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Bassovia Leptostemonum Lyciosolanum Solanum (but see text)

Synonyms

Androcera Nutt. Aquartia Jacq. Artorhiza Raf. Bassovia Aubl. Battata Hill Bosleria A.Nelson Ceranthera Raf. Cliocarpus Miers Cyphomandra
Cyphomandra
Mart. ex Sendtn. Diamonon Raf. Dulcamara Moench Lycopersicon
Lycopersicon
Mill. Melongena Mill. Normania Lowe Nycterium Vent. Ovaria Fabr. Parmentiera
Parmentiera
Raf. (non DC.: preoccupied) Petagnia Raf. Pheliandra Werderm. Pseudocapsicum Medik. Scubulus Raf. Solanastrum Fabr. Solanocharis Bitter Solanopsis Bitter Triguera Cav.

Solanum
Solanum
is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants, which include two food crops of high economic importance, the potato and the tomato. It also contains the nightshades and horse nettles, as well as numerous plants cultivated for their ornamental flowers and fruit. Solanum
Solanum
species show a wide range of growing habits, such as annual and perennials, vines, subshrubs, shrubs, and small trees. Many formerly independent genera like Lycopersicon
Lycopersicon
(the tomatoes) and Cyphomandra
Cyphomandra
are now included in Solanum
Solanum
as subgenera or sections. Thus, the genus today contains roughly 1,500–2,000 species.

Contents

1 Name 2 Nightshades 3 Food crops 4 Ornamentals 5 Medicine 6 Ecology 7 Systematics

7.1 Subgenus Bassovia 7.2 Subgenus Leptostemonum 7.3 Subgenus Lyciosolanum 7.4 Subgenus Solanum
Solanum
sensu stricto 7.5 Other notable species 7.6 Formerly placed here

8 References 9 External links

Name[edit] The generic name was first used by Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(23–79) for a plant also known as strychnos, most likely S. nigrum. Its derivation is uncertain, possibly stemming from the Latin
Latin
word sol, meaning "sun", referring to its status as a plant of the sun. Another possibility is that the root was solare, meaning "to soothe", or solamen, meaning "a comfort", which would refer to the soothing effects of the plant upon ingestion.[2] Nightshades[edit] The species most commonly called nightshade in North America and Britain is Solanum
Solanum
dulcamara, also called bittersweet or woody nightshade. Its foliage and egg-shaped red berries are poisonous, the active principle being solanine, which can cause convulsions and death if taken in large doses. The black nightshade (S. nigrum) is also generally considered poisonous, but its fully ripened fruit and foliage are cooked and eaten in some areas. The deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) is not in the genus Solanum, but is a member of the family Solanaceae. Food crops[edit] Most parts of the plants, especially the green parts and unripe fruit, are poisonous to humans (although not necessarily to other animals), but many species in the genus bear some edible parts, such as fruits, leaves, or tubers. Three crops in particular have been bred and harvested for consumption by humans for centuries, and are now cultivated on a global scale:

Tomato, S. lycopersicum

Tomato
Tomato
varieties are sometimes bred from both S. lycopersicum and wild tomato species such as S. pimpinellifolium, S. peruvianum, S. cheesmanii, S. galapagense, S. chilense, etc. (Such varieties include—among others—Bicentennial, Dwarf Italian, Epoch, Golden Sphere, Hawaii, Ida Red, Indigo Rose,[3] Kauai, Lanai, Marion, Maui, Molokai, Niihau, Oahu, Owyhee, Parma, Payette, Red Lode, Super Star, Surecrop, Tuckers Forcing, V 121, Vantage, Vetomold, and Waltham.)[4]

Potato, S. tuberosum Eggplant
Eggplant
(also known as brinjal or aubergine), S. melongena

Other species are significant food crops regionally, such as Ethiopian eggplant and gilo (S. aethiopicum), naranjilla or lulo (S. quitoense), turkey berry (S. torvum), pepino (S. muricatum), tamarillo, or the "bush tomatoes" (several Australian species). Ornamentals[edit] The species most widely seen in cultivation as ornamental plants are:-

