egmont, they continue to appear.[25] In 1946, a Giant Golden Book
Book
entitled Walt Disney's Uncle Remus Stories was published by Simon & Schuster. It featured 23 illustrated stories of Br'er Rabbit's escapades, all told in a Southern dialect based on the original Joel Chandler Harris
Joel Chandler Harris
stories. Song of the South
Song of the South
was re-released in theaters several times after its original premiere, each time through Buena Vista Pictures: in 1956; in 1972 for the 50th anniversary of Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Productions; in 1973 as the second half of a double bill with The Aristocats; in 1980 for the 100th anniversary of Harris' classic stories; and in 1986 for the film's own 40th anniversary and in promotion of the upcoming Splash Mountain attraction at Disneyland.[citation needed] The film has been broadcast on European television, including the BBC
BBC
as recently as 2006.[26] Home media[edit] The Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Company has yet to release a complete version of the film in the United States
United States
on home video given the film's controversial reputation.[27][28] Over the years, Disney has made a variety of statements about whether and when the film would be re-released.[29][30][31][32] In March 2010, Disney CEO Robert Iger stated that there were no plans to release the movie on DVD, calling the film "antiquated" and "fairly offensive".[33] On November 15, 2010, Disney creative director Dave Bossert stated in an interview, "I can say there's been a lot of internal discussion about Song of the South. And at some point we're going to do something about it. I don't know when, but we will. We know we want people to see Song of the South because we realize it's a big piece of company history, and we want to do it the right way."[34] Film critic Roger Ebert, who normally disdained any attempt to keep films from any audience, supported the non-release position, claiming that most Disney films become a part of the consciousness of American children, who take films more literally than do adults. However, he favored allowing film students to have access to the film.[35][36] Despite not having a home video release in the United States, audio from the film—both the musical soundtrack and dialogue—were made widely available to the public from the time of the film's debut up through the late 1970s. In particular, many book-and-record sets were released, alternately featuring the animated portions of the film or summaries of the film as a whole.[37] The Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Company has also allowed key portions of the film to be issued on many VHS and DVD compilations in the U.S., as well as on the long-running Walt Disney anthology television series. Most recently, "Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah" and some of the animated portions of the film were issued on the Alice in Wonderland 2-DVD Special
Special
Edition set. These segments are part of a 1950 Walt Disney
Walt Disney
TV special included on the DVD which promoted the then-forthcoming Alice in Wonderland film. The full-length film has been released in various European, Latin American, and Asian countries. In the UK, it was released on PAL
PAL
VHS tape in 1982 and again in 1991. In Japan it appeared on NTSC
NTSC
VHS, Beta, and LaserDisc in 1985 then again on LaserDisc in 1990 with subtitles during songs. (Note: under Japanese copyright law, the film is now in the public domain.)[38] A NTSC
NTSC
LaserDisc was released in Hong Kong for the Chinese rental market by Intercontinental Video Ltd which has been the exclusive distributor of Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Studios since 1988. This release appears to have been created from a PAL
PAL
videotape, and has a 4% faster running time because of its PAL
PAL
source, and thus also suffers from "frame ghosting".[39][40] While most foreign releases of the film are literal translations of the English title, the German title, Onkel Remus' Wunderland, translates to "Uncle Remus' Wonderland", the Italian title, Racconti Dello Zio Tom, translates to "The Stories of Uncle Tom",[41] and the Norwegian title Onkel Remus forteller translates to "Storyteller Uncle Remus."[42] In July 2017 after being inaugurated as a Disney Legend, Whoopi Goldberg expressed a desire for Song of the South
Song of the South
to be re-released publicly to American audiences.[43] Reception[edit] Although the film was a financial success, netting the studio a profit of $226,000 ($2,833,970 in 2017 dollars) [44] some critics were less enthusiastic about the film, not so much the animated portions as the live-action portions. Bosley Crowther for one wrote in The New York Times, "More and more, Walt Disney's craftsmen have been loading their feature films with so-called 'live action' in place of their animated whimsies of the past, and by just those proportions has the magic of these Disney films decreased", citing the ratio of live action to animation at two to one, concluding that is "approximately the ratio of its mediocrity to its charm".[4] However, the film also received positive notice. Time magazine called the film "topnotch Disney".[5] In 2003, the Online Film Critics Society ranked the film as the 67th greatest animated film of all time.[45] On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a 60% rating, based on 10 reviews, with an average rating of 5.8/10.[46] Accolades[edit]

James Baskett
James Baskett
was voted an Honorary Academy Award for his portrayal of Uncle Remus, the first African-American man to win any kind of Oscar.

