Socrates (/ˈsɒkrətiːz/; Ancient Greek: Σωκρᾰ́της,
translit. Sōkrátēs, [sɔːkrátɛːs]; c. 470 –
399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher
credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being
the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of
thought. An enigmatic figure, he made no writings, and is
known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers writing after
his lifetime, particularly his students
Plato and Xenophon. Other
sources include the contemporaneous Antisthenes, Aristippus, and
Aeschines of Sphettos. Aristophanes, a playwright, is the only source
to have written during his lifetime.
Plato's dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of
Socrates to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to
Socrates himself is "hidden behind his 'best disciple'".
Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues,
Socrates has become
renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics, and it is this
Socrates who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony
and the Socratic method, or elenchus.
The elenchus remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of
discussions, and is a type of pedagogy in which a series of questions
is asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage
fundamental insight into the issue at hand. Plato's
Socrates also made
important and lasting contributions to the field of epistemology, and
his ideologies and approach have proven a strong foundation for much
Western philosophy that has followed.
1 Socratic problem
Socrates as a figure
Socrates as a philosopher
2.2 Early life
2.3 Military service
Epistates at the trial of the six commanders
2.5 Arrest of Leon
2.6 Trial and death
2.6.1 Causes of the trial
2.6.3 Death of Socrates
126.96.36.199 Last words
188.8.131.52 Refusal to escape
3.1 Socratic method
3.2 Philosophical beliefs
3.3 Socratic paradoxes
4 Satirical playwrights
5 Prose sources
5.1 The Socratic dialogues
6.1 Immediate influence
6.2 Later historical influence
6.4 In literature
7 See also
10 External links
Main article: Socratic problem
Socrates did not write down any of his teachings,
information about him and his philosophies depends upon secondary
sources. Furthermore, close comparison between the contents of these
sources reveals contradictions, thus creating concerns about the
possibility of knowing in-depth the real Socrates. This issue is known
as the Socratic problem, or the Socratic question.
Socrates and his thought, one must turn primarily to the
works of Plato, whose dialogues are thought the most informative
source about Socrates' life and philosophy, and also Xenophon.
These writings are the Sokratikoi logoi, or Socratic dialogues, which
consist of reports of conversations apparently involving
As for discovering the real-life Socrates, the difficulty is that
ancient sources are mostly philosophical or dramatic texts, apart from
Xenophon. There are no straightforward histories, contemporary with
Socrates, that dealt with his own time and place. A corollary of this
is that sources that do mention
Socrates do not necessarily claim to
be historically accurate, and are often partisan. For instance, those
who prosecuted and convicted
Socrates have left no testament.
Historians therefore face the challenge of reconciling the various
evidence from the extant texts in order to attempt an accurate and
consistent account of Socrates' life and work. The result of such an
effort is not necessarily realistic, even if consistent.
Two factors emerge from all sources pertaining to the character of
Socrates: that he was ugly, and had a brilliant intellect. He
lived entirely within ancient Athens, he made no writings, and
died of execution by hemlock.
Socrates as a figure
The character of
Socrates as exhibited in Apology, Crito,
Symposium concurs with other sources to an extent to which it seems
possible to rely on the Platonic Socrates, as demonstrated in the
dialogues, as a representation of the actual
Socrates as he lived in
history. At the same time, however, many scholars believe that in
some works, Plato, being a literary artist, pushed his avowedly
brightened-up version of "Socrates" far beyond anything the historical
Socrates was likely to have done or said. Also, Xenophon, being an
historian, is a more reliable witness to the historical Socrates. It
is a matter of much debate over which
Socrates it is whom
describing at any given point—the historical figure, or Plato's
fictionalization. As British philosopher Martin Cohen has put it,
"Plato, the idealist, offers an idol, a master figure, for philosophy.
A Saint, a prophet of 'the Sun-God', a teacher condemned for his
teachings as a heretic."
It is also clear from other writings and historical artefacts, that
Socrates was not simply a character, nor an invention, of Plato. The
Xenophon and Aristotle, alongside some of Aristophanes'
work (especially The Clouds), is useful in fleshing out a perception
Socrates beyond Plato's work.
According to one source, the name Σωκρᾰ́της (Sōkrátēs),
has the meaning "whole, unwounded, safe" (the part of the name
corresponding to σῶς, sôs) and "power" (the part of the name
corresponding to κράτος, krátos).
Socrates as a philosopher
The problem with discerning Socrates' philosophical views stems from
the perception of contradictions in statements made by the
the different dialogues of Plato; and in later dialogues
Socrates to give voice to views that were his own. These
contradictions produce doubt as to the actual philosophical doctrines
of Socrates, within his milieu and as recorded by other
individuals. Aristotle, in his Magna Moralia, refers to Socrates
in words which make it patent that the doctrine virtue is knowledge
was held by Socrates. Within the Metaphysics, he states
occupied with the search for moral virtues, being the "first to search
for universal definitions for them".
The problem of understanding
Socrates as a philosopher is shown in the
following: In Xenophon's Symposium,
Socrates is reported as saying he
devotes himself only to what he regards as the most important art or
occupation, that of discussing philosophy. However, in The Clouds,
Socrates as accepting payment for teaching and
Sophist school with Chaerephon. Also, in Plato's Apology and
Symposium, as well as in Xenophon's accounts,
denies accepting payment for teaching. More specifically, in the
Socrates cites his poverty as proof that he is not a teacher.
Alcibiades from the Embrace of Sensual Pleasure by
Jean-Baptiste Regnault (1791)
Two fragments are extant of the writings by
Timon of Phlius
Timon of Phlius pertaining
to Socrates, although Timon is known to have written to ridicule
and lampoon philosophy.