S. aviculare (kangaroo apple) S. capsicastrum (false Jerusalem cherry, winter cherry) S. crispum (Chilean potato tree) S. laciniatum (kangaroo apple) S. laxum (potato vine) S. pseudocapsicum (Christmas cherry, winter cherry) S. rantonnetii (blue potato bush) S. seaforthianum (Italian jasmine, St. Vincent lilac) S. wendlandii (paradise flower, potato vine)[5]

Medicine[edit] Poisonings associated with certain species of Solanum
Solanum
are not uncommon and may be fatal. However, several species are locally used in folk medicine, particularly by native peoples who have long employed them. Ecology[edit] Solanum
Solanum
species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
species (butterflies and moths) – see list of Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
that feed on Solanum. Systematics[edit] See also: List of Solanum
Solanum
species The genus was established by Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
in 1753.[6] Its subdivision has always been problematic, but slowly some sort of consensus is being achieved. The following list is a provisional lineup of the genus' traditional subdivisions, together with some notable species.[6] Many of the subgenera and sections might not be valid; they are used here provisionally as the phylogeny of this genus is not fully resolved yet and many species have not been reevaluated. Cladistic
Cladistic
analyses of DNA sequence
DNA sequence
data suggest that the present subdivisions and rankings are largely invalid. Far more subgenera would seem to warrant recognition, with Leptostemonum being the only one that can at present be clearly subdivided into sections. Notably, it includes as a major lineage several members of the traditional sections Cyphomandropsis and the old genus Cyphomandra.[1] Subgenus Bassovia[edit] Section Allophylla

Solanum
Solanum
granuloso-leprosum

Section Cyphomandropsis

Solanum glaucophyllum
Solanum glaucophyllum
Desf. – Waxy-leaved nightshade

Section Pachyphylla

Solanum
Solanum
betaceum Cav. – Tamarillo Solanum
Solanum
exiguum Solanum
Solanum
roseum

Subgenus Leptostemonum[edit]

Solanum
Solanum
palinacanthum

Five-minute plant
Five-minute plant
(S. atropurpureum) fruit

Shrubby nightshade
Shrubby nightshade
(S. robustum) flowers

Giant potatocreeper (S. wendlandii) flowers

Porcupine tomato
Porcupine tomato
(S. pyracanthum) fruit

Section Acanthophora

Solanum aculeatissimum
Solanum aculeatissimum
Jacq. – Indian nightshade Solanum atropurpureum
Solanum atropurpureum
Schrank – Five-minute plant Solanum capsicoides
Solanum capsicoides
– Cockroach berry, polohauaiʻi (Polynesian) Solanum mammosum
Solanum mammosum
– Nipplefruit, titty fruit, cow's udder, "apple of Sodom" Solanum
Solanum
palinacanthum Dunal Solanum viarum
Solanum viarum
Dunal – Tropical soda apple

Section Androceras: 12 spp.[1]

Series Androceras Series Violaceiflorum Series Pacificum

Section Anisantherum Section Campanulata Section Crinitum Section Croatianum Section Erythrotrichum

Solanum robustum
Solanum robustum
H.L.Wendl. – Shrubby nightshade

Section Graciliflorum[verification needed] Section Herposolanum

Solanum
Solanum
wendlandii Hook.f. – Giant potatocreeper

Section Irenosolanum

Solanum incompletum
Solanum incompletum
Dunal – Pōpolo kū mai (Hawaiʻi) Solanum nelsonii
Solanum nelsonii
Dunal – Nelson's horsenettle, ʻĀkia (Hawaiʻi) Solanum sandwicense
Solanum sandwicense
Hook. & Arn. – Hawaiian horsenettle, Pōpoloʻaiakeakua (Oʻahu, Kauaʻi)

Section Ischyracanthum Section Lasiocarpa

Solanum lasiocarpum
Solanum lasiocarpum
Dunal Solanum pseudolulo
Solanum pseudolulo
– lulo de perro (Colombia) Solanum quitoense
Solanum quitoense
– lulo (Colombia), naranjilla (Ecuador) Solanum sessiliflorum
Solanum sessiliflorum
– Cocona

