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Sohag
Sohag
(Arabic: سوهاج‎, Saidi pronunciation: [suːˈhaːdʒ] ( listen) Sūhāǧ, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [soˈhæːɡ] Sohāg), also known as Sawhāj, Suhag and Suhaj,[3] is a city in Egypt
Egypt
that lies on the west bank of the Nile. It has been the capital of Sohag Governorate
Sohag Governorate
since 1960. Prior to that, the capital was the city of Girga
Girga
and the name of the governorate was Girga
Girga
Governorate. It also included Esna
Esna
Governorate (nowadays Qena
Qena
Governorate).[4]

Contents

1 History 2 Geography 3 Economy 4 Demographics

4.1 Religion

5 Historical sites

5.1 Mosques 5.2 Churches 5.3 Monasteries 5.4 Temples and cemeteries

6 Subdivisions 7 Climate 8 Culture

8.1 Language 8.2 Museums 8.3 Bazaars

9 Transport 10 Education

10.1 University

11 Sports 12 Notable people 13 Nearby attractions 14 Photo gallery 15 See also 16 References 17 External links

History[edit]

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Until the 19th century there was only a village located in the area. In 1960, the capital of the Governorate of Girga
Girga
was transferred from the city of Girga
Girga
to growing city of Sohag. The name of the governorate was renamed accordingly. It is unclear how long this site has been inhabited. There are several mummies here that date to Roman times, the village. In Coptic times, there was a community of monks living at the White Monastery
White Monastery
in the area. The 10th of April is the national day of the governorate to celebrate the victory of the Egyptian national resistance troops on the French troops in Johaina Battle in 1799. Geography[edit]

Satellite image of Sohag

Sohag
Sohag
lies on the western bank of the Nile
Nile
on a fertile agricultural plain,[5] approximately 6 kilometres (3.7 miles) southwest of Akhmim. In addition, the city includes two islands, Karaman-ez-Zahur Island, which is larger and uninhabited, and ez-Zahur Island (جزيرة الزهور, Ǧazīrat az-Zuhur, "Flower Island") which has some homes. Economy[edit] The city Sohag
Sohag
of itself encloses only a few archaeological sites, hence tourism represents but a small portion of the city's income. Other sources of income include trade, small industries of carpets, furniture, spinning and weaving and sugar. Administrative and educational services are two big sectors of income. Demographics[edit]

1928 1976 1986 1996 2006 2012

20,760[6] 101,758 132,965 170,125 189,695 201,339

Starting in 1976: Population of Sohag
Sohag
City[7]

Religion[edit]

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Islam & Christianity are the main religion in Sohag,whereas muslims shape the majority of 75% from total populatoion Historical sites[edit] Mosques[edit]

Sidi Arif Mosque
Sidi Arif Mosque
(Arabic: مسجد العارف بالله, Masjid al-ʿArif bi-Allah). The mosque is located in the south of the city. The el-ʿArif Mosque
Mosque
was built in the 14th century (the 8th century of the Islamic calendar). The present building was constructed around 1995. At the corners of the façade are two minarets, and the roof is crowned by a dome. Inside the five-naves mosque the bases of the piers and the walls were lined with red granite. The ceiling is painted ornamentally; in its middle is an elongated light dome. The southeasten half is lit by chandeliers. At the end there are the prayer niche (mihrab) with simple ornaments and to the right of it the wooden pulpit (minbar).

South side of the Sidi Arif Mosque

Inside the Sidi Arif Mosque

Mihrab
Mihrab
and minbar of the Sidi Arif Mosque

Ceiling of the Sidi Arif Mosque

El-Farshuti Mosque
Mosque
(Arabic: جامع الفرشوطي, Jāmʿi al-Farschūṭī). The el-Fashuti Mosque
Mosque
also named el-'Atiq Mosque (the old mosque) is located approximately 350 metres (1,150 feet) southwest of the Sidi Arif Mosque
Sidi Arif Mosque
. The most striking feature of the mosque is its 53-metre-high (174-foot) minaret in the southeast corner. The minaret has galleries with balustrades on four floors. The mosque is a modern, bright new building. The mosque is divided into five naves by columns and pillars. It has a light dome in the middle which is inscribed at the bottom with a sura from the Qur'an. The bases of the walls are painted yellow and white with green bands. A very colorful prayer niche next to the wooden pulpit is located at the southeast side.