The score by Daniele Amfitheatrof, Paul J. Smith, and Charles Wolcott was nominated in the "Scoring of a Musical Picture" category, and "Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah", written by Allie Wrubel and Ray Gilbert, won the award for Best Song at the 20th Academy Awards
Academy Awards
on March 20, 1948.[47] A special Academy Award
Academy Award
was given to Baskett "for his able and heart-warming characterization of Uncle Remus, friend and story teller to the children of the world in Walt Disney's Song of the South". Bobby Driscoll
Bobby Driscoll
and Luana Patten
Luana Patten
in their portrayals of the children characters Johnny and Ginny were also discussed for Academy Juvenile Awards, but in 1947 it was decided not to present such awards at all.[48] The film is recognized by American Film Institute
American Film Institute
in these lists:

2004: AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs:

"Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah" – #47[49]

2006: AFI's Greatest Movie Musicals – Nominated[50]

Controversies[edit] The film has received significant controversy for its handling of race.[51] Cultural historian Jason Sperb describes the film as "one of Hollywood's most resiliently offensive racist texts".[52] Sperb, Neal Gabler, and other critics have noted the film's release as being in the wake of the Double V campaign, an effort in the United States during World War II
World War II
to promote victory over racism in the United States and its armed forces, and victory over fascism abroad.[53] Early in the film's production, there was concern that the material would encounter controversy. Disney publicist Vern Caldwell wrote to producer Perce Pearce that "the negro situation is a dangerous one. Between the negro haters and the negro lovers there are many chances to run afoul of situations that could run the gamut all the way from the nasty to the controversial."[4] The Disney Company has stated that, like Harris' book, the film takes place after the American Civil War
American Civil War
and that all the African American characters in the movie are no longer slaves.[9] The Hays Office had asked Disney to "be certain that the frontispiece of the book mentioned establishes the date in the 1870s"; however, the final film carried no such statement.[5] When the film was first released, Walter Francis White, the executive secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), telegraphed major newspapers around the country with the following statement, erroneously claiming that the film depicted an antebellum setting:

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People recognizes in "Song of the South" remarkable artistic merit in the music and in the combination of living actors and the cartoon technique. It regrets, however, that in an effort neither to offend audiences in the north or south, the production helps to perpetuate a dangerously glorified picture of slavery. Making use of the beautiful Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
folklore, "Song of the South" unfortunately gives the impression of an idyllic master-slave relationship which is a distortion of the facts.[5]