Socrates and Alcibiades, by Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg
Carnelian gem imprint representing Socrates, Rome, 1st century BC-1st
Details about the life of
Socrates are derived from both contemporary
sources, and later ancient period sources. Of the contemporary
sources, the greater extent of information is taken from the dialogues
Xenophon (both devotees of Socrates), and the testaments
of Antisthenes, Aristippus, and Aeschines of Sphettos, and the
lesser from the plays of Aristophanes. Later ancient period
sources include Apollodorus of Athens (alive during the second
century BC), Cicero (alive 106–43 BC), and
Diogenes Laërtius (alive probably in the earlier half of the
third century AD).
The sources are thought to have in part or wholly made use of the
factual information of the life of
Socrates available to each of them,
to give their own interpretation of the nature of his teaching, giving
rise to differing versions in each case. For example, in
Aristophanes' play The Clouds,
Socrates is made into a clown of sorts,
particularly inclined toward sophistry, who teaches his students how
to bamboozle their way out of debt. However, since most of
Aristophanes' works function as parodies, it is presumed that his
characterization in this play was also not literal. In Phaedo,
which is the only attested source describing the death of Socrates,
Plato is thought to have selected and omitted details to provide
material for his argument for the existence of the liberation of the
soul from the body, an argument he possessed from learning of the
ideas of Pythagoras (born sometime after 606 and died sometime
after 510 BC).
The year of birth of
Socrates stated is an assumed date, or
estimate, given the fact of the dating of anything in ancient
history in part being sometimes reliant on argument stemming from the
inexact period floruit of individuals.
Diogenes Laërtius stated
Socrates birth date was "the sixth day of Thargelion, the day when the
Athenians purify the city". Contemporaneous sources state, he was
born not very much later than sometime after the year 471, his
date of birth is within the period of years ranging 470 to
469 BC, or within a range 469 to 468 BC (corresponding
to the fourth year of the 77th Olympiad).
Socrates was born in Alopeke, and belonged to the tribe Antiochis. His
father was Sophroniscus, a sculptor, or stonemason. His
mother was a midwife named Phaenarete.
Socrates married Xanthippe,
who is especially remembered for having an undesirable
temperament. She bore for him three sons, Lamprocles,
Sophroniscus and Menexenus.
Socrates first worked as a stonemason, and there was a tradition in
antiquity, not credited by modern scholarship, that
the statues of the Charites, which stood near the Acropolis until the
2nd century AD.
Xenophon reports that because youths were not allowed to enter the
Agora, they used to gather in workshops surrounding it. Socrates
frequented these shops in order to converse with the merchants. Most
notable among them was Simon the Shoemaker.
For a time,
Socrates fulfilled the role of hoplite, participating in
the Peloponnesian War—a conflict which stretched intermittently over
a period spanning 431 to 404 BC. Several of Plato's dialogues
refer to Socrates' military service.
In the monologue of the Apology,
Socrates states he was active for
Athens in the battles of Amphipolis, Delium, and Potidaea. In the
Alcibiades describes Socrates' valour in the battles of
Potidaea and Delium, recounting how
Socrates saved his life in the
former battle (219e–221b). Socrates' exceptional service at Delium
is also mentioned in the Laches by the General after whom the dialogue
is named (181b). In the Apology,
Socrates compares his military
service to his courtroom troubles, and says anyone on the jury who
thinks he ought to retreat from philosophy must also think soldiers
should retreat when it seems likely that they will be killed in
Epistates at the trial of the six commanders
Battle of Arginusae
Battle of Arginusae § Trial of the generals
During 406, he participated as a member of the Boule. His tribe
the Antiochis held the
Prytany on the day it was debated what fate
should befall the generals of the Battle of Arginusae, who abandoned
the slain and the survivors of foundered ships to pursue the defeated
According to Xenophon,
Socrates was the
Epistates for the debate,
but Delebecque and Hatzfeld think this is an embellishment, because
Xenophon composed the information after Socrates' death.
The generals were seen by some to have failed to uphold the most basic
of duties, and the people decided upon capital punishment. However,
when the prytany responded by refusing to vote on the issue, the
people reacted with threats of death directed at the prytany itself.
They relented, at which point
Socrates alone as epistates blocked the
vote, which had been proposed by Callixeinus. The reason he
gave was that "in no case would he act except in accordance with the
The outcome of the trial was ultimately judged to be a miscarriage of
justice, or illegal, but, actually, Socrates' decision had no support
from written statutory law, instead being reliant on favouring a
continuation of less strict and less formal nomos law.
Arrest of Leon
Plato's Apology, parts 32c to 32d, describes how
Socrates and four
others were summoned to the Tholos, and told by representatives of the
oligarchy of the Thirty (the oligarchy began ruling in 404 BC) to
go to Salamis, and from there, to return to them with Leon the
Salaminian. He was to be brought back to be subsequently executed.
Socrates returned home and did not go to Salamis as he was
Trial and death
Causes of the trial
Socrates lived during the time of the transition from the height of
the Athenian hegemony to its decline with the defeat by
Sparta and its
allies in the Peloponnesian War. At a time when
Athens sought to
stabilize and recover from its defeat, the Athenian public may have
been entertaining doubts about democracy as an efficient form of
Socrates appears to have been a critic of democracy,
and some scholars interpret his trial as an expression of political
The Death of Socrates, by
Jacques-Louis David (1787)
Claiming loyalty to his city,
Socrates clashed with the current course
of Athenian politics and society. He praised Sparta, archrival to
Athens, directly and indirectly in various dialogues. One of Socrates'
purported offenses to the city was his position as a social and moral
critic. Rather than upholding a status quo and accepting the
development of what he perceived as immorality within his region,
Socrates questioned the collective notion of "might makes right" that
he felt was common in Greece during this period.
Plato refers to
Socrates as the "gadfly" of the state (as the gadfly stings the horse
into action, so
Socrates stung various Athenians), insofar as he
irritated some people with considerations of justice and the pursuit
of goodness. His attempts to improve the Athenians' sense of
justice may have been the cause of his execution.
