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Group Sonangol ( pt, Grupo Sonangol) is a parastatal that oversees petroleum and
natural gas Natural gas (also called fossil gas; sometimes just gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carb ...
production in Angola. The group consists of Sonangol E.P. ( pt, Sociedade Nacional de Combustíveis de Angola, E.P.) and its many subsidiaries. The subsidiaries generally have Sonangol E.P. as a primary client, along with other corporate, commercial and individual clients. Angola is estimated to have over of offshore and coastal petroleum reserves, and new discoveries are outpacing consumption by a 5 to 1 ratio.


History

On the eve of Portuguese Angola's independence from
Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=no ), is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in Southern Europe, southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state in mainland Europe, being ...
following the Carnation Revolution and the election of a democratic government in Portugal in 1976, the company ANGOL (ANGOL ''Sociedade de Lubrificantes e Combustíveis'' Sarl), founded in 1953 as a subsidiary of Portuguese company SACOR) was nationalized and split in two, forming Sonangol U.E.E. and Direcção Nacional de Petróleos. Directive 52/76 instituted Sonangol as a state-owned company with a mandate to manage the country's substantial petroleum and natural gas. Using the extant remains of
Texaco Texaco, Inc. ("The Texas Company") is an American oil subsidiary of Chevron Corporation. Its flagship product is its fuel "Texaco with Techron". It also owns the Havoline motor oil brand. Texaco was an independent company until its refining op ...
, Total, Shell and Mobil's oil works, Sonangol obtained the assistance of
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and of Italian Eni. Oil giant Marathon Oil announced in September 2013 that it had agreed a deal in principle to sell a 10% stake in its offshore Angolan oilfield to Sonangol. In December 2013, Sonangol acquired the exploration rights to five onshore oil blocks in Angola, which could be tendered for development at a later date. In June 2016, president José Eduardo dos Santos removed the entire board of Sonangol, and installed Isabel dos Santos as chairwoman of the company, to "ensure transparency and apply global corporate-governance standards". This led to many accusations of corruption and nepotism. However, in November 15, 2017, the new president of Angola João Lourenço, João Manuel Gonçalves Lourenço dismissed Isabel dos Santos and named Carlos Saturnino Guerra Sousa e Oliveira as the Sonangol chairman. An internal audit later revealed that after she had been dismissed, dos Santos transferred US$38 million of the company's funds to a suspicious Dubai based company.


Missing oil billions

In December 2011, Human Rights Watch said that the Government of Angola should explain the whereabouts of US$32 billion missing from government funds linked to Sonangol. A December 2011 report by the International Monetary Fund said that the government funds were spent or transferred from 2007 through 2010 without being properly documented in the budget. The IMF was assured that most of $32 billion was being used for legitimate government reasons and considered to be "found".


Organization

Today (as of 2006), Sonangol has over 30 subsidiaries and maintains overseas facilities in the following cities: * Brazzaville, Brazzaville, Congo * Hong Kong * Houston, Texas, Houston, US **Sonangol USA Co. (SonUSA) has its head office in the Energy Corridor area in Houston. * London, UK ** Sonangol Limited has its head office in the Merevale House in Kensington, Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, RBKC, London. * Singapore. As the company grew it had a need to obtain services, such as telecommunications, telecommunications services, retail network support, truck driver, trucking, shipping, data management, Science, scientific, engineering, seismic, and others. The company created subsidiaries to meet these needs. Sonangol and its many subsidiaries have continued to expand into other lines of business. Among the more important subsidiaries are Sonair and MSTelcom. Sonangol is one of the major shareholders of the Portugal, Portuguese energy company Galp Energia through its indirect participation in the capital of Amorim Energia, which holds one third of GALP's shares and on which board sits the Sindika Dokolo, son-in-law of the José Eduardo dos Santos, Angolan President. Sonangol is an important sponsor of the arts, sports and humanities in Angola and in Africa. On December 12, Reuters reported that Sonangol won the rights to develop the Iraq's Najmah oilfield in a bid held that day. The company's plateau production target for the field in the volatile province of Nineveh is (bpd), and the remuneration fee is $6 per barrel. Sonangol had proposed a per-barrel fee of $8.50, but then accepted the Oil Ministry's lower amount. In 2018, Sonangol announced that they will reactivate their Iraqi oil exploration fields in Najma and Qayara after years of closure due to constant armed conflicts. The two oil fields in Iraq are estimated to still have a reserve of 1 billion barrels of oil.


Subsidiaries

* ESSA (Angola) ''Training'' * Kwanda Island, Kwanda Logistical Support ''logistical support, Kwanda field'' * MSTelcom ''telecommunications'' * Sodimo ''real estate management'' * SonAir ''oil and gas industry air transport service'' * Sonangol P&P ''Oil exploration'' * Sonagas ''Natural Gas Exploration'' * Sonadiets ''corporate infrastructure'' * Sonamer ''oil well, oil recovery; deep drilling'' * Sonamet ''drilling rig, petroleum platform manufacturing; metal structure fabrication'' * Sonangol Distribuidora ''downstream petroleum products including gasoline, gasoline/petrol'' * Sonangol Shipping ''oil tanker, maritime crude oil transport'' * Sonangol USA, ''located in Houston, Texas'' * Sonaship ''oil tanker, maritime petroleum product transport'' * Sonasurf ''offshore oil work logistics'' * Sonatide ''offshore oil work logistics'' * Sonawest ''seismic data service'' * Sonils Logistical Support ''logistical support'' http://www.sonils.co.ao/ * Sonangol Starfish Brasil P&P ''Oil exploration''


Technologies

Sonangol USA, Sonangol London, and Sonangol Asia are the main trading and operations offices for the crude and product cargoes sold on behalf of Sonangol E.P. Sonangol Starfish which is located in Brazil, Brasil, Rio de Janeiro since 22 of March 2010


References


Further reading

*


External links


Sonangol

Sonangol USA

Sonangol London, in English and Portuguese

Sonangol Polska
{{Authority control Oil and gas companies of Angola National oil and gas companies, Ang Government of Angola Companies based in Luanda Energy companies established in 1976 Non-renewable resource companies established in 1976 1976 establishments in Angola Angolan brands