White however had not yet seen the film; his statement was based on memos he received from two NAACP staff members - Norma Jensen and Hope Spingarn - who attended a press screening on November 20, 1946. Jensen had written that the film was "so artistically beautiful that it is difficult to be provoked over the clichés" but that it contained "all the clichés in the book", mentioning that she felt scenes like blacks singing traditional black songs were offensive as a stereotype. Spingarn listed several things she found objectionable from the film, including the use of African-American English.[5] Jim Hill Media stated that both Jensen and Spingarn were confused by the film's Reconstruction setting, writing that "It was something that also confused other reviewers who from the tone of the film and the type of similar recent Hollywood
Hollywood
movies [Gone with the Wind; Jezebel] assumed it must also be set during the time of slavery." Based on the Jensen and Spingarn memos, White released the "official position" of the NAACP in a telegram that was widely quoted in newspapers.[54] The New York Times' Bosley Crowther made a similar assumption, writing that the movie was a "travesty on the antebellum South."[55] Time magazine, although it praised the film, cautioned that it was "bound to land its maker in hot water", because the character of Uncle Remus was "bound to enrage all educated Negroes and a number of damyankees".[56] Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., a congressman from Harlem, branded the film an "insult to American minorities [and] everything that America as a whole stands for."[57] The National Negro Congress set up picket lines in theaters in the big cities where the film played, with its protesters holding signs that read "Song of the South is an insult to the Negro people" and, lampooning "Jingle Bells", chanted: "Disney tells, Disney tells/lies about the South."[57] On April 2, 1947, a group of protesters marched around Paramount Theatre (Oakland, California) with picket signs reading, "We want films on Democracy not Slavery" and "Don't prejudice children's minds with films like this".[58] Jewish newspaper B'nai B'rith Messenger of Los Angeles considered the film to be "tall[ying] with the reputation that Disney is making for himself as an arch-reactionary". Some black press had mixed reactions on what they thought of Song of the South. While Richard B. Dier in The Afro-American was "thoroughly disgusted" by the film for being "as vicious a piece of propaganda for white supremacy as Hollywood
Hollywood
ever produced," Herman Hill in The Pittsburgh Courier felt that Song of the South
Song of the South
would "prove of inestimable goodwill in the furthering of interracial relations", and considered criticisms of the film to be "unadulterated hogwash symptomatic of the unfortunate racial neurosis that seems to be gripping so many of our humorless brethren these days."[59] Legacy[edit]

The Disney theme park ride, Splash Mountain, is based on Song of the South.

As early as October 1945, a newspaper strip named Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Presents "Uncle Remus" and His Tales of Br'er Rabbit
Br'er Rabbit
appeared in the United States, and this production continued until 1972. There have also been episodes for the series produced for the Disney comic books worldwide, in the U.S., Denmark and the Netherlands, from the 1940s up to the present day, 2012.[60] Br'er Bear
Br'er Bear
and Br'er Fox also appeared frequently in Disney's Big Bad Wolf stories, although here, Br'er Bear was usually cast as an honest farmer and family man, instead of the bad guy in his original appearances. Br'er Rabbit, Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear
Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear
appeared as guests in Disney's House of Mouse. They also appeared in Mickey's Magical Christmas: Snowed in at the House of Mouse. Br'er Bear
Br'er Bear
and the Tar-Baby
Tar-Baby
also appear in the film Who Framed Roger Rabbit. Br'er Bear
Br'er Bear
can be seen near the end while the Toons are celebrating finding the will. The Tar-Baby
Tar-Baby
can briefly be seen during the scene driving into Toon Town. Br'er Rabbit, Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear
Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear
also appeared in the 2011 video game Kinect Disneyland
Disneyland
Adventures for the Xbox 360. The game is a virtual recreation of Disneyland
Disneyland
and it features a mini game based on the Splash Mountain
Splash Mountain
attraction. Br'er Rabbit
Br'er Rabbit
helps guide the player character through that game, while Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear
Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear
serve as antagonists. The three Br'ers also appear as meet-and-greet characters in the game, outside Splash Mountain
Splash Mountain
in Critter Country. In the game, Jess Harnell
Jess Harnell
reprises his role from the attraction as Br'er Rabbit
Br'er Rabbit
and also takes on the role of Br'er Fox, while Br'er Bear
Br'er Bear
is voiced by James Avery, who previously voiced Br'er Bear
Br'er Bear
and Br'er Frog in the Walt Disney
Walt Disney
World version of Splash Mountain. This is the Br'ers' first major appearance in Disney media since The Lion King 1½
The Lion King 1½
in 2004 and their first appearance as computer-generated characters. References[edit]