In the masonry on the east, south and west sides are stones engraved with historic inscriptions moved from previous buildings, including a decree of the penultimate Mamluk
Mamluk
sultan al-Ghawri (1441–1516) from the year 1506 (911 AH) on the southeast side.

South side of the el-Farshuti Mosque

Inside the el-Farshuti Mosque

Mihrab
Mihrab
and minbar of the el-Farshuti Mosque

Ceiling of the el-Farshuti Mosque

Churches[edit]

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In the city there are two important churches erected in the 20th century: the Church of the Holy Virgin and the Church of Saint George.

The Church of the Holy Virgin (Arabic: كنيسة السيدة العذراء, Kanīsat as-Saiyida al-ʿAdraʾ). The church is located in the north of the bazaar (souq Qaiṣarīya). It consists of five naves. There are three sanctuaries for Saint George (left), the Holy Virgin and the Archangel Michael at the ends of the middle three naves. All sanctuaries are completely screened by a wooden iconostasis. On both sides of the entrances to the sanctuaries are wooden icons of the Holy Virgin and Jesus (see Iconostasis). The Lord's Last Supper and the crosses are located above the iconstasis. The presentation in the central nave is framed by a fish and a pigeon, the other ones are framed by angels and a dove. Galleries are located above the aisles and the entrance. On the walls, there are paintings of saints and scenes from the life of Jesus.

Church of the Holy Virgin

Inside the Church of the Holy Virgin

Icon of the Holy Virgin with her child

Church of St. George is the cathedral of the diocese of Sohag
Sohag
(Arabic: كنيسة مار جرجس, Kanīsat Mar Girgis). The church is located 300 metres (980 feet) north of the Opera (Midan Obira) or Culture Square (Midan eth-Thaqafa). Church of the Archangel Michael (Arabic: كنيسة الملاك ميخائيل). The church is located in the Railway Station Street (El-Mahatta St.), on the east side of the railway tracks.

Monasteries[edit]

White Monastery

Main article: White Monastery The Coptic White Monastery
White Monastery
is a Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
monastery named after Saint Shenouda the Archimandrite. It is located about 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) west of Sohag. The name of the monastery is derived from the color of the white limestone of its outside walls. The surviving building is the church of what was once a much larger monastery complex.[8]

Red Monastery

Main article: Red Monastery The Red Monastery
Monastery
is a Coptic Orthodox
Coptic Orthodox
monastery named after an Egyptian saint called Pishay. It is located about 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) north of the White Monastery. The name of the monastery is derived from the color of the construction material of its outside walls, consisting of red (burnt) brick. These walls are considerably thicker at the base than at the top, and just like the walls of Ancient Egyptian
Ancient Egyptian
temples, they are surmounted by cavetto moldings. The Red Monastery
Monastery
is architecturally similar to the White Monastery.[8]

Red Monastery

White Monastery

Temples and cemeteries[edit] The city is the site of a temple built for the goddess Repyt
Repyt
(Triphis) by Ptolemy XV Caesarion
Caesarion
and subsequent Roman emperors. South of this temple was an earlier temple of Ptolemy IX Soter II. One of the tombs nearby, belonging to the brothers Ibpemeny "the younger" and Pemehyt of the late second century BC, has two zodiacs on its ceiling.[9] Subdivisions[edit] The city of Sohag
Sohag
is informally divided into two division: the East District (Arabic: حى شرق) and the West District (Arabic: حي غرب). Among the most notable regions of the West District are:

Sidi Aref Al Shahid (Arabic for the Martyr) Gharb Al-Koubry ("West of the Bridge" neighborhood)

The East District is considered a more upscale district that includes some of the most affluent neighborhoods of the city including 15th Street, Al Kashef Street, Jumhuriya Street, The Courts Compound, and The Technical and Agricultural Schools. Some of the most notable locales of the East District include:

The Courts Compound of Sohag City Hall of Sohag Sohag
Sohag
University Sohag
Sohag
Teaching Hospital, a member of GOTHI, which is among the biggest hospitals of the region Multiple governmental directorates Many recreational areas including The Sohag
Sohag
Stadium as well as many parks including Al Zohour (an revitalized island turned park located in the middle of the Nile). Nasr City - the first satellite city to be built in the East District. It was established during the time of the late president Gamal Abdel Nasser.