According to Plato's Apology, Socrates' life as the "gadfly" of Athens
began when his friend
Chaerephon asked the oracle at
Delphi if anyone
were wiser than Socrates; the
Oracle responded that no-one was wiser.
Socrates believed the Oracle's response was not correct, because he
believed he possessed no wisdom whatsoever. He proceeded to test the
riddle by approaching men considered wise by the people of
Athens—statesmen, poets, and artisans—in order to refute the
Oracle's pronouncement. Questioning them, however,
while each man thought he knew a great deal and was wise, in fact they
knew very little and were not wise at all.
Socrates realized the
Oracle was correct; while so-called wise men thought themselves wise
and yet were not, he himself knew he was not wise at all, which,
paradoxically, made him the wiser one since he was the only person
aware of his own ignorance. Socrates' paradoxical wisdom made the
prominent Athenians he publicly questioned look foolish, turning them
against him and leading to accusations of wrongdoing. Socrates
defended his role as a gadfly until the end: at his trial, when
Socrates was asked to propose his own punishment, he suggested a wage
paid by the government and free dinners for the rest of his life
instead, to finance the time he spent as Athens' benefactor.
Robin Waterfield suggests that
Socrates was a voluntary scapegoat; his
death was the purifying remedy for Athens' misfortunes. In this view,
the token of appreciation for
Asclepius (the Greek god for curing
illness) would represent a cure for Athens' ailments.
Main article: Trial of Socrates
One day during the year 399 BC,
Socrates went on trial and
was subsequently found guilty of both corrupting the minds of the
Athens and of impiety (asebeia, "not believing in the
gods of the state"), and as a punishment sentenced to death,
caused by the drinking of a mixture containing poison
Socrates in the Vatican Museum
Death of Socrates
Socrates' death is described at the end of Plato's Phaedo, although
Plato was not himself present at the execution. As to the veracity of
Plato's account it seems possible he made choice of a number of
certain factors perhaps omitting others in the description of the
death, as the
Phaedo description does not describe progress of the
action of the poison (Gill 1973) in concurrence with modern
Phaedo states, after drinking the poison, he was
instructed to walk around until his legs felt numb. After he lay down,
the man who administered the poison pinched his foot;
no longer feel his legs. The numbness slowly crept up his body until
it reached his heart.
Socrates chose to cover his face during the execution (118 a6
Socrates states that "[a]ll of
philosophy is training for death".
Socrates last words are thought to be ironic (C. Gill 1973), or
sincere (J. Crooks 1998).
Socrates speaks his last words to Crito
(depending on the translation):
Crito, we owe a rooster to Asclepius. Please, don't forget to pay the
"Crito, we owe a cock to Asclepius, Pay it and do not neglect it.
Crito, we owe a cock to Asclepius, make this offering to him and do
Refusal to escape
Socrates turned down Crito's pleas to attempt an escape from prison.
Plato agree that
Socrates had an opportunity to escape,
as his followers were able to bribe the prison guards. There have been
several suggestions offered as reasons why he chose to stay:
He believed such a flight would indicate a fear of death, which he
believed no true philosopher has.
If he fled
Athens his teaching would fare no better in another
country, as he would continue questioning all he met and undoubtedly
incur their displeasure.
Having knowingly agreed to live under the city's laws, he implicitly
subjected himself to the possibility of being accused of crimes by its
citizens and judged guilty by its jury. To do otherwise would have
caused him to break his "social contract" with the state, and so harm
the state, an unprincipled act.
If he escaped at the instigation of his friends, then his friends
would become liable in law.
The full reasoning behind his refusal to flee is the main subject of
the Crito. In as much as
Socrates drank hemlock willingly
without complaint (having decided against fleeing),
R.G. Frey (1978)
has suggested in truth,
Socrates chose to commit suicide.
Part of a series on
Plato from Raphael's The School of
Idealism / realism
Theory of forms
Theory of soul
Form of the Good
Third man argument
Plato's unwritten doctrines
Allegories and metaphors
Ring of Gyges
The Divided Line
Ship of State
Myth of Er
Academy in Athens
Allegorical interpretations of Plato
Main article: Socratic method
Perhaps his most important contribution to Western thought is his
dialectic method of inquiry, known as the
Socratic method or method of
"elenchus", which he largely applied to the examination of key moral
concepts such as the Good and Justice. It was first described by Plato
in the Socratic Dialogues. To solve a problem, it would be broken down
into a series of questions, the answers to which gradually distill the
answer a person would seek. The development and practice of this
method is one of Socrates' most enduring contributions, and is a key
factor in earning his mantle as the father of political philosophy,
ethics or moral philosophy, and as a figurehead of all the central
themes in Western philosophy. The
Socratic method has often been
considered as a defining element of American legal education.
To illustrate the use of the Socratic method, a series of questions
are posed to help a person or group to determine their underlying
beliefs and the extent of their knowledge. The
Socratic method is a
negative method of hypothesis elimination, in that better hypotheses
are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to
contradictions. It was designed to force one to examine one's own
beliefs and the validity of such beliefs.
An alternative interpretation of the dialectic is that it is a method
for direct perception of the Form of the Good.
Philosopher Karl Popper
describes the dialectic as "the art of intellectual intuition, of
visualising the divine originals, the Forms or Ideas, of unveiling the
Great Mystery behind the common man's everyday world of
appearances." In a similar vein, French philosopher Pierre Hadot
suggests that the dialogues are a type of spiritual exercise. Hadot
writes that "in Plato's view, every dialectical exercise, precisely
because it is an exercise of pure thought, subject to the demands of
the Logos, turns the soul away from the sensible world, and allows it
to convert itself towards the Good."
The beliefs of Socrates, as distinct from those of Plato, are
difficult to discern. Little in the way of concrete evidence exists to
demarcate the two. The lengthy presentation of ideas given in most of
the dialogues may be the ideas of
Socrates himself, but which have
been subsequently deformed or changed by Plato, and some scholars
Plato so adapted the Socratic style as to make the literary
character and the philosopher himself impossible to distinguish.