^ a b "Song of the South: Detail View". American Film Institute. Retrieved April 29, 2014.  ^ "SONG OF THE SOUTH (U)". British Board of Film Classification. October 23, 1946. Retrieved November 28, 2015.  ^ Solomon, Charles (1989), p. 186. Enchanted Drawings: The History of Animation. ISBN 0-394-54684-9. Alfred A. Knopf. Retrieved February 16, 2008. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Gabler, Neal (October 31, 2006). Walt Disney: The Triumph of the American Imagination. Knopf. pp. 432–9, 456, 463, 486, 511, 599. ISBN 0-679-43822-X.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Cohen, Karl F. (1997). Forbidden Animation: Censored Cartoons and Blacklisted Animators in America. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 64. ISBN 0-7864-2032-4.  ^ Kaufman, Will (2006). The Civil War in American Culture. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1935-6.  ^ Langman, Larry; Ebner, David (2001). Hollywood’s Image of the South: A Century of Southern Films. Westport Connecticut, London: Greenwood Press. p. 169. ISBN 0-313-31886-7.  ^ Snead, James A.; MacCabe, Colin; West, Cornel (1994). White Screens, Black Images: Hollywood
Hollywood
from the Dark Side. New York: Routledge. pp. 88, 93. ISBN 0-415-90574-5.  ^ a b Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Presents "Song of the South" Promotional Program, Page 7. Published 1946 by Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Productions/RKO Radio Pictures. ^ "The Movie: Background". Song of the South.net. Retrieved January 18, 2007.  ^ a b "Trivia for Song of the South". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved January 18, 2007.  ^ " James Baskett
James Baskett
as Uncle Remus". Song of the South.net. Retrieved January 18, 2007.  ^ Bobby Driscoll
Bobby Driscoll
biography at Song of the South.net ^ " Luana Patten
Luana Patten
as Ginny Favers". Song of the South.net. Retrieved January 18, 2007.  ^ " Glenn Leedy
Glenn Leedy
as Toby". Song of the South.net. Retrieved January 18, 2007.  ^ " Ruth Warrick
Ruth Warrick
as Sally". Song of the South.net. Retrieved January 18, 2007.  ^ "Eric Rolf as John". Song of the South.net. Retrieved January 18, 2007.  ^ Variety 12 September 1945 p 12 ^ Walt Disney's Song of the South, 1946 Publicity Campaign Book, Distributed by RKO Pictures. Copyright Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Pictures, 1946. "The chain-reaction, endless song, of which American folk music is so plentiful [...] The number is ' Uncle Remus
Uncle Remus
Said,' and it consists of a single, brief melody repeated as often as new lyrics come along." ^ Emerson, Ken (1997). Doo-dah!: Stephen Foster and the Rise of American Popular Culture. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 60. ISBN 978-0684810102.  ^ "Blackface!". black-face.com. Retrieved December 24, 2013.  ^ In a October 15, 1946 article in the Atlanta
Atlanta
Constitution, columnist Harold Martin noted that to bring Baskett to Atlanta, where he would not have been allowed to participate in any of the festivities, "would cause him many embarrassments, for his feelings are the same as any man's". The modern claim that no Atlanta
Atlanta
hotel would give Baskett accommodation is false: there were several black-owned hotels in the Sweet Auburn
Sweet Auburn
area of downtown Atlanta
Atlanta