Climate[edit] Köppen-Geiger climate classification system
Köppen-Geiger climate classification system
classifies its climate as hot desert (BWh). Luxor, Minya, Sohag, Qena
Qena
and Asyut
Asyut
have the widest difference of temperatures between days and nights of any city in Egypt, with almost 16 °C (29 °F) difference. Sohag
Sohag
is one of the warmest places in Egypt
Egypt
due to its place in the east side of Sahara
Sahara
in North Africa. Sohag
Sohag
is ranked the 5th driest place in Egypt and the 9th globally. Also ranked 4th warmest place in Egypt
Egypt
and 296th globally.

Climate data for Sohag

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 30.8 (87.4) 37.5 (99.5) 42.2 (108) 43.9 (111) 47.4 (117.3) 47.9 (118.2) 47.0 (116.6) 43.4 (110.1) 44.4 (111.9) 43.1 (109.6) 37.0 (98.6) 33.3 (91.9) 47.9 (118.2)

Average high °C (°F) 22.0 (71.6) 23.8 (74.8) 27.5 (81.5) 33.6 (92.5) 37.7 (99.9) 39.6 (103.3) 38.8 (101.8) 37.8 (100) 36.0 (96.8) 33.7 (92.7) 28.2 (82.8) 23.5 (74.3) 31.9 (89.4)

Daily mean °C (°F) 13.9 (57) 15.6 (60.1) 18.9 (66) 24.5 (76.1) 29.1 (84.4) 30.7 (87.3) 31.0 (87.8) 29.9 (85.8) 27.9 (82.2) 25.1 (77.2) 19.8 (67.6) 15.4 (59.7) 23.5 (74.3)

Average low °C (°F) 7.3 (45.1) 8.8 (47.8) 11.8 (53.2) 16.6 (61.9) 21.1 (70) 23.1 (73.6) 24.1 (75.4) 23.1 (73.6) 20.6 (69.1) 17.8 (64) 13.0 (55.4) 9.2 (48.6) 16.4 (61.5)

Record low °C (°F) 0.4 (32.7) 2.6 (36.7) 3.3 (37.9) 7.7 (45.9) 11.5 (52.7) 15.7 (60.3) 17.6 (63.7) 18.0 (64.4) 15.9 (60.6) 11.4 (52.5) 4.8 (40.6) 2.6 (36.7) 0.4 (32.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 0 (0) 1 (0.04) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0.04)

Average precipitation days 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.7

Average relative humidity (%) 57 50 44 36 30 31 37 43 45 44 51 56 43.7

Source #1: NOAA[10]

Source #2: Climate Charts[11]

Culture[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2010)

Language[edit] A version of the dialect continuum of Saidi Arabic is spoken by the people of Sohag. However, the most urbanized people may speak to varying degrees Egyptian Arabic. Museums[edit] The Sohag
Sohag
Museum contains about 5000 artifacts gathered from around the Sohag
Sohag
governorate, including items stretching from the Middle Kingdom to Greco-Roman times.[5][12] Bazaars[edit] Souq
Souq
el-Qisareya: The bazaar in Sohag
Sohag
is named suq Qaiṣarīya, and is partly covered. Souq
Souq
el-Itnein: A weekly market held every Monday in the morning for trading in vegetables, fruits, animals and traditional hand made objects (like baskets, farming axes and bags). The weekly market is believed to have been held for the first time during the Ancient Egyptian era. The souq is now in the south of the city and is held in the streets and beside the city cemetery.[5] Transport[edit]

Southern Highway

Sohag
Sohag
is linked to Giza
Giza
and Northern cities through three main roads: road of Asyut
Asyut
Western Desert, Eastern Desert Road, Rural Road also connected to it through the train. In February 2010 a new highway linking the city to the Red Sea
Red Sea
city of Hurghada
Hurghada
was opened facilitating the ease the movement between Upper Egypt
Egypt
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
coastal region. In May 2010, the Egyptian Ex-President Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
inaugurated a brand new airport to serve the city called Sohag
Sohag
International Airport.

