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The Somali Democratic Republic
Somali Democratic Republic
(Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Dimuqraadiya Soomaaliya, Arabic: الجمهورية الديمقراطية الصومالية‎ al-Jumhūrīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah aṣ-Ṣūmālīyah, Italian: Repubblica Democratica Somala) was the name that the Marxist–Leninist military dictatorship government of former President of Somalia
President of Somalia
Major General Mohamed Siad Barre
Siad Barre
gave to Somalia
Somalia
during its rule, after having seized power in a bloodless 1969 coup d'état.[4][5][6] The putsch came a few days after the assassination of Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, the nation's second President, by one of his own bodyguards.[6] Barre's administration ruled Somalia
Somalia
for the following 21 years, until Somalia collapsed into anarchy in 1991.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Supreme Revolutionary Council 1.2 Ogaden
Ogaden
campaign 1.3 Dissolution

2 President 3 Prime ministers 4 References 5 Further reading

History[edit] Supreme Revolutionary Council[edit] Main article: Supreme Revolutionary Council (Somalia) Siad Barre
Siad Barre
with Romanian President Nicolae Ceauşescu
Nicolae Ceauşescu
in 1976 Part of a series on the

History of Somalia

Prehistory Laas Gaal
Laas Gaal
(9,000~3,000 BCE) Land of Punt
Land of Punt
(2,500-1,500 BCE) Dhambalin (3,000~1,000 BCE)

Ancient Macrobians Berber city-states (c. 1st century) Azania city-states (c. 1st century)

Middle Ages Adal Sultanate
Adal Sultanate
(9th-16th c.) Ifat Sultanate
Ifat Sultanate
(12th-15th c.) Ajuran Sultanate
Ajuran Sultanate
(13th-17th c.) Warsangali Sultanate
Warsangali Sultanate
(13th-19th c.) Sultanate of Mogadishu
Mogadishu
(13th-16th c.)

Early modern Geledi sultanate
Geledi sultanate
(16th-1910) Majeerteen Sultanate
Majeerteen Sultanate
(16th-1924) Sultanate of Hobyo
Sultanate of Hobyo
(1876-1926)

Colonial period(1884–1960) British Somaliland
Somaliland
(1884-1960) Italian Somaliland
Somaliland
(1889-1941) Dervish State
Dervish State
(1896-1920) Trust Territory (1941-1960)

Modern Somalia(since 1960) Somali Republic
Somali Republic
(1960-1969) Communist rule (1969-1991) Transitional National Government
Transitional National Government
(2000-2004) Transitional Federal Government
Transitional Federal Government
(2004-2012) Federal Government (2012-)

Somalia portalvte Alongside Barre, the Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) that assumed power after President Sharmarke's assassination was led by Lieutenant Colonel Salaad Gabeyre Kediye and Chief of Police Jama Korshel. Kediye officially held the title of "Father of the Revolution," and Barre shortly afterwards became the head of the SRC.[7] The SRC subsequently arrested members of the former civilian government, banned political parties,[8] dissolved the parliament and the Supreme Court, and suspended the constitution.[9] The revolutionary army established large-scale public works programs and successfully implemented an urban and rural literacy campaign, which helped dramatically increase the literacy rate. In addition to a nationalization program of industry and land, the new regime's foreign policy placed an emphasis on Somalia's traditional and religious links with the Arab world, eventually joining the Arab League
Arab League
(AL) in 1974.[10] That same year, Barre also served as chairman of the Organization of African Unity
Organization of African Unity
(OAU), the predecessor of the African Union (AU).[11] In July 1976, Barre's SRC disbanded itself and established in its place the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party
Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party
(SRSP), a one-party government based on scientific socialism and Islamic tenets. The SRSP was an attempt to reconcile the official state ideology with the official state religion by adapting Marxist precepts to local circumstances. Emphasis was placed on the Muslim principles of social progress, equality and justice, which the government argued formed the core of scientific socialism and its own accent on self-sufficiency, public participation and popular control, as well as direct ownership of the means of production. While the SRSP encouraged private investment on a limited scale, the administration's overall direction was essentially socialist.[9]

Ogaden
Ogaden
campaign[edit] Main article: Ogaden
Ogaden
War In July 1977, the Ogaden War
Ogaden War
against Ethiopia broke out after Barre's government sought to incorporate the predominantly Somali-inhabited Ogaden
Ogaden
region into a Pan-Somali Greater Somalia. The war was part of broader SNA effort to unite all Somali territories (Soomaliweyn). In the first week of the conflict, the Somali National Army scored spectacular victories over the Ethiopian forces, surprising many American military observers who took on a position of neutrality during the war. Southern and central Ogaden
Ogaden
were captured in the early stages of conflict and for most of the war, the Somali Army scored continuous victories on the Ethiopian Army and followed them as far as Sidamo. By September 1977, Somalia
Somalia
controlled 90% of the Ogaden
Ogaden
and captured strategic cities such as Jijiga
Jijiga
and put heavy pressure on Dire Dawa, threatening the train route from the latter city to Djibouti. After the siege of Harar, a massive unprecedented Soviet intervention consisting of 20,000 Cuban forces and several thousand Soviet advisers came to the aid of Ethiopia's communist Derg
Derg
regime. By 1978, a ceasefire was negotiated putting an end to the war, despite this the majority of the Ogaden
Ogaden
remained in Somali hands until 1980 despite the odds. This shift in support by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
motivated the Barre government to seek allies elsewhere. It eventually settled on the Soviet Union's Cold War
Cold War
arch-rival, the United States, which had been courting the Somali government for some time. All in all, Somalia's initial friendship with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and later partnership with the United States
United States
enabled it to build the largest army in Africa.[12]