Others argue that he did have his own theories and beliefs. There
is a degree of controversy inherent in the identifying of what these
might have been, owing to the difficulty of separating
Plato and the difficulty of interpreting even the dramatic writings
concerning Socrates. Consequently, distinguishing the philosophical
Socrates from those of
Xenophon has not proven
easy, so it must be remembered that what is attributed to Socrates
might actually be more the specific concerns of these two thinkers
The matter is complicated because the historical
Socrates seems to
have been notorious for asking questions but not answering, claiming
to lack wisdom concerning the subjects about which he questioned
If anything in general can be said about the philosophical beliefs of
Socrates, it is that he was morally, intellectually, and politically
at odds with many of his fellow Athenians. When he is on trial for
heresy and corrupting the minds of the youth of Athens, he uses his
method of elenchos to demonstrate to the jurors that their moral
values are wrong-headed. He tells them they are concerned with their
families, careers, and political responsibilities when they ought to
be worried about the "welfare of their souls". Socrates' assertion
that the gods had singled him out as a divine emissary seemed to
provoke irritation, if not outright ridicule.
Socrates also questioned
the Sophistic doctrine that arete (virtue) can be taught. He liked to
observe that successful fathers (such as the prominent military
general Pericles) did not produce sons of their own quality. Socrates
argued that moral excellence was more a matter of divine bequest than
parental nurture. This belief may have contributed to his lack of
anxiety about the future of his own sons.
Also, according to A. A. Long, "There should be no doubt that, despite
his claim to know only that he knew nothing,
Socrates had strong
beliefs about the divine", and, citing Xenophon's Memorabilia, 1.4,
According to Xenophon, he was a teleologist who held that god arranges
everything for the best.
Socrates frequently says his ideas are not his own, but his teachers'.
He mentions several influences:
Prodicus the rhetor and
philosopher. Perhaps surprisingly,
Socrates claims to have been deeply
influenced by two women besides his mother: he says that Diotima (cf.
Plato's Symposium), a witch and priestess from Mantinea, taught him
all he knows about eros, or love; and that Aspasia, the mistress of
Pericles, taught him the art of rhetoric. John Burnet argued that
his principal teacher was the Anaxagorean Archelaus but his ideas were
Plato described them; Eric A. Havelock, on the other hand, did not
accept the view that Socrates' view was identical with that of
Archelaus, in large part due to the reason of such anomalies and
contradictions that have surfaced and "post-dated his death."
Many of the beliefs traditionally attributed to the historical
Socrates have been characterized as "paradoxical" because they seem to
conflict with common sense. The following are among the so-called
No one desires evil.
No one errs or does wrong willingly or knowingly.
Virtue—all virtue—is knowledge.
Virtue is sufficient for happiness.
The term, "Socratic paradox" can also refer to a self-referential
paradox, originating in Socrates' utterance, "what I do not know I do
not think I know", often paraphrased as "I know that I know
The statement "I know that I know nothing" is often attributed to
Socrates, based on a statement in Plato's Apology. The
conventional interpretation of this is that Socrates' wisdom was
limited to an awareness of his own ignorance.
virtuousness to require or consist of phronēsis, "thought, sense,
judgement, practical wisdom, [and] prudence." Therefore, he
believed that wrongdoing and behaviour that was not virtuous resulted
from ignorance, and that those who did wrong knew no better.
The one thing
Socrates claimed to have knowledge of was "the art of
love" (ta erôtikê). This assertion seems to be associated with the
word erôtan, which means to ask questions. Therefore,
claiming to know about the art of love, insofar as he knows how to ask
The only time he actually claimed to be wise was within Apology, in
which he says he is wise "in the limited sense of having human
wisdom". It is debatable whether
Socrates believed humans (as
opposed to gods like Apollo) could actually become wise. On the one
hand, he drew a clear line between human ignorance and ideal
knowledge; on the other, Plato's Symposium (Diotima's Speech) and
Republic (Allegory of the Cave) describe a method for ascending to
In Plato's Theaetetus (150a),
Socrates compares his treatment of the
young people who come to him for philosophical advice to the way
midwives treat their patients, and the way matrimonial matchmakers
act. He says that he himself is a true matchmaker
(προμνηστικός promnestikós) in that he matches the young
man to the best philosopher for his particular mind. However, he
carefully distinguishes himself from a panderer (προᾰγωγός
proagogos) or procurer. This distinction is echoed in Xenophon's
Symposium (3.20), when
Socrates jokes about his certainty of being
able to make a fortune, if he chose to practice the art of pandering.
For his part as a philosophical interlocutor, he leads his respondent
to a clearer conception of wisdom, although he claims he is not
himself a teacher (Apology). His role, he claims, is more properly to
be understood as analogous to a midwife (μαῖα maia).
In the Theaetetus,
Socrates explains that he is himself barren of
theories, but knows how to bring the theories of others to birth and
determine whether they are worthy or mere "wind eggs"
(ἀνεμιαῖον anemiaion). Perhaps significantly, he points out
that midwives are barren due to age, and women who have never given
birth are unable to become midwives; they would have no experience or
knowledge of birth and would be unable to separate the worthy infants
from those that should be left on the hillside to be exposed. To judge
this, the midwife must have experience and knowledge of what she is
Socrates in the Palermo Archaeological Museum
Socrates believed the best way for people to live was to focus on the
pursuit of virtue rather than the pursuit, for instance, of material
wealth. He always invited others to try to concentrate more on
friendships and a sense of true community, for
Socrates felt this was
the best way for people to grow together as a populace. His
actions lived up to this standard: in the end,
Socrates accepted his
death sentence when most thought he would simply leave Athens, as he
felt he could not run away from or go against the will of his
community; as mentioned above, his reputation for valor on the
battlefield was without reproach.
The idea that there are certain virtues formed a common thread in
Socrates' teachings. These virtues represented the most important
qualities for a person to have, foremost of which were the
philosophical or intellectual virtues.