Section Melongena

Solanum aculeastrum – Soda apple, sodaapple nightshade, goat apple, poison apple, "bitter-apple" Solanum campechiense
Solanum campechiense
– Redberry nightshade Solanum carolinense
Solanum carolinense
– Carolina horsenettle, radical weed, sand brier, devil's tomato, "bull nettle", "tread-softly", "apple of Sodom", "wild tomato" (southeastern United States) Solanum citrullifolium
Solanum citrullifolium
A.Braun – Watermelon nightshade (southern United States) Solanum dimidiatum Raf. – Torrey's nightshade Solanum elaeagnifolium
Solanum elaeagnifolium
– Silver-leaved nightshade, prairie berry, silverleaf nettle, white horsenettle, silver nightshade, "bull-nettle", "trompillo" (Spanish); Silver-leaf bitter-apple, satansbos (South Africa) Solanum
Solanum
heterodoxum Dunal – Melon-leaved nightshade Solanum incanum
Solanum incanum
L. Solanum linnaeanum
Solanum linnaeanum
– Devil's apple, "apple of Sodom" Solanum macrocarpon
Solanum macrocarpon
L. Solanum marginatum
Solanum marginatum
L.f. – White-margined nightshade Solanum melongena
Solanum melongena
– Eggplant, aubergine (including S. ovigerum) Solanum rostratum
Solanum rostratum
Dunal – Buffalo bur, Texas thistle Solanum sisymbriifolium
Solanum sisymbriifolium
Lam. – Sticky nightshade, fire-and-ice Solanum virginianum
Solanum virginianum
L.

Section Micracantha

Solanum
Solanum
jamaicense Mill. – Jamaican nightshade Solanum
Solanum
lanceifolium Jacq. – Lance-leaved nightshade Solanum tampicense
Solanum tampicense
Dunal – Wetland nightshade

Section Monodolichopus Section Nycterium Section Oliganthes

Solanum aethiopicum
Solanum aethiopicum
– Ethiopian eggplant, nakati, mock tomato, Ethiopian nightshade; including S. gilo (scarlet eggplant, Gilo or jiló) Solanum centrale
Solanum centrale
– Australian desert raisin, bush raisin, bush sultana, "bush tomato", akatjurra (Alyawarre), kampurarpa (Pitjantjatjara), merne akatyerre (Arrernte), kutjera Solanum cleistogamum
Solanum cleistogamum
– "bush tomato", merne mwanyerne (Arrernte) Solanum ellipticum
Solanum ellipticum
Potato
Potato
bush, "bush tomato" Solanum pyracanthos
Solanum pyracanthos
Lam. – Porcupine tomato, Devil's Thorn Solanum quadriloculatum
Solanum quadriloculatum
F.Muell. – "bush tomato", "wild tomato" (Australia)

Section Persicariae

Solanum bahamense
Solanum bahamense
L. – Bahama nightshade, canker berry, berengena de playa Solanum ensifolium
Solanum ensifolium
Dunal – Erubia

Section Polytrichum Section Pugiunculifera Section Somalanum Section Torva

Solanum
Solanum
asteropilodes Solanum
Solanum
chrysotrichum Schltdl. – Giant devil's-fig Solanum lanceolatum – Orangeberry nightshade Solanum paniculatum
Solanum paniculatum
– Jurubeba Solanum torvum
Solanum torvum
– Turkey berry, devil's fig, prickly nightshade, shoo-shoo bush, wild eggplant, pea eggplant

Subgenus Lyciosolanum[edit]

Solanum
Solanum
guineense L.

