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Sonargaon
Sonargaon
(Bengali: সোনারগাঁও; also transcribed as Sunārgāon,[1] meaning Village of Gold) was a historic administrative, commercial and maritime centre in Bengal. Situated in the centre of the Ganges delta, it was the seat of the medieval Muslim rulers and governors of eastern Bengal. Sonargaon
Sonargaon
was described by numerous historic travellers, including Ibn Battuta, Ma Huan, Niccolò de' Conti and Ralph Fitch as a thriving centre of trade and commerce. It was an administrative centre of Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah's sultanate, the Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate
Sultanate
and the Kingdom of Bhati. The area is located near the modern industrial river port of Narayanganj
Narayanganj
in Bangladesh. Today, the name Sonargaon
Sonargaon
survives as the Sonargaon Upazila
Sonargaon Upazila
( Sonargaon
Sonargaon
Subregion) in the region.[2]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Pre-Muslim period 1.2 Muslim period

1.2.1 Isa Khan's rule

1.3 British period 1.4 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
period

2 Trade 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

History[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of Bangladesh

Etymology Timeline Traditional Urheimat

Ancient

Neolithic, c. 7600 – c. 3300 BCE Bronze Age, c. 3300 – c. 1200 BCE Iron Age, c. 1200 – c. 200 BCE

Janapada, c. 1200 – c. 600 BCE Northern Black Polished Ware, c. 700 – c. 200 BCE Pundra Kingdom, c. 700 – c. 200 BCE

Bengal
Bengal
in Mahabharata, c. 400 – c. 325 BCE Gangaridai
Gangaridai
Kingdom, c. 350 – c. 325 BCE Mauryan Empire, c. 325 – c. 185 BCE Samatata
Samatata
Kingdom, c. 232 BCE – c. 800 AD Shunga-Kushan Period, c. 185 BCE – c. 75 AD Southwestern Silk Road, c. 114 BCE – c. 1450 AD Indo-Roman trade relations, c. 30 BCE – c. 600 AD

Classical

Gupta Empire, c. 240 – c. 550 AD Sylhet-Assam Varmans, c. 350 – c. 650 Gauda Kingdom, c. 590 – c. 626 Khadga dynasty, c. 650 – c. 750 Pala Empire, c. 750 – c. 1100 Arrival of Islam, c. 800 – c. 1050 Harikela
Harikela
Kingdom, c. 900 – c. 1050

Candra dynasty, c. 900 – c. 1050

Sena dynasty, c. 1070 – c. 1320 Deva dynasty, c. 1100 – c. 1250

Medieval

Delhi Sultanate, c. 1204 – c. 1338

Mamluk Dynasty Khalji Dynasty Tugluq Dynasty

Sonargaon
Sonargaon
Sultanate, c. 1338 – c. 1352 Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate, c. 1352 – c. 1576

Ilyas Shahi dynasty Hussain Shahi dynasty Karrani dynasty

Suri Dynasty, c. 1540 – c. 1556 Twelve Bhuyans, c. 1550 – c. 1620 Porto Grande de Bengala, c. 1528 – c. 1666 Chittagong-Arakan Kingdom, c. 1530 – c. 1666 Mughal Empire, c. 1576 – c. 1717

Bengal
Bengal
Subah

Modern

Nawabs of Bengal, c. 1717 – c. 1757 Company Raj, c. 1757 – c. 1858 Faraizi Movement, c. 1818 – c. 1884 The Great Rebellion, c. 1857 – c. 1858 British Raj, c. 1858 – c. 1947

Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance Eastern Bengal
Bengal
and Assam Prime Minister of Bengal

East Bengal, c. 1947 – c. 1955

Bengali Language Movement

East Pakistan, c. 1955 – c. 1971

Six Point Movement 1969 uprising in East Pakistan Pakistani general election, 1970

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War, c. 1971

Declaration of Independence Provisional Government of Bangladesh 1971 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Genocide Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Forces

Bangladeshi Republic, c. 1972 – present

Related articles

Timeline of Bangladeshi history Bangladeshi art History of Bengali literature

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
portal

v t e

Pre-Muslim period[edit]

Bara Sardar Bari called Isa Khan's bari in Sonargaon.

The name Sonargaon
Sonargaon
came as the Bangla version of the ancient name Suvarnagrama.[2] Buddhist ruler Danujamadhava Dasharathadeva shifted his capital to Suvarnagrama from Bikrampur sometime in the middle of the 13th century.[2] In early 14th century, Bauddha ruling in this area ended when Shamsuddin Firoz Shah (reigned 1301–1322) of Lakhnauti occupied and annexed it to his kingdom.[3] Muslim period[edit]

The 7th voyage of Zheng He's fleet map based on analysis by Edward L. Dreyer shows that Hong Bao
Hong Bao
and Ma Huan
Ma Huan
visited Sonargaon
Sonargaon
in 1432.[4]