City Distance (km)

Alexandria 692

Port Said 691

Ismaïlia 616

Suez 605

Cairo 471

Aswan 428

Luxor 205

Asyut 98

Education[edit]

Sohag
Sohag
Military school one of the oldest schools in Sa'id/Upper Egypt, established 1928

Sohag
Sohag
is characterized by large numbers of graduates in all fields. Illiteracy
Illiteracy
has continued to drop due to schools (literacy) for all ages free of charge. There Sohag
Sohag
many schools and colleges most famous: Primary schools:

Al-Nasr school Huda Sharawi school Mulhaqat Al-Mu'allemat school

Middle schools:

Ahmad Deifalla school Nabawi Muhandis school Ali Osman Baltak school Tarik Ibn Ziad school

High schools:

Sohag
Sohag
Military school Abdelmunim Riad school Asmaa Bint Abi Bakr school Hag Hadad school

University[edit] Sohag University a public university With more than 40,000 students[13] located on the eastern side of the city. It was established under the banner of South Valley University, but became independent in 2006. There are currently ten colleges in Sohag University. Sports[edit]

Sohag
Sohag
Stadium

The most popular sport in Sohag
Sohag
is football.[citation needed] Sohag has many football clubs, including the Egyptian Premier League
Egyptian Premier League
team Sohag
Sohag
FC. In addition, EPL club El Gouna FC
El Gouna FC
used the Sohag stadium
Sohag stadium
as a home ground at times.[citation needed] Notable people[edit] Sohag
Sohag
has established a very positive reputation around Egypt, since many important people in Egypt, the Arab world, and the Islamic world came from Sohag.

Narmer, The first pharaoh of unified Egypt
Egypt
and the founder of the Early Dynastic Period (c. 32nd century BC). Sheikh Mohamed Siddiq El-Minshawi, one of the most renowned Qur'anic reciters of all the Islamic world. Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy, Former Imam
Imam
of Al-Azhar. Rifa'a el-Tahtawi, writer, teacher, translator, Egyptologist, renaissance intellectual and founder of Madrasat al-Alsun (Tongues School) Mustafa al-Maraghi, reformer and rector of Al-Azhar
Al-Azhar
Mosque. Mohammed Aboul-Fotouh Hassab, gastro-intestinal surgeon well known for the description of his operation Hassab’s decongestion operation for the treatment of oesophageal varices as a result of portal hypertension. Gamal El-Ghitani, author of historical novels and cultural and political commentaries. Atef El-Tayeb, Film Director . George Sidhom, Film Actor. Emad Gamal Barakat Hussein , professor at AAssist University . Emad Hamdy, Film Actor
Actor
. Baligh Hamdi, composer who created hit songs for many prominent Arabic singers. Dhul-Nun al-Misri, Sufi
Sufi
saint. He was considered the Patron Saint of the Physicians in the early Islamic era of Egypt
Egypt
. Jaber Abu Hussein, The famous narrator of the Taghribat Bani Hilal
Taghribat Bani Hilal
. Omar Taher, Writer and poet. Youssef Ziedan, Scholar in Arabic and Islamic Studies.

Nearby attractions[edit]

Osireion, Abydos

Abydos one of the most ancient cities of Upper Egypt, and also of the eighth Upper Nome of which it was the capital city. It is also considered one of the most important archaeological sites of Ancient Egypt, the sacred city of Abydos was the site of many ancient temples, including a Umm el-Qa'ab, a royal necropolis where early pharaohs were entombed. Akhmim
Akhmim
has several mosques and two Coptic churches, maintains a weekly market, and manufactures cotton goods, notably the blue shirts and check shawls with silk fringes worn by the poorer classes of Egypt. El-Hawawish
El-Hawawish
the ancient necropolis (cemetery) for the city of Akhmim. El-Salamuni
El-Salamuni
comprises a rock-cut chapel dedicated to the god Min. The Meritamen
Meritamen
statue in east Akhmim. Beit Khallaf
Beit Khallaf
Outside the village are two very large brick mastabas from the Third Dynasty. Athribis The city is the site of a temple built for the goddess Repyt (Triphis) by Ptolemy XV Caesarion
Caesarion
and subsequent Roman Emperors. Photo gallery[edit]

Building in Sohag

Roman theater

Tahtawy memorial

Sohag
Sohag
city hall

Jumhuriyea St.

Orouba sq.

Skyline.

Jazirat Al Zohour .