Subgenus Solanum
Solanum
sensu stricto[edit]

Solanum
Solanum
erianthum

Jasmine nightshade
Jasmine nightshade
(S. laxum) flowers

Currant tomato
Currant tomato
(S. pimpinellifolium) fruit

Andean black potatoes (S. tuberosum)

Turkey berry
Turkey berry
(S. torvum) flowers

Yellow nightshade (S. villosum) fruit

Section Afrosolanum Section Anarrhichomenum

Solanum
Solanum
baretiae[7]

Section Archaesolanum

Solanum aviculare
Solanum aviculare
Poroporo
Poroporo
(New Zealand), kangaroo apple (Australia)

Section Basarthrum

Solanum
Solanum
catilliflorum[8] Solanum muricatum
Solanum muricatum
– Pepino dulce, pepino melon, melon pear, "pepino", "tree melon" Solanum
Solanum
perlongistylum[8] Solanum
Solanum
tergosericeum[9]

Section Benderianum Section Brevantherum

Solanum
Solanum
bullatum Solanum erianthum
Solanum erianthum
D.Don – Potato
Potato
tree, "mullein nightshade" Solanum mauritianum
Solanum mauritianum
– Woolly nightshade, ear-leaved nightshade, flannel weed, bugweed, tobacco weed, kerosene plant, "wild tobacco" (Australia) Solanum
Solanum
evolvuloides

Section Dulcamara

Solanum crispum
Solanum crispum
– Chilean potato vine, Chilean nightshade, Chilean potato tree Solanum dulcamara
Solanum dulcamara
– Bittersweet Solanum
Solanum
imbaburense Solanum laxum
Solanum laxum
Spreng. – Jasmine nightshade Solanum
Solanum
leiophyllum Solanum seaforthianum
Solanum seaforthianum
Andrews – Brazilian nightshade Solanum
Solanum
triquetrum Cav. – Texas nightshade Solanum wallacei
Solanum wallacei
– Wallace's nightshade, Catalina nightshade, Clokey's nightshade, "wild tomato" (including S. clokeyi) Solanum xanti
Solanum xanti
– Purple nightshade, San Diego nightshade

Section Herpystichum Section Holophylla

Solanum diphyllum
Solanum diphyllum
L. – Twin-leaved nightshade Solanum pseudocapsicum
Solanum pseudocapsicum
– Jerusalem cherry, Madeira winter cherry, "winter cherry" (including S. capsicastrum) Solanum pseudoquina
Solanum pseudoquina
(including S. inaequale Vell.)

Section Juglandifolia

Solanum
Solanum
juglandifolium Solanum
Solanum
ochranthum

Section Lemurisolanum Section Lycopersicoides

Solanum
Solanum
lycopersicoides Dunal – Peruvian wolfpeach Solanum
Solanum
sitiens

Section Lycopersicon

Solanum arcanum Peralta – "wild tomato" Solanum
Solanum
chilense Solanum
Solanum
corneliomulleri Solanum huaylasense Peralta Solanum
Solanum
peruvianum L. – Peruvian nightshade, "wild tomato" Solanum cheesmaniae
Solanum cheesmaniae
(L.Riley) Fosberg Solanum
Solanum
chmielewskii Solanum
Solanum
galapagense S.C.Darwin & Peralta Solanum
Solanum
habrochaites Solanum
Solanum
lycopersicum – Tomato Solanum
Solanum
neorickii Solanum
Solanum
pennelli Solanum pimpinellifolium
Solanum pimpinellifolium
– Currant tomato

Section Macronesiotes Section Normania Section Petota

Solanum
Solanum
albornozii Solanum bulbocastanum – Ornamental nightshade Solanum
Solanum
bukasovii Juz. ex Rybin Solanum
Solanum
burtonii Solanum cardiophyllum – Heart-leaved nightshade Solanum
Solanum
chilliasense Solanum
Solanum
commersonii Dunal – Commerson's nightshade Solanum
Solanum
demissum Lindl. – Dwarf wild potato Solanum jamesii – Wild potato Solanum
Solanum
minutifoliolum Solanum
Solanum
paucijugum Solanum
Solanum
phureja Juz. & Bukasov Solanum
Solanum
pinnatisectum Dunal – Tansy-leaved nightshade Solanum
Solanum
regularifolium Solanum
Solanum
stoloniferum Schltdl. – Tigna potato, Fendler's horsenettle Solanum
Solanum
stenotomum (including S. goniocalyx) Solanum ternatum (including S. ternifolium) Solanum
Solanum
tuberosum – Potato