Socrates stressed that "the
unexamined life is not worth living [and] ethical virtue is the only
thing that matters."
It is argued that
Socrates believed "ideals belong in a world only the
wise man can understand", making the philosopher the only type of
person suitable to govern others. In Plato's dialogue the Republic,
Socrates openly objected to the democracy that ran
Athens during his
adult life. It was not only Athenian democracy:
Socrates found short
of ideal any government that did not conform to his presentation of a
perfect regime led by philosophers, and Athenian government was far
from that. It is, however, possible that the
Socrates of Plato's
Republic is colored by Plato's own views. During the last years of
Athens was in continual flux due to political
Democracy was at last overthrown by a junta known as the
Thirty Tyrants, led by Plato's relative, Critias, who had once been a
student and friend of Socrates. The Tyrants ruled for about a year
Athenian democracy was reinstated, at which point it
declared an amnesty for all recent events.
Socrates' opposition to democracy is often denied, and the question is
one of the biggest philosophical debates when trying to determine
Socrates believed. The strongest argument of those who
Socrates did not actually believe in the idea of philosopher
kings is that the view is expressed no earlier than Plato's Republic,
which is widely considered one of Plato's "Middle" dialogues and not
representative of the historical Socrates' views. Furthermore,
according to Plato's Apology of Socrates, an "early" dialogue,
Socrates refused to pursue conventional politics; he often stated he
could not look into other's matters or tell people how to live their
lives when he did not yet understand how to live his own. He believed
he was a philosopher engaged in the pursuit of Truth, and did not
claim to know it fully. Socrates' acceptance of his death sentence
after his conviction can also be seen to support this view. It is
often claimed much of the anti-democratic leanings are from Plato, who
was never able to overcome his disgust at what was done to his
teacher. In any case, it is clear
Socrates thought the rule of the
Thirty Tyrants was also objectionable; when called before them to
assist in the arrest of a fellow Athenian,
Socrates refused and
narrowly escaped death before the Tyrants were overthrown. He did,
however, fulfill his duty to serve as
Prytanis when a trial of a group
of Generals who presided over a disastrous naval campaign were judged;
even then, he maintained an uncompromising attitude, being one of
those who refused to proceed in a manner not supported by the laws,
despite intense pressure. Judging by his actions, he considered
the rule of the
Thirty Tyrants less legitimate than the Democratic
Senate that sentenced him to death.
Socrates' apparent respect for democracy is one of the themes
emphasized in the 2008 play
Socrates on Trial
Socrates on Trial by Andrew David Irvine.
Irvine argues that it was because of his loyalty to Athenian democracy
Socrates was willing to accept the verdict of his fellow
citizens. As Irvine puts it, "During a time of war and great social
and intellectual upheaval,
Socrates felt compelled to express his
views openly, regardless of the consequences. As a result, he is
remembered today, not only for his sharp wit and high ethical
standards, but also for his loyalty to the view that in a democracy
the best way for a man to serve himself, his friends, and his
city—even during times of war—is by being loyal to, and by
speaking publicly about, the truth."
In the Dialogues of Plato, though
Socrates sometimes seems to support
a mystical side, discussing reincarnation and the mystery religions,
this is generally attributed to Plato. Regardless, this view of
Socrates cannot be dismissed out of hand, as we cannot be sure of the
differences between the views of
Plato and Socrates; in addition,
there seem to be some corollaries in the works of Xenophon. In the
culmination of the philosophic path as discussed in Plato's Symposium,
one comes to the
Sea of Beauty or to the sight of "the beautiful
itself" (211C); only then can one become wise. (In the Symposium,
Socrates credits his speech on the philosophic path to his teacher,
the priestess Diotima, who is not even sure if
Socrates is capable of
reaching the highest mysteries.) In the Meno, he refers to the
Eleusinian Mysteries, telling
Meno he would understand Socrates'
answers better if only he could stay for the initiations next week.
Further confusions result from the nature of these sources, insofar as
the Platonic Dialogues are arguably the work of an artist-philosopher,
whose meaning does not volunteer itself to the passive reader nor
again the lifelong scholar. According to
Olympiodorus the Younger in
his Life of Plato,
Plato himself "received instruction from the
writers of tragedy" before taking up the study of philosophy. His
works are, indeed, dialogues; Plato's choice of this, the medium of
Sophocles, Euripides, and the fictions of theatre, may reflect the
ever-interpretable nature of his writings, as he has been called a
"dramatist of reason". What is more, the first word of nearly all
Plato's works is a significant term for that respective dialogue, and
is used with its many connotations in mind. Finally, the Phaedrus and
the Symposium each allude to Socrates' coy delivery of philosophic
truths in conversation; the
Socrates of the Phaedrus goes so far as to
demand such dissembling and mystery in all writing. The covertness we
often find in Plato, appearing here and there couched in some
enigmatic use of symbol and/or irony, may be at odds with the
Socrates expounds in some other dialogues. These
indirect methods may fail to satisfy some readers.
Perhaps the most interesting facet of this is Socrates' reliance on
what the Greeks called his "daimōnic sign", an averting
(ἀποτρεπτικός apotreptikos) inner voice
only when he was about to make a mistake. It was this sign that
Socrates from entering into politics. In the Phaedrus, we
Socrates considered this to be a form of "divine madness",
the sort of insanity that is a gift from the gods and gives us poetry,
mysticism, love, and even philosophy itself. Alternately, the sign is
often taken to be what we would call "intuition"; however, Socrates'
characterization of the phenomenon as daimōnic may suggest that its
origin is divine, mysterious, and independent of his own thoughts.
Today, such a voice would be classified under the Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as a command
Socrates practiced and advocated divination.