Nile
Nile
view (east bank)

Courts compound

Downtown

Nile
Nile
view from Akhmim
Akhmim
bridge

See also[edit]

Egypt
Egypt
portal Africa portal

Upper Egypt Sa'idi people Sa'idi Arabic

References[edit]

^ " Egypt
Egypt
Postal Code". Egypt-cairo.com. Retrieved 15 October 2017.  ^ Prozzone. "Sohag, EGYPT :: city code, std code, dial code, country code, long distance". www.prozzone.com. Retrieved 15 October 2017.  ^ "World Gazetteer: Sohag
Sohag
- profile of geographical entity including nam…". 16 December 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2017.  ^ Law, Gwillim (1999). Administrative Subdivisions of Countries: A Comprehensive World Reference, 1900 through 1998 (snippet view). Jefferson, NC: McFarland. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-7864-0729-3. Retrieved 2010-08-07.  ^ a b c Richardson, Dan (2003). The Rough Guide to Egypt. pp. 322–323. ISBN 1-84353-050-3.  ^ Baedeker, Karl ; Steindorff, Georg : Ägypten und der Sûdan : Handbuch für Reisende, Leipzig: Baedeker, 1928, 8. ed., p. 221. ^ "World Gazetteer: Sohag". Archived from the original on 16 December 2012.  ^ a b Haag, Michael (2004). Egypt. New Holland Publishers. pp. 222–226. ISBN 1-86011-163-7.  ^ Richard Talbert, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, (ISBN 0-691-03169-X), p. 77. ^ " Sohag
Sohag
Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 17, 2016.  ^ "Sohag, Egypt: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data". Climate Charts. Retrieved 9 July 2013.  ^ "The Sohag
Sohag
Museum". Supreme Council of Antiquities
Supreme Council of Antiquities
- Museums. Retrieved December 14, 2016.  ^ "جامعة سوهاج". Sohag-univ.edu.eg. Retrieved 15 October 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sohag.

(in German) Sohag
Sohag
on Wikivoyage Sohag
Sohag
on Travel grove Sohag
Sohag
photo album

Places adjacent to Sohag

New Valley Maraghah Akhmim

New Valley

Sohag

Akhmim

New Valley Munshah Munshah

v t e

Governorates capitals of Egypt

Governorate (capital)

Alexandria
Alexandria
(Alexandria) Aswan
Aswan
(Aswan) Asyut
Asyut
(Asyut) Beheira (Damanhur) Beni Suef
Beni Suef
(Beni Suef) Cairo
Cairo
(Cairo) Dakahlia (Mansoura) Damietta
Damietta
(Damietta) Faiyum
Faiyum
(Faiyum) Gharbia (Tanta) Giza
Giza
(Giza) Ismailia
Ismailia
(Ismailia) Kafr El Sheikh
Kafr El Sheikh
(Kafr El Sheikh) Luxor
Luxor
(Luxor) Matrouh (Mersa Matrouh) Minya (Minya) New Valley (Kharga) North Sinai (Arish) Port Said
Port Said
(Port Said) Qalyubia (Benha) Qena
Qena
(Qena) Red Sea
Red Sea
(Hurghada) Sharqia (Zagazig) Sohag
Sohag
(Sohag) South Sinai (El Tor) Suez
Suez
(Suez)

v t e

Upper Egyptian cities

Akhmim Aswan Asyut Beni Suef Faiyum Hurghada Luxor Mallawi Minya Safaga Qena Sohag

v t e

Egyptian cities and towns by population

1,000,000 and more

Alexandria Cairo Giza Shubra El Kheima

300,000-999,999

Asyut Bilbeis Damietta Faiyum Imbaba Ismailia El Mahalla El Kubra Kom Ombo Mansoura Luxor Port Fuad Port Said Suez Tanta Zagazig

100,000-299,999

6th of October Arish Aswan Banha Beni Suef Damanhur Desouk Edfu Hurghada Kafr El Dawwar Kafr El Sheikh Mallawi Minya New Borg El Arab New Cairo Obour Qena Shibin El Kom Sohag

<99,999

Abydos Ain Sokhna Akhmim Dahab Dakhla Dendera Dekernes El Alamein El Gouna Esna Hamrah Dom Hala'ib Kharga Marsa Alam Marsa Matruh Nag Hammadi New Nubariya Nuweiba Rosetta Sadat Safaga Saint Catherine Siwa Sharm El Sheikh Taba Talkha

v t e

Sohag Governorate
Sohag Governorate
Regions

Regions

Akhmim El Balyana Dar El Salam Girga El Mansha El Maragha Sakulta Sohag Tahta Tima El Usayrat

Important sites

Abydos Beit Khallaf El Hawawish Hut-Repyt Aphrodito El Salamuni Tjebu

Monasteries and Mosques: Monastery
Monastery
of the Martyrs Red Monastery White Monastery Sidi Arif Mosque

Authority control

GND: 4485280-0 BNF:

.