Section Pteroidea Section Quadrangulare Section Regmandra Section Solanum

Solanum adscendens Sendtner – Sonoita nightshade (Americas) Solanum americanum
Solanum americanum
Mill. – American nightshade, American black nightshade, glossy nightshade (Americas, Hawaiʻi) Solanum chenopodioides
Solanum chenopodioides
Lam. – Goosefoot nightshade, slender nightshade (including S. gracilius) Solanum douglasii
Solanum douglasii
Dunal – Green-spotted nightshade Solanum
Solanum
interius Rydb. Solanum
Solanum
nigrescens M.Martens & Galeotti – Divine nightshade Solanum nigrum
Solanum nigrum
L. – European black nightshade, "black nightshade" S. nigrum guineense- "Garden Huckleberry" Solanum
Solanum
pseudogracile Heiser – Glowing nightshade Solanum ptychanthum
Solanum ptychanthum
– West Indian nightshade, Eastern black nightshade Solanum retroflexum
Solanum retroflexum
– Wonderberry, sunberry Solanum sarrachoides
Solanum sarrachoides
– Hairy nightshade Solanum scabrum
Solanum scabrum
Mill. – Garden huckleberry Solanum triflorum
Solanum triflorum
Nutt. – Cut-leaved nightshade Solanum villosum
Solanum villosum
Mill. – Yellow nightshade

Other notable species[edit]

Forked nightshade
Forked nightshade
(S. furcatum)

Bluewitch nightshade
Bluewitch nightshade
(S. umbelliferum) flowers

Solanum
Solanum
amygdalifolium Steud. Solanum
Solanum
bellum Solanum
Solanum
cajanumense Solanum
Solanum
chimborazense Solanum
Solanum
chrysasteroides Solanum
Solanum
cinnamomeum Solanum conocarpum
Solanum conocarpum
Rich. ex Dunal – Marron bacoba Solanum cowiei Martine Solanum
Solanum
cremastanthemum Solanum
Solanum
davisense Whalen – Davis' horsenettle Solanum
Solanum
densepilosulum Solanum
Solanum
donianum Walp. – Mullein nightshade Solanum
Solanum
dolichorhachis Solanum
Solanum
fallax Solanum ferox
Solanum ferox
L. – Hairy-fruited eggplant, Thai hairy-fruited eggplant Solanum
Solanum
fortunense Solanum furcatum
Solanum furcatum
– Forked nightshade Solanum
Solanum
glabratum Dunal Solanum
Solanum
haleakalaense H.St.John Solanum
Solanum
hindsianum Benth. – Hinds' nightshade Solanum
Solanum
hypermegethes Solanum
Solanum
hypocalycosarcum Solanum
Solanum
interandinum Solanum
Solanum
latiflorum Solanum
Solanum
leucodendron Solanum
Solanum
lumholtzianum Bartlett – Sonoran nightshade Solanum luteoalbum (including S. semicoalitum) Solanum lycocarpum
Solanum lycocarpum
– Wolf apple, fruta-de-lobo, lobeira (Brazil) Solanum melissarum
Solanum melissarum
Bohs Solanum
Solanum
nudum Dunal – Forest nightshade Solanum
Solanum
ovum-fringillae Solanum
Solanum
paralum Solanum parishii
Solanum parishii
A.Heller – Parish's nightshade Solanum physalifolium
Solanum physalifolium
Rusby Solanum
Solanum
pinetorum Solanum
Solanum
polygamum Vahl – Cakalaka berry Solanum
Solanum
pyrifolium Lam. Solanum pubescens
Solanum pubescens
Willd. Solanum
Solanum
riedlei Dunal – Riedle's nightshade Solanum
Solanum
rudepannum Dunal Solanum
Solanum
rugosum Dunal – tabacon aspero Solanum
Solanum
sibundoyense Solanum sodiroi (including S. carchiense) Solanum
Solanum
sycocarpum Solanum
Solanum
tenuipes Bartlett – Fancy nightshade Solanum
Solanum
tobagense Solanum trilobatum
Solanum trilobatum
L. Solanum umbelliferum
Solanum umbelliferum
– Bluewitch nightshade Solanum verrogeneum Berengena Solanum violaceum
Solanum violaceum
Ortega Solanum
Solanum
viride Spreng. – Green Nightshade Solanum
Solanum
woodburyi Howard – Woodbury's nightshade