at the time, including the Savoy and the McKay. Atlanta's Black-Owned Hotels: A History. ^ "Top Grossers of 1947", Variety, 7 January 1948 p 63 ^ Markstein, Don. "Br'er Rabbit". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on September 1, 2015. Retrieved January 18, 2007.  ^ Coa.inducks.org ^ http://genome.ch.bbc.co.uk/schedules/bbctwo/england/2006-08-27#at-10.00 ^ Inge, M. Thomas (September 2012). "Walt Disney's Song of the South and the Politics of Animation". Journal of American Culture. 35 (3): 228. Retrieved July 2, 2016.  ^ "Disney (Song of the South)". Urban Legends Reference Pages. Retrieved January 18, 2007.  ^ Audio of Robert Iger's statement can be heard here ^ "2007 Transcript from shareholder's meeting". Retrieved April 20, 2007.  ^ "Disney Backpedaling on Releasing Song of the South?". songofthesouth.net. Retrieved May 28, 2007.  ^ "Actually, things are looking pretty good right now for "Song of the South" to finally be released on DVD in late 2008 / early 2009". jimhillmedia.net. Retrieved July 6, 2007.  ^ "Disney CEO Calls Movie Antiquated and Fairly Offensive". songofthesouth.net. Retrieved March 16, 2010.  ^ "Disney Producer Encouraging About 'Song of the South' Release". The Post-Movie Podcast. November 20, 2010. Retrieved November 16, 2011.  ^ Mike Brantley (January 6, 2002). "'Song of the South'". Alabama Mobile Register. Retrieved January 18, 2007.  ^ http://www.rogerebert.com/answer-man/movie-answer-man-02132000 ^ " Song of the South
Song of the South
Memorabilia". Song of the South.net. Archived from the original on February 13, 2007. Retrieved January 18, 2007.  ^ "Japanese Court Rules Pre-1953 Movies in Public Domain", contactmusic.com, December 7, 2006. ^ "Song of the South, Laserdisc
Laserdisc
(Hong Kong) ^ "Intercontinental Video Ltd ^ "AKAs for Song of the South". Retrieved January 18, 2007.  ^ "Walt Disney's: helaftens spillefilmer 1941–1981". Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved October 3, 2009.  ^ Amidi, Amid (July 15, 2017). "In Her First Act As A Disney Legend, Whoopi Goldberg
Whoopi Goldberg
Tells Disney To Stop Hiding Its History". Cartoon Brew. Retrieved August 7, 2017.  ^ Thomas, Bob (1994). Walt Disney: An American Original. New York.: Hyperion Books. p. 161. ISBN 0-7868-6027-8.  ^ "Top 100 Animated Features of All Time". Online Film Critics Society. Archived from the original on August 27, 2012. Retrieved January 18, 2007.  ^ " Song of the South
Song of the South
(1946)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved November 28, 2015.  ^ Song of the South
Song of the South
opened in Los Angeles in 1947, which became its qualification year for the awards. ^ Parsons, Luella (February 28, 1960). "That Little Girl in 'Song of the South' a Big Girl Now". Lincoln Sunday Journal and Star. Retrieved September 2, 2008.  ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved August 13, 2016.  ^ " AFI's Greatest Movie Musicals Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved August 13, 2016.  ^ Time ^ Jason Sperb, Disney’s Most Notorious Film, University of Texas Press (2012), ISBN 0292739745, ISBN 978-0292739741; reviewed in John Lingan, Bristling Dixie, Slate January 4, 2013 (accessed August 21, 2013) ^ Sperb, Disney's Most Notorious Film ^ Jim Hill Media. Wednesdays with Wade: Did the NAACP kill "Song of the South"? November 15, 2005. ^ The New York Times. The Screen; 'Song of the South,' Disney Film Combining Cartoons and Life, Opens at Palace—Abbott and Costello at Loew's Criterion By Bosley Crowther, November 28, 1946. ^ Time magazine. The New Pictures, Nov. 18, 1946 ^ a b Watts, Steven (2001). The Magic Kingdom: Walt Disney
Walt Disney
and the American Way of Life. University of Missouri Press. pp. 276–277. ISBN 0-8262-1379-0.  ^ Jim., Korkis, (2012). Who's afraid of the Song of the South? : and other forbidden Disney stories. Norman, Floyd. Orlando, Fla.: Theme Park Press. ISBN 0984341552. OCLC 823179800.  ^ Gevinson, Alan (1997). Within Our Gates: Ethnicity in American Feature Films, 1911-1960. California: University of California Press. p. 956. ISBN 978-0520209640.  ^ "Brer Rabbit" at Inducks