Xenophon was thought
skilled at foretelling from sacrifices, and attributed many of his
Socrates within his writing "The Cavalry
He was prominently lampooned in Aristophanes' comedy The Clouds,
Socrates was in his mid-forties; he said at his trial
(according to Plato) that the laughter of the theater was a harder
task to answer than the arguments of his accusers. Søren Kierkegaard
believed this play was a more accurate representation of
those of his students. In the play,
Socrates is ridiculed for his
dirtiness, which is associated with the Laconizing fad; also in plays
by Callias, Eupolis, and Telecleides. Other comic poets who lampooned
Socrates include Mnesimachus and Ameipsias. In all of these, Socrates
and the Sophists were criticized for "the moral dangers inherent in
contemporary thought and literature".
Plato, Xenophon, and
Aristotle are the main sources for the historical
Plato were students of Socrates, and
they may idealize him; however, they wrote the only extended
Socrates that have come down to us in their complete
Aristotle refers frequently, but in passing, to
Socrates in his
writings. Almost all of Plato's works center on Socrates. However,
Plato's later works appear to be more his own philosophy put into the
mouth of his mentor.
The Socratic dialogues
Main article: Socratic dialogue
The Socratic Dialogues are a series of dialogues written by
Xenophon in the form of discussions between
Socrates and other persons
of his time, or as discussions between Socrates' followers over his
Phaedo is an example of this latter category.
Although his Apology is a monologue delivered by Socrates, it is
usually grouped with the Dialogues.
The Apology professes to be a record of the actual speech Socrates
delivered in his own defense at the trial. In the Athenian jury
system, an "apology" is composed of three parts: a speech, followed by
a counter-assessment, then some final words. "Apology" is an
anglicized transliteration, not a translation, of the Greek apologia,
meaning "defense"; in this sense it is not apologetic according to our
contemporary use of the term.
Plato generally does not place his own ideas in the mouth of a
specific speaker; he lets ideas emerge via the Socratic Method, under
the guidance of Socrates. Most of the dialogues present Socrates
applying this method to some extent, but nowhere as completely as in
the Euthyphro. In this dialogue,
Euthyphro go through
several iterations of refining the answer to Socrates' question,
"...What is the pious, and what the impious?"
In Plato's Dialogues, learning appears as a process of remembering.
The soul, before its incarnation in the body, was in the realm of
Ideas (very similar to the Platonic "Forms"). There, it saw things the
way they truly are, rather than the pale shadows or copies we
experience on earth. By a process of questioning, the soul can be
brought to remember the ideas in their pure form, thus bringing
Especially for Plato's writings referring to Socrates, it is not
always clear which ideas brought forward by
Socrates (or his friends)
actually belonged to
Socrates and which of these may have been new
additions or elaborations by Plato—this is known as the Socratic
Problem. Generally, the early works of
Plato are considered to be
close to the spirit of Socrates, whereas the later works—including
Phaedo and Republic—are considered to be possibly products of
Socrates in front of the
See also: Cyrenaics
Immediately, the students of
Socrates set to work both on exercising
their perceptions of his teachings in politics and also on developing
many new philosophical schools of thought. Some of Athens'
controversial and anti-democratic tyrants were contemporary or
posthumous students of
Alcibiades and Critias.
Plato would go on to found the
Academy in 385 BC,
which gained so much renown that "Academy" became the standard word
for educational institutions in later European languages such as
English, French, and Italian. Plato's protégé, another
important figure of the Classical era,
Aristotle went on to tutor
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great and also to found his own school in
335 BC—the Lyceum—whose name also now means an educational
Socrates dealt with moral matters and took no notice at all of
nature in general", in his Dialogues,
Plato would emphasize
mathematics with metaphysical overtones mirroring that of
Pythagoras—the former who would dominate Western thought well into
Aristotle himself was as much of a philosopher as he
was a scientist with extensive work in the fields of biology and
Socratic thought which challenged conventions, especially in stressing
a simplistic way of living, became divorced from Plato's more detached
and philosophical pursuits. This idea was inherited by one of
Socrates' older students, Antisthenes, who became the originator of
another philosophy in the years after Socrates' death: Cynicism.
The idea of asceticism being hand in hand with an ethical life or one
with piety, ignored by
Aristotle and somewhat dealt with by
the Cynics, formed the core of another philosophy in
Zeno of Citium
Zeno of Citium would discover Socrates'
works and then learn from Crates, a Cynic philosopher.
Later historical influence
Socrates by 13th century Seljuk illustrator
While some of the later contributions of
Socrates to Hellenistic Era
culture and philosophy as well as the
Roman Era have been lost to
time, his teachings began a resurgence in both medieval Europe and the
Islamic Middle East alongside those of
Aristotle and Stoicism.
Socrates is mentioned in the dialogue
Kuzari by Jewish philosopher and
Yehuda Halevi in which a Jew instructs the
Khazar king about
Judaism. Al-Kindi, a well-known Arabic philosopher, introduced
and tried to reconcile
Hellenistic philosophy to an
Islamic audience, referring to him by the name 'Suqrat'.
Socrates' stature in
Western philosophy returned in full force with
Renaissance and the Age of Reason in Europe when political theory
began to resurface under those like Locke and Hobbes. Voltaire
even went so far as to write a satirical play about the trial of
Socrates. There were a number of paintings about his life including
Alcibiades from the Embrace of Sensual Pleasure by
Jean-Baptiste Regnault and
The Death of Socrates
The Death of Socrates by Jacques-Louis
David in the later 18th century.
To this day, different versions of the
Socratic method are still used
in classroom and law school discourse to expose underlying issues in
both subject and the speaker. He has been recognized with accolades
ranging from frequent mentions in pop culture (such as the movie Bill
& Ted's Excellent Adventure and a Greek rock band called Socrates
Drank the Conium) to numerous busts in academic institutions in
recognition of his contribution to education.
Over the past century, numerous plays about
Socrates have also focused
on Socrates' life and influence. One of the most recent has been
Socrates on Trial, a play based on Aristophanes' Clouds and Plato's
Apology, Crito, and Phaedo, all adapted for modern performance.