Muslim settlers first arrive in Sonargaon
Sonargaon
region in around 1281.[5] Sharfuddin Abu Tawwamah, a medieval Sufi
Sufi
saint and Islamic
Islamic
philosopher came and settled here sometime between 1282 and 1287.[6] He then established his Khanqah
Khanqah
and founded a Madrasa. Firoz Shah built a mint in Sonargaon
Sonargaon
from where a large number of coins were issued.[3] When he died in 1322, his son, Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah, replaced him as the ruler. In 1324 Delhi Sultan, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, declared war against him and after the battle, Bahadur Shah was captured and Bengal, including Sonargaon, became a province of Delhi Sultanate.[7] The same year, Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq, son and successor of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, released him and appointed him as the governor of Sonargaon
Sonargaon
province.[8] After 4 years of governorship, in 1328, Bahadur Shah declared independence of Bengal. Delhi Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq
Muhammad bin Tughlaq
sent his general, Bahram Khan, to depose him. In the battle, Bahadur Shah was defeated and killed. Bahram Khan recaptured Sonargaon
Sonargaon
for the Delhi Sultanate
Sultanate
and he was also appointed the governor of Sonargaon.[9] When Bahram Khan died in 1338, his armour-bearer, Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah, declared himself the independent Sultan of Sonargaon.[5] Fakhruddin sponsored several construction projects, including a trunk road and raised embankments, along with mosques and tombs.[10] 14th century Moroccan traveller, Ibn Batuta, after visiting the capital in 1346, described Fakhruddin as "a distinguished sovereign who loved strangers, particularly the fakirs and sufis".[10] After the death of Fakhruddin in 1349, Ikhtiyaruddin Ghazi Shah became the next independent ruler of Sonargaon.[11] Ilyas Shah, the independent ruler of Lakhnauti, attacked Sonargaon
Sonargaon
in 1352. After defeating Ikhtiyaruddin Ghazi Shah, he became the sole ruler of whole Bengal
Bengal
for the first time in history and thus he became the founder of a sultanate of the unified Bengal.[12] A squadron of the Chinese fleet of Zheng He, commanded by the eunuch Hong Bao, visited Sonargaon
Sonargaon
in 1432. The information about that expedition comes from the book of one of its participants, the Muslim translator Ma Huan.[1] In 1451 Huan wrote his experience in details in his book Yingyai Shenglan (The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores). Sonargaon
Sonargaon
is the eastern terminus of the Grand Trunk Road, which was built by the Pashtun emperor Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
and extended approximately 2500 kilometres from Bangladesh
Bangladesh
across northern India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
to Kabul
Kabul
in Afghanistan.[5] Isa Khan's rule[edit] When Taj Khan Karrani was the independent Afghan ruler of Bengal, Isa Khan obtained an estate in Sonargaon
Sonargaon
and Maheswardi Pargana in 1564 as a vassal of the Karrani rulers. Isa Khan
Isa Khan
gradually increased his strength and in 1571 he was designated as the ruler of the whole Bhati region. In 1575 he helped Daud Khan Karrani fight the Mughal flotilla in the vicinity of Sonargaon.[13] Daud Khan Karrani died in the Battle of Raj Mahal against Mughals in 1576. Akbar
Akbar
then made Isa Khan
Isa Khan
the zamindar of Sonargaon, making him one of the Baro-Bhuiyans. However, he continued resisting Mughal rule. With the help of his allies, he stood defiant against Mughals in battle against Subahdar Khan Jahan in 1578, Subahdar Shahbaz Khan in 1584 and Durjan Singh in 1597. Isa Khan
Isa Khan
died in September 1599. His son, Musa Khan, then took control of the Bhati region. But after the defeat of Musa Khan on 10 July 1610[14] by Islam Khan, the army general of Mughals, Sonargaon
Sonargaon
became one of the sarkars of Bengal subah. The capital of Bengal
Bengal
was then shifted to Jahangirnagar
Jahangirnagar
(later named Dhaka). British period[edit]

Old Panam City

Panam City (Panam Nagor)
Panam City (Panam Nagor)
after renovation

Panam City was established in the late 19th century as a trading centre of cotton fabrics during British rule. Hindu
Hindu
cloth merchants built their residential houses following colonial style with inspiration derived from European sources.[2] Today this area is protected under the Department of Archaeology of Bangladesh. The city was linked with the main city area by three brick bridges – Panam Bridge, Dalalpur Bridge and PanamNagar Bridge – during the Mughal period. The bridges are still in use. Sonakanda Fort is a Mughal river-fort located on the bank of the Shitalakshya River
Shitalakshya River
at Bandar.[15] Bangladesh
Bangladesh
period[edit] Lok Shilpa Jadughar Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Folk Arts and Crafts Foundation of Sonargaon
Sonargaon
was established by Bangladeshi painter Joynul Abedin
Joynul Abedin
on 12 March 1975.[5] The house, originally called Bara Sardar Bari, was built in 1901. On 15 February 1984, Narayanganj
Narayanganj
subdivision was upgraded to a district by the Government of Bangladesh.[16] Hence Sonargaon
Sonargaon
became a subdistrict of Narayanganj
Narayanganj
District of Dhaka
Dhaka
division. Due to the many threats to preservation (including flooding and vandalism), Sonargaon
Sonargaon
was placed in 2008 Watch List of the 100 Most Endangered Sites by the World Monuments Fund.[17] Trade[edit] By the 14th century Sonargaon
Sonargaon
became a commercial port. Trade activities were mentioned by travellers like Ibn Batuta, Ma Huan
Ma Huan
and Ralph Fitch.[2] Maritime ships travelled between Sonargaon
Sonargaon
and southeast/west Asian countries.[2] Muslin
Muslin
was produced in this region. See also[edit]