Further reading[edit]

Jason Sperb, Disney's Most Notorious Film: Race, Convergence, and the Hidden Histories of Song of the South. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2012. Jim Korkis, Who's Afraid of the Song of the South
Song of the South
And Other Forbidden Disney Stories Theme Park Press, 2012

External links[edit]

Disney portal Film in the United States
United States
portal Rabbits and hares portal

Song of the South
Song of the South
on IMDb Song of the South
Song of the South
at the TCM Movie Database Song of the South
Song of the South
at The Big Cartoon DataBase Song of the South
Song of the South
at Box Office Mojo

v t e

Disney theatrical animated features

Walt Disney Animation Studios films

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) Pinocchio (1940) Fantasia (1940) Dumbo
Dumbo
(1941) Bambi
Bambi
(1942) Saludos Amigos
Saludos Amigos
(1942) The Three Caballeros
The Three Caballeros
(1944) Make Mine Music
Make Mine Music
(1946) Fun and Fancy Free (1947) Melody Time
Melody Time
(1948) The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad
The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad
(1949) Cinderella (1950) Alice in Wonderland (1951) Peter Pan (1953) Lady and the Tramp
Lady and the Tramp
(1955) Sleeping Beauty (1959) One Hundred and One Dalmatians
One Hundred and One Dalmatians
(1961) The Sword in the Stone (1963) The Jungle Book
Book
(1967) The Aristocats
The Aristocats
(1970) Robin Hood (1973) The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh
The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh
(1977) The Rescuers
The Rescuers
(1977) The Fox and the Hound
The Fox and the Hound
(1981) The Black Cauldron (1985) The Great Mouse Detective
The Great Mouse Detective
(1986) Oliver & Company (1988) The Little Mermaid (1989) The Rescuers
The Rescuers
Down Under (1990) Beauty and the Beast (1991) Aladdin (1992) The Lion King
The Lion King
(1994) Pocahontas (1995) The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996) Hercules (1997) Mulan (1998) Tarzan (1999) Fantasia 2000
Fantasia 2000
(1999) Dinosaur (2000) The Emperor's New Groove (2000) Atlantis: The Lost Empire (2001) Lilo & Stitch (2002) Treasure Planet
Treasure Planet
(2002) Brother Bear
Brother Bear
(2003) Home on the Range (2004) Chicken Little (2005) Meet the Robinsons
Meet the Robinsons
(2007) Bolt (2008) The Princess and the Frog
The Princess and the Frog
(2009) Tangled
Tangled
(2010) Winnie the Pooh (2011) Wreck-It Ralph
Wreck-It Ralph
(2012) Frozen (2013) Big Hero 6 (2014) Zootopia
Zootopia
(2016) Moana (2016) Ralph Breaks the Internet: Wreck-It Ralph
Wreck-It Ralph
2 (2018) Frozen 2
Frozen 2
(2019)

Live-action films with animation

The Reluctant Dragon (1941) Victory Through Air Power (1943) Song of the South
Song of the South
(1946) So Dear to My Heart
So Dear to My Heart
(1948) Mary Poppins (1964) Bedknobs and Broomsticks
Bedknobs and Broomsticks
(1971) Pete's Dragon (1977) Who Framed Roger Rabbit
Who Framed Roger Rabbit
(1988) Enchanted (2007)

DisneyToon Studios films

DuckTales the Movie: Treasure of the Lost Lamp (1990) A Goofy Movie
A Goofy Movie
(1995) The Tigger Movie (2000) Return to Never Land
Return to Never Land
(2002) The Jungle Book 2
The Jungle Book 2
(2003) Piglet's Big Movie
Piglet's Big Movie
(2003) Pooh's Heffalump Movie
Pooh's Heffalump Movie
(2005) Bambi
Bambi
II (2006) Planes (2013) Planes: Fire & Rescue (2014)

Other Disney units films

The Nightmare Before Christmas
The Nightmare Before Christmas
(1993) James and the Giant Peach (1996) Doug's 1st Movie
Doug's 1st Movie
(1999) Recess: School's Out (2001) Teacher's Pet (2004) A Christmas Carol (2009) Gnomeo & Juliet (2011) Mars Needs Moms
Mars Needs Moms
(2011) Frankenweenie (2012) Strange Magic (2015)