Evaluation of and reaction to
Socrates has been undertaken by both
historians and philosophers from the time of his death to the present
day with a multitude of conclusions and perspectives. Although he was
not directly prosecuted for his connection to Critias, leader of the
Spartan-backed Thirty Tyrants, and "showed considerable personal
courage in refusing to submit to [them]", he was seen by some as a
figure who mentored oligarchs who became abusive tyrants, and
undermined Athenian democracy. The Sophistic movement that he railed
at in life survived him, but by the 3rd century BC, was rapidly
overtaken by the many philosophical schools of thought that Socrates
Socrates' death is considered iconic and his status as a martyr of
philosophy overshadows most contemporary and posthumous criticism.
Xenophon mentions Socrates' "arrogance" and that he was "an
expert in the art of primping" or "self-presentation". Direct
Socrates the man almost disappears after this time, but
there is a noticeable preference for
Aristotle over the
elements of Socratic philosophy distinct from those of his students,
even into the Middle Ages.
Some modern scholarship holds that, with so much of his own thought
obscured and possibly altered by Plato, it is impossible to gain a
clear picture of
Socrates amid all the contradictory evidence. That
both Cynicism and Stoicism, which carried heavy influence from
Socratic thought, were unlike or even contrary to
illustrates this. The ambiguity and lack of reliability serves as the
modern basis of criticism—that it is nearly impossible to know the
real Socrates. Some controversy also exists about Socrates' attitude
towards homosexuality and as to whether or not he believed in the
Olympian gods, was monotheistic, or held some other religious
viewpoint. However, it is still commonly taught and held with
little exception that
Socrates is the progenitor of subsequent Western
philosophy, to the point that philosophers before him are referred to
Socrates is a major character in Mary Renault's historical novel The
Last of the Wine. The book's protagonists, Alexias and Lysis, study
under him in Athens.
A humorous version of the deceased
Socrates appears in John Kendrick
Bangs's comic novel
A House-Boat on the Styx
A House-Boat on the Styx and its sequels.
Codex Vaticanus Graecus 64
List of speakers in Plato's dialogues
Xanthippe (wife of Socrates)
Myrto (second wife of Socrates, according to some accounts)
De genio Socratis
^ Kraut, Richard (August 16, 2017). "Socrates". Encyclopedia
Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 20 November
^ Jones, Daniel; Roach, Peter, James Hartman and Jane Setter, eds.
Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary. 17th edition. Cambridge UP,
^ Easterling, P. E. (1997). The Cambridge Companion to Greek Tragedy.
Cambridge University Press. p. 352. ISBN 0521423511.
Retrieved 19 November 2017.
^ Smith, Nicholas D.; Woodruff, Paul (16 November 2000). Reason and
Religion in Socratic Philosophy. Oxford University Press. p. 154.
ISBN 0195350928. Retrieved 19 November 2017. 469 or 468
(corresponding to the fourth year of the 77th Olympiad), according to
Apollodorus...But the year of Socrates' birth is probably only an
Plato [who] has
Socrates casually describe himself as
having lived seventy years.
^ James Rachels, The Legacy of Socrates: Essays in Moral Philosophy
Columbia University Press, 2007 ISBN 023113844X Accessed November
Gregory Vlastos (1991). Socrates, Ironist and Moral Philosopher.
Cornell University Press. p. 43.
Philosophy - The Discovery of Ethics :
Maritain Center Accessed November 24th, 2017
Peter Singer (1985) -
Encyclopædia Britannica Chicago, 1985, pp.
627-648 Accessed November 24th, 2017
^ Anne Rooney - The Story of Philosophy: From Ancient Greeks to Great
Thinkers of Modern Times(search page) Arcturus Publishing, 6 January
2014 ISBN 1782129952 Accessed November 24th, 2017
^ Charles H. Kahn (1998) -
Ethics - p.42
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press 4
May 1998 ISBN 0521388325 Accessed December 22nd, 2017
^ Stern, T (2013) -
Philosophy and Theatre: An Introduction - ix
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^ Kofman, Sarah (1998). Socrates: Fictions of a Philosopher.
p. 34. ISBN 0-8014-3551-X.
...Socrates, of course, is the only of these philosophers who didn't
write anything... S. Phineas Upham,
Joshua Harlan - Philosophers in
Conversation: Interviews from the Harvard Review of
Philosophy p.141 -
Psychology Press 2002 ISBN 0415937787
Socrates undoubtedly existed, but he did not write
anything... J. S. McClelland A History of Western Political Thought
p.19 Psychology Press 1996 ISBN 0415119618
Socrates is especially pure because he does not write. “Socrates
was the West's greatest thinker insofar as he did not write
anything... - M. Blitz, Ann Ward - Socrates: Reason or Unreason as the
Foundation of European Identity p.221 Cambridge Scholars Publishing
2009 ISBN 1443808709
Socrates did not write anything and assigned to the living word
and to dialogue with his followers all of his thought, ... - Giovanni
Reale, John R. Catan - A History of Ancient
Philosophy IV: The Schools
of the Imperial Age p.75
SUNY Press 1985 ISBN 0791401286
Socrates explains to Meno: “It is not because I myself am on the
right track (euporon) that I leave others with no way out (aporein),
but because ... This is why
Socrates did not write anything; he had
nothing to teach that could be fixed in writing... - Walter Kohan -
Childhood, Education and Philosophy: New Ideas for an Old Relationship
Routledge 2014 ISBN 1317658450
...They achieved renown precisely because they did not write at all.
The vice of graphorrhoea was frequently contrasted with the virtue of
such ancient philosophers as Pythagoras, Aristarchus, Favorinus and
Socrates, who did not write anything ... - Sari Kivisto - The Vices of
Learning: Morality and Knowledge at Early Modern Universities 106
BRILL 2014 ISBN 9004276459
^ C. Salutati in
Renaissance Debates on Rhetoric Cornell University
Press, 2000 ISBN 0801482062
^ Roberson, C. (8 December 2009).