Isa Khan Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah Sonargaon
Sonargaon
Upazila Panam City (Panam Nagor)

References[edit]

^ a b Duarte Barbosa; Mansel Longworth Dames (1996) [1918–1921], The book of Duarte Barbosa : An Account of the Countries Bordering on the Indian Ocean and Their Inhabitants, Asian Educational Services, pp. 138–139, ISBN 81-206-0451-2  ^ a b c d e f Muazzam Hussain Khan, Sonargaon
Sonargaon
Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 21 January 2012 ^ a b ABM Shamsuddin Ahmed, Shamsuddin Firuz Shah Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 21 January 2012 ^ Dreyer, Edward L. (2006), Zheng He: China and the oceans in the early Ming dynasty, 1405–1433, The library of world biography, Pearson Longman, ISBN 0-321-08443-8  ^ a b c d Gope, Rabindra (2011). A visitor's guide to the Sonargaon Museum. p. 3. ISBN 978-984-33-2004-9.  ^ Muazzam Hussain Khan, Sharfuddin Abu Tawwamah Archived 7 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 18 January 2012 ^ Kingdom of South Asia Archived 10 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Khan, Muazzam Hussain. "Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah". Banglapedia. Retrieved 27 July 2015.  ^ Muazzam Hussain Khan, Tatar Khan Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 18 January 2012 ^ a b Muazzam Hussain Khan, Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah Archived 2 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine., Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 23 April 2011 ^ Muazzam Hussain Khan, Ikhtiyaruddin Ghazi Shah Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 21 January 2012 ^ ABM Shamsuddin Ahmed, Iliyas Shah Archived 4 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 21 January 2012 ^ AA Sheikh Md Asrarul Hoque Chisti, Isa Khan
Isa Khan
Archived 7 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 23 January 2012 ^ Feroz, M A Hannan (2009). 400 years of Dhaka. Ittyadi. p. 12.  ^ Ayesha Begum, Sonakanda Fort Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 21 January 2012 ^ Md Solaiman, Narayanganj
Narayanganj
Archived 7 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 21 February 2012 ^ World Monuments Fund. "2008 World Monuments Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites" (PDF). World Monuments Fund. World Monuments Fund. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 

Farhana shirin, sonargaon, gonipara, narayangonj, A.jabbar M.name:Sahara khatun Further reading[edit]

Kazi Azizul Islam and Tania Sharmeen (5 July 2005). "Panam Among World's 100 Endangered Historic Sites". News from Bangladesh.  Roy, Pinaki (9 July 2004). "Panam Nagar's Fate in Limbo". The Daily Star.  Ali, Tawfique (26 April 2007). "Unscientific Restoration Defacing Heritage". The Daily Star, Vol 5 num 1031. 

External links[edit]

The World Monuments Fund's 2008 Watch List page for Sonargaon Sonargaon
Sonargaon
in Banglapedia

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sonargaon.

v t e

Places in Bengal
Bengal
that no longer exist

Betor Bikrampur ( Bikrampur Vihara) Chaityabhumi (Pandit Vihara) Chandraketugarh Devkot Dihar Gaur (Lakhsmanabati) Gobindapur Kalikata Karnasubarna Mahasthangarh Mainamati
Mainamati
(Shalban Vihara) Moghalmari Paharpur (Somapura Mahavihara) (Halud Vihara) Pandu Rajar Dhibi Pandua Saptagram Sonargaon Sutanuti Tamralipta Varendra
Varendra
(Jagaddala Mahavihara) Wari-Bateshwar

v t e

Places of historical interest in Dhaka
Dhaka
and Dhaka
Dhaka
District

Places

Ahsan Manzil Baitul Mukarram Bangabhaban Bangladesh
Bangladesh
National Museum Bara Katra Curzon Hall Dhakeshwari Temple Hussaini Dalan Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban Kartalab Khan Mosque Lalbagh Fort Liberation War Museum Martyred Intellectuals Memorial National Martyrs’ Memorial National Museum of Science and Technology Northbrook Hall Ramna Kali Mandir Rose Garden Palace Sat Gambuj Mosque Shaheed Minar Sonargaon Star Mosque Bibi Mariam Cannon

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Dhaka
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