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The Somali Youth League
Somali Youth League
(SYL) (Somali: Ururka Dhalinyarada Soomaaliyeed, Arabic: عصبة الشبيبة الصومالية‎), initially known as the Somali Youth Club (SYC), was the first political party in Somalia. It played a key role in the nation's road to independence during the 1950s and 1960s.

Contents

1 History 2 Political leaders

2.1 Founders and leaders 2.2 Notable members

3 Somali Youth Day 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] During the Second World War, Britain occupied Italian Somaliland
Italian Somaliland
and militarily administered the territory from 1941 to 1950. Faced with growing Italian political pressure inimical to continued British tenure and Somali aspirations for independence, the Somalis and the British came to see each other as allies. The first modern Somali political party, the Somali Youth Club (SYC), was subsequently established in Mogadishu
Mogadishu
in 1943.[2]

Former President of the Somali National Assembly, Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf, and speaker of the SOMALIA ACT OF UNION 1 July 1960. one of several prominent Somali politicians that emerged from the Somali Youth League's leadership ranks.

At its foundation, the party had 13 members: four Darod, three Digil and Mirifle, two Reer Xamar, three Abgaal and one Isaaq. The group's founding members were significantly influenced by the earlier religious rebellion at the turn of the century of Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (the "Mad Mullah"), including the SYC's founding father, Abdulqadir Sakhawadin.[2] To empower the new party, the better educated police and civil servants were permitted to join it. By 1948, following an official visit to the territory by the Four Power Commission, the SYC was a well-structured political unit,[2] Abdullahi Issa was elected as its leader and renamed itself as the Somali Youth League (SYL) and began to open offices not only in Italian and British Somaliland, but also in the Ogaden
Ogaden
and in the Northern Frontier District (NFD). The SYL's stated objectives were to unify all Somali territories, including the NFD and the Ogaden; to create opportunities for universal modern education; to develop the Somali language
Somali language
by a standard national orthography; to safeguard Somali interests; and to oppose the restoration of Italian rule. SYL policy banned clannishness so that the thirteen founding members, although representing four of Somalia's five major clans, refused to disclose their clan affiliations. Although the SYL enjoyed considerable popular support from northerners, the principal parties in British Somaliland
British Somaliland
were the Somali National League (SNL), mainly associated with the Isaaq
Isaaq
clan, and the United Somali Party (USP), which had the support of the Dir (Gadabuursi) and Darod
Darod
( Dulbahante
Dulbahante
and Warsangali) clans. In 1945, the Potsdam conference
Potsdam conference
was held, where it was decided not to return Italian Somaliland
Italian Somaliland
to Italy.[3] The United Nations
United Nations
opted instead in November 1949 to grant Italy trusteeship of Italian Somaliland, but only under close supervision and on the condition—first proposed by the SYL and other nascent Somali political organizations that were then agitating for independence, such as the Marehan Union Party, Hizbia Digil Mirifle Somali (HDMS) (which later became Hizbia Dastur Mustaqbal Somali) and the SNL—that Somalia
Somalia
achieve independence within ten years.[4][5] British Somaliland
British Somaliland
remained a protectorate of Britain until June 26, 1960, when it became independent. The former Italian Somaliland followed suit five days later.[6] On July 1, 1960, the two territories united to form the Somali Republic, albeit within boundaries drawn up by Italy and Britain.[7][8][9] A government was formed by Abdullahi Issa Mohamud and Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal
Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal
and other members of the trusteeship and protectorate administrations, with Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf speaker of the SOMALIA ACT OF UNION as the first President of the independent Somali National Assembly, and with Aden Abdullah Osman Daar as the first President of the Somali Republic,[10][11][12] and Abdirashid Ali Shermarke
Abdirashid Ali Shermarke
as Prime Minister, later to become President (from 1967-1969). On July 20, 1961 and through a popular referendum, the Somali people ratified a new constitution, which was first drafted in 1960.[13] In the first national elections after independence, held on 30 March 1964, the SYL won an absolute majority of 69 of the 123 parliamentary seats. The remaining seats were divided among 11 parties. Five years from then, in general elections held in March 1969, the ruling SYL led by Mohammed Ibrahim Egal
Ibrahim Egal
returned to power. However, in the same year, then President of Somalia
Somalia
Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke was assassinated. A military coup quickly ensued, with Siad Barre
Siad Barre
now assuming leadership. Barre's Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) subsequently renamed the country the Somali Democratic Republic,[14][15] arrested members of the former government, banned political parties,[16] dissolved the parliament and the Supreme Court, and suspended the constitution.[17] Political leaders[edit] Founders and leaders[edit] The following is a list of the SYL's 13 original founder members, including its first leader Yasin Haji Osman Sharmarke: Yasin Haji Osman Sharmarke Mohamed Hirsi Nur (Seyedin) Haji Mahamed Hussein Mahad Osman Geedi Rage Dhere Haji Dhere Dahir Haji Osman (Dhegaweyne) Abdulqadir Sakhawadin Ali Hasan Maslah Mohamed Ali Nur Mohamed Farah Hilowle H. Mohamed Abdullahi Hayesi Hudow Malin Abdullahi Salah Mohamed Osman Barbe Bardhere Notable members[edit] The following is a list of other notable public officials that emerged from the SYL's ranks:

Presidents

Aden Abdullah Osman Daar: July 1, 1960 – June 10, 1967 Abdirashid Ali Shermarke: June 10, 1967 – October 15, 1969 Mukhtar Mohamed Hussein: October 15, 1969 – October 21, 1969

Prime Ministers

Abdullahi Issa Mohamud: February 29, 1956 – July 12, 1960 Abdirashid Ali Shermarke: July 1, 1960 – June 10, 1964 Abdirizak Haji Hussein: June 14, 1964 – July 15, 1967 Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal: July 15, 1967 – October 21, 1969 Umar Arteh Ghalib: January 24, 1991 – May 1993

Presidents of the Somali National Assembly

Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf: July 1, 1960 – mid-July 1960 Jama Abdullahi Qalib: mid-July 1960 – May 26, 1964 Ahmed Sh. Mohamed Obsiye: May 26, 1964 – 1967 Mukhtar Mohamed Hussein: 1967 – October 15, 1969

Ministers

Abdillahi Mohammed Ahmed: Minister of National and Coordination Sheekh Cabdiqani Sheekh Axmed: Minister of Justice and Religion Affairs Haji Farah Ali Omar: Minister of Economic Affairs Mohamed Said Samatar: Minister of State

Parliamentarians

Osman Haji Mohamed: MP for El Dheer

Other

Ali Shido Abdi: Vice-Chairman of the SYL Haji Dirie Hirsi: Representative in the Chamber of Commerce Cabdiqani Ahmed Hussei A/lahi The Vice President Of Somaliland

Somali Youth Day[edit] The Somali Youth League's establishment on May 15, 1943 is annually commemorated in Somalia. Official celebrations are organized throughout the country on this Somali Youth Day to honour the SYL's members and their key role in the nation's path to independence. In 2014, government representatives, youth associations, women's groups, singers and local residents feted the Somali Youth League's 71st anniversary.[18] See also[edit]

History of Somalia List of political parties in Somalia Elections in Somalia

Notes[edit]

^ Metz, Helen C. (ed.) (1992), "Politics", Somalia: A Country Study, Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, retrieved April 1, 2013 CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b c I. M. Lewis, A pastoral democracy: a study of pastoralism and politics among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa, (LIT Verlag Münster: 1999), p.304. ^ Federal Research Division, Somalia: A Country Study, (Kessinger Publishing, LLC: 2004), p.38 ^ Aristide R. Zolberg et al., Escape from Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World, (Oxford University Press: 1992), p.106 ^ Henry Louis Gates, Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, (Oxford University Press: 1999), p.1749 ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, The New Encyclopædia Britannica, (Encyclopædia Britannica: 2002), p.835 ^ The beginning of the Somali nation after independence ^ The dawn of the Somali nation-state in 1960 ^ The making of a Somalia
Somalia
state ^ Aden Abdullah Osman the founding father ^ The founding father of Somalia ^ A tribute to the Somalia
Somalia
founding father, its president in 1960s ^ Greystone Press Staff, The Illustrated Library of The World and Its Peoples: Africa, North and East, (Greystone Press: 1967), p.338 ^ J. D. Fage, Roland Anthony Oliver, The Cambridge history of Africa, Volume 8, (Cambridge University Press: 1985), p.478. ^ The Encyclopedia Americana: complete in thirty volumes. Skin to Sumac, Volume 25, (Grolier: 1995), p.214. ^ Metz, Helen C. (ed.) (1992), "Coup d'Etat", Somalia: A Country Study, Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, retrieved October 21, 2009 CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) . ^ Peter John de la Fosse Wiles, The New Communist Third World: an essay in political economy, (Taylor & Francis: 1982), p.279. ^ "SOMALIA: Somali Youth day celebrated in Garowe". Raxanreeb. 15 May 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2014. 

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/.

External links[edit]

SYL election results

v t e

Political parties in Somalia
Somalia

National

Somali Youth League Greater Somalia
Somalia
League Work and Socialism Party Marehan Union Party Somali African National Union United Somali Parliamentarians Green Leaf for Democracy Somalia
Somalia
Green Party Democratic Party of Somalia Democratic Green Party of Somalia Somali National Party Peace and Development Party Daljir Tayo Tiir Party Hiil Qaran

Regional

Puntland

Horseed

Somaliland

Peace, Unity, and Development Party For Justice and Development United Peoples' Democratic Party Wadani

Portal:Politics List of political parties Politic

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