Related lists

Unproduced films

Book

v t e

Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Animation Studios

List of feature films

Released

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) Pinocchio (1940) Fantasia (1940) Dumbo
Dumbo
(1941) Bambi
Bambi
(1942) Saludos Amigos
Saludos Amigos
(1942) The Three Caballeros
The Three Caballeros
(1944) Make Mine Music
Make Mine Music
(1946) Fun and Fancy Free (1947) Melody Time
Melody Time
(1948) The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad
The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad
(1949) Cinderella (1950) Alice in Wonderland (1951) Peter Pan (1953) Lady and the Tramp
Lady and the Tramp
(1955) Sleeping Beauty (1959) One Hundred and One Dalmatians
One Hundred and One Dalmatians
(1961) The Sword in the Stone (1963) The Jungle Book
Book
(1967) The Aristocats
The Aristocats
(1970) Robin Hood (1973) The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh
The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh
(1977) The Rescuers
The Rescuers
(1977) The Fox and the Hound
The Fox and the Hound
(1981) The Black Cauldron (1985) The Great Mouse Detective
The Great Mouse Detective
(1986) Oliver & Company (1988) The Little Mermaid (1989) The Rescuers
The Rescuers
Down Under (1990) Beauty and the Beast (1991) Aladdin (1992) The Lion King
The Lion King
(1994) Pocahontas (1995) The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996) Hercules (1997) Mulan (1998) Tarzan (1999) Fantasia 2000
Fantasia 2000
(1999) Dinosaur (2000) The Emperor's New Groove (2000) Atlantis: The Lost Empire (2001) Lilo & Stitch (2002) Treasure Planet
Treasure Planet
(2002) Brother Bear
Brother Bear
(2003) Home on the Range (2004) Chicken Little (2005) Meet the Robinsons
Meet the Robinsons
(2007) Bolt (2008) The Princess and the Frog
The Princess and the Frog
(2009) Tangled
Tangled
(2010) Winnie the Pooh (2011) Wreck-It Ralph
Wreck-It Ralph
(2012) Frozen (2013) Big Hero 6 (2014) Zootopia
Zootopia
(2016) Moana (2016)

Upcoming films

Ralph Breaks the Internet: Wreck-It Ralph
Wreck-It Ralph
2 (2018) Frozen 2
Frozen 2
(2019)

Associated productions

The Reluctant Dragon (1941) Victory Through Air Power (1943) Song of the South
Song of the South
(1946) So Dear to My Heart
So Dear to My Heart
(1949) Mary Poppins (1964) Bedknobs and Broomsticks
Bedknobs and Broomsticks
(1971) Pete's Dragon (1977) Who Framed Roger Rabbit
Who Framed Roger Rabbit
(1988) Enchanted (2007)

People

Executives

Edwin Catmull Roy Conli Roy E. Disney Walt Disney Don Hahn Jeffrey Katzenberg John Lasseter Peter Schneider Thomas Schumacher David Stainton

Disney's Nine Old Men

Les Clark Marc Davis Ollie Johnston Milt Kahl Ward Kimball Eric Larson John Lounsbery Wolfgang Reitherman Frank Thomas

Related topics

History

Disney animators' strike Disney Renaissance

Methods and technologies

12 basic principles of animation Computer Animation Production System Disney Animation: The Illusion of Life Multiplane camera

Documentaries

Frank and Ollie (1995) The Sweatbox (2001) Dream On Silly Dreamer
Dream On Silly Dreamer
(2005) Waking Sleeping Beauty
Waking Sleeping Beauty
(2009)

Other Disney animation units

Disney Television Animation DisneyToon Studios
DisneyToon Studios
(WDAS unit) Lucasfilm Animation Marvel Animation Pixar Animation Studios Circle 7 (defunct)

Miscellaneous

Alice Comedies Laugh-O-Gram Studio List of Disney animated shorts List of Disney theatrical animated features

unproduced

Oswald the Lucky Rabbit Mickey Mouse (film series) Silly Symphonies Once Upon a Time

v t e

Uncle Remus

Characters

Br'er Rabbit Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear Tar-Baby

Notable stories

The Laughing Place Br'er Rabbit
Br'er Rabbit
Earns a Dollar a Minute

Films

Song of the South Coonskin The Adventures of Brer Rabbit

Related

Joel Chandler Harris Jump! Splash Mountain "Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah"

Book

v t e

Films directed by Wilfred Jackson

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) Pinocchio (1940) Fantasia (1940) Dumbo
Dumbo
(1941) Saludos Amigos
Saludos Amigos
(1942) Song of the South
Song of the South
(1946) Melody Time
Melody Time
(1948) Cinderella (1950) Alice in Wonderland (1951) Peter Pan (1953) Lady and the Tramp
Lady and the Tramp
(1955)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 305296059 GND: 1033759554 SUDOC: 171277694 BNF: cb1466

.