Dissolution[edit] Main article: Somali Civil War After fallout from the unsuccessful Ogaden
Ogaden
campaign, Barre's administration began arresting government and military officials under suspicion of participation in the abortive 1978 coup d'état.[13][14] Most of the people who had allegedly helped plot the putsch were summarily executed.[15] However, several officials managed to escape abroad and started to form the first of various dissident groups dedicated to ousting Barre's regime by force.[16] A new constitution was promulgated in 1979 under which elections for a People's Assembly were held. However, Barre's Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party politburo continued to rule.[5] In October 1980, the SRSP was disbanded, and the Supreme Revolutionary Council was re-established in its place.[9] By that time, Barre's government had become increasingly unpopular. Many Somalis had become disillusioned with life under military dictatorship. The regime was weakened further in the 1980s as the Cold War
Cold War
drew to a close and Somalia's strategic importance was diminished. The government became increasingly totalitarian, culminating in the Isaaq genocide
Isaaq genocide
(1987-1988), largely destroying several major cities and targeting members of the Isaaq
Isaaq
clan. Estimates of civilian deaths range from 50,000-100,000[17][18][19] up to over 200,000.[20] Such tactics from the government prompted resistance movements, supported by Ethiopia, which sprang up across the country and eventually led to the Somali Civil War. Among the militia groups were the Somali Salvation Democratic Front
Somali Salvation Democratic Front
(SSDF), United Somali Congress (USC), Somali National Movement
Somali National Movement
(SNM) and the Somali Patriotic Movement
Somali Patriotic Movement
(SPM), together with the non-violent political oppositions of the Somali Democratic Movement
Somali Democratic Movement
(SDM), the Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA) and the Somali Manifesto Group (SMG). Barre was removed from power on January 26, 1991, and Somalia subsequently collapsed into anarchy.

President[edit] Mohamed Siad Barre
Siad Barre
(October 21, 1969 – January 26, 1991) Prime ministers[edit] Mohamed Farah Salad (November 1, 1969 – March 1970) Post abolished (March 1970 – February 1, 1987) Muhammad Ali Samatar
Muhammad Ali Samatar
(February 1, 1987 – September 3, 1990) Muhammad Hawadle Madar
Muhammad Hawadle Madar
(September 3, 1990 – January 24, 1991) References[edit]

^ Somaliland
Somaliland
is not internationally recognized. Its territory is considered part of Somalia. Somaliland
Somaliland
authorities, however, hold de facto power in the region.

^ International Demographic Data Center (U.S.), United States
United States
Bureau of the Census (1980). World Population 1979: Recent Demographic Estimates for the Countries and Regions of the World. The Bureau. pp. 137-138.

^ The World Factbook 1991

^ la Fosse Wiles, Peter John de (1982). The New Communist Third World: An Essay in Political Economy. Taylor & Francis. p. 1590. ISBN 0-7099-2709-6..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ J. D. Fage, Roland Anthony Oliver, The Cambridge history of Africa, Volume 8, (Cambridge University Press: 1985), p.478.

^ a b The Encyclopedia Americana: complete in thirty volumes. Skin to Sumac, Volume 25, (Grolier: 1995), p.214.

^ a b Moshe Y. Sachs, Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, Volume 2, (Worldmark Press: 1988), p.290.

^ Adam, Hussein Mohamed; Richard Ford (1997). Mending rips in the sky: options for Somali communities in the 21st century. Red Sea Press. p. 226. ISBN 1-56902-073-6.

^ Metz, Helen C. (ed.) (1992), "Coup d'Etat", Somalia: A Country Study, Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, retrieved October 21, 2009CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link).

^ a b c Peter John de la Fosse Wiles, The New Communist Third World: an essay in political economy, (Taylor & Francis: 1982), p.279.

^ Benjamin Frankel, The Cold War, 1945-1991: Leaders and other important figures in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, China, and the Third World, (Gale Research: 1992), p.306.

^ Oihe Yang, Africa South of the Sahara 2001, 30th Ed., (Taylor and Francis: 2000), p.1025.

^ Oliver Ramsbotham, Tom Woodhouse, Encyclopedia of international peacekeeping operations, (ABC-CLIO: 1999), p.222.

^ ARR: Arab report and record, (Economic Features, ltd.: 1978), p.602.

^ Ahmed III, Abdul. "Brothers in Arms Part I" (PDF). WardheerNews. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 3, 2012. Retrieved February 28, 2012.

^ New People Media Centre, New people, Issues 94–105, (New People Media Centre: Comboni Missionaries, 2005).

^ Nina J. Fitzgerald, Somalia: issues, history, and bibliography, (Nova Publishers: 2002), p.25.

^ Peifer, Douglas C. (2009-05-01). Stopping Mass Killings in Africa: Genocide, Airpower, and Intervention. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 9781437912814.

^ Straus, Scott (2015-03-24). Making and Unmaking Nations: The Origins and Dynamics of Genocide in Contemporary Africa. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801455674.

^ Jones, Adam (2017-01-22). Genocide, war crimes and the West: history and complicity. Zed Books. ISBN 9781842771914.

^ "Investigating genocide in Somaliland".

Further reading[edit] la Fosse Wiles, Peter John de (1982). The New Communist Third World: An Essay in Political Economy. Taylor & Francis. p. 392. ISBN 0-7099-2709-6. vteSomalia articlesHistoryChronology Laas Geel Land of Punt Walashma dynasty Adal Sultanate Warsangali Sultanate Ajuran Empire Sultanate of the Geledi Majeerteen Sultanate Sultanate of Hobyo Dervish movement Italian Somaliland British Somaliland Trust Territory of Somaliland Ogaden
Ogaden
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