Formerly placed here[edit]

Lycianthes rantonnetii
Lycianthes rantonnetii
and its congeners were often placed in Solanum

Some plants of yet other genera also were placed in Solanum
Solanum
in former times:

Chamaesaracha coronopus (as S. coronopus) Lycianthes
Lycianthes
biflora (as S. multifidum Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Lycianthes
Lycianthes
denticulata (as S. gouakai var. angustifolium and var. latifolium) Lycianthes
Lycianthes
lycioides (as S. lycioides var. angustifolium) Lycianthes
Lycianthes
mociniana (as S. uniflorum Dunal in Poir. and S. uniflorum Sessé & Moc.) Lycianthes rantonnetii
Lycianthes rantonnetii
(as S. rantonnetii, S. urbanum var. ovatifolium and var. typicum) Undetermined species of Lycianthes
Lycianthes
have been referred to under names such as S. chrysophyllum, S. ciliatum Blume ex Miq., S. corniculatum Hiern, S. lanuginosum, S. loxense, S. mucronatum, S. retrofractum var. acuminatum, S. violaceum Blume, S. violifolium f. typicum, S. virgatum notst β albiflorum, S. uniflorum Lag. or S. uniflorum var. berterianum.

References[edit]

^ a b " Solanum
Solanum
L". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2009-09-01. Retrieved 2013-07-15.  ^ Quattrocchi, U. (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant
Plant
Names. 4 R-Z. USA: Taylor and Francis. p. 2058. ISBN 978-0-8493-2678-3.  ^ http://extension.oregonstate.edu/gardening/purple-tomato-debuts-indigo-rose ^ http://cuke.hort.ncsu.edu/cucurbit/wehner/vegcult/ ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.  ^ a b " Solanum
Solanum
Phylogeny". Solanaceae
Solanaceae
Source. Natural History Museum. Retrieved 2009-11-01.  ^ Tepe, E. J.; Ridley, G.; Bohs, L. (2012). "A new species of Solanum named for Jeanne Baret, an overlooked contributor to the history of botany" (pdf). PhytoKeys. 2012 (8): 37–47. doi:10.3897/phytokeys.8.2101. PMC 3254248 . PMID 22287929.  ^ a b Anderson, G. J.; Martine, C. T.; Prohens, J.; Nuez, F. (2006). " Solanum perlongistylum and S. catilliflorum, New Endemic Peruvian Species
Species
of Solanum, Section Basarthrum, Are Close Relatives of the Domesticated Pepino, S. muricatum". Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature. 16 (2): 161–167. doi:10.3417/1055-3177(2006)16[161:SPASCN]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1055-3177.  ^ Ochoa, C. M. (2006). " Solanum
Solanum
tergosericeum ( Solanaceae
Solanaceae
sect. Basarthrum): A new species from Peru" (PDF). Phytologia. 88 (2): 212–215. 

External links[edit]

Dressler, S.; Schmidt, M. & Zizka, G. (2014). "Solanum". African plants – a Photo Guide. Frankfurt/Main: Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg.  Meet the TomTato: Tomatoes and potatoes grown as one – CBS News (September 26, 2013)

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Solanum.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Solanum

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q146555 APDB: 194953 EoL: 590245 EPPO: 1SOLG FloraBase: 22038 FoC: 130618 Fossilworks: 319863 GBIF: 2928997 GRIN: 11264 iNaturalist: 50641 IPNI: 99597-3 ITIS: 30412 NCBI: 4107 PLANTS: SOLAN Tropicos: 400

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