Ethics for Criminal Justice
Professionals. CRC Press. p. 24. ISBN 1420086723.
^ Rubel, A.; Vickers, M. (11 September 2014). Fear and Loathing in
Ancient Athens: Religion and Politics During the Peloponnesian War.
Routledge. p. 147. ISBN 1317544803.
^ Dorion, Louis-André. The Rise and Fall of the
Socratic Problem (pp.
1–23) (The Cambridge Companion to Socrates). Cambridge University
Press. doi:10.1017/CCOL9780521833424.001. ISBN 9780521833424.
^ May, H. (2000). On Socrates. Wadsworth/Thomson Learning,.
^ catalogue of
Harvard University Press
Harvard University Press -
Xenophon Volume IV.
^ Kahn, CH',
Plato and the Socratic Dialogue: The Philosophical Use of
a Literary Form, Cambridge University Press, 1998, p. xvii.
^ Many other writers added to the fashion of Socratic dialogues
(called Sokratikoi logoi) at the time. In addition to
Xenophon, each of the following is credited by some source as having
added to the genre: Aeschines of Sphettus, Antisthenes, Aristippus,
Bryson, Cebes, Crito,
Euclid of Megara, and Phaedo. It is unlikely
Plato was the first in this field (Vlastos, p. 52).
^ Morrison, D.R. The Cambridge Companion to
Cambridge University Press, 2011, ISBN 0521833426. Retrieved
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Philosophy (Spring 2014 Edition),
Edward N. Zalta
Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Retrieved
^ a b c d D. El Murr (27 July 2016) - Biography Oxford Biographies
DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195389661-0211 Accessed November 20th, 2017
^ Peter J. Ahrensdorf -
The Death of Socrates
The Death of Socrates and the Life of
Philosophy: An Interpretation of Plato's
Phaedo p.17 SUNY Press, 14
September 1995 ISBN 0791426343 Accessed November 23, 2017
^ CH Kahn,
Plato and the Socratic Dialogue: The Philosophical Use of a
Literary Form (p. 75), Cambridge University Press, 1998,
^ Cohen, M., Philosophical Tales: Being an Alternative History
Revealing the Characters, the Plots, and the Hidden Scenes That Make
Up the True Story of Philosophy, John Wiley & Sons, 2008, p. 5,
Socrates Behind the Name Accessed November 28th, 2017
^ Google translation - Greek for
Socrates Accessed November 28th, 2017
^ D Nails Archived 2015-03-27 at the Wayback Machine., Agora, Academy,
and the Conduct of
Philosophy (p. 9), Springer, 1995,
^ Ahbel-Rappe, S., Socrates: A Guide for the Perplexed (p. 2 and
footnote 10 on pp. 157–8), A&C Black, 2009.
^ Bett, R. A Companion to
Socrates (pp. 299-30). John Wiley &
Sons, 2009, ISBN 1405192607. Retrieved 2015-04-17. (A
translation of one fragment reads: "But from them the sculptor,
blatherer on the lawful, turned away. Spellbinder of the Greeks, who
made them precise in language. Sneerer trained by rhetoroticians,
^ Lieber, F. Encyclopedia Americana (pp. 266-7), published 1832
(original from Oxford University).
^ CS. Celenza (2001), Angelo Poliziano's Lamia: Text, Translation, and
Introductory Studies (note 34), BRILL, 2010, ISBN 9004185909.
^ Ong, pp. 78–79.
^ a b Apollodorus (N. D. Smith, P. Woodruff) - Reason and Religion in
Philosophy p.154 Oxford University Press, 16th November 2000
ISBN 0195350928 Retrieved November 19th, 2017
^ a b Apollodorus of
Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved
November 19th, 2017
^ The Library of Apollodorus (
Delphi Classics, 13
February 2016 Accessed November 25th, 2017
^ Andreas Willi,
Theater Outside Athens: Drama in Greek Sicily and
South Italyp.56 Cambridge University Press, 2 August 2012
ISBN 0521761786 Accessed November 25th, 2017
^ Cicero : in twenty-eight volumes. 20. De senectute, De
amicitia, De divinatione Harvard University Press, 1923 Accessed
November 25th, 2017
Diogenes Laertius Lives of Eminent Philosophers 2.5.
Harvard University Press, Loeb Classics Library Accessed November
25th, 2017 sourced via
William Musgrave Calder
William Musgrave Calder - The Unknown Socrates:
Translations, with Introductions and Notes, of Four Important
Documents in the Late Antique Reception of
Socrates the Athenian p.3
Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 2002 ISBN 0865164983 Accessed
November 25th, 2017
Diogenes Laertius Translated by R. D. Hicks Loeb Classical Library
Harvard University Press
Harvard University Press Accessed November 25th, 2017
^ P.J. King, One Hundred Philosophers (p. 23), Zebra, 2006,
^ a b C. Gill (1973) -
The Death of Socrates
The Death of Socrates (p.27) Cambridge
University Press :
The Classical Quarterly Accessed November
^ Kahn, Charles H. (2001) -
Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans: A Brief
History - p.4, Indianapolis, Indiana and Cambridge, England: Hackett
Publishing Company, ISBN 978-0-87220-575-8 Accessed December 2nd,
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Urbana-Champaign Accessed December 2nd, 2017 - shows "569–500"
Pythagoras and his Theorem Università degli Studi di Firenze
Accessed December 2nd, 2017 - shows "c.572–c.494"
^ L. Brisson (2007), Griechische Biographie in hellenistischer Zeit:
Akten des internationalen Kongresses vom 26.-29. Juli 2006 in
Würzburg - Aristoxenus: His Evidence on
Pythagoras and the
Pythagoreans. The case of Philolaus Walter de Gruyter, 2007
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^ Thomas Stewart Traill (1859), The Encyclopaedia Britannica: Or,
Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General Literature, Volume 18 -
p.710 Little, Brown, & Company, 1859 Accessed December 2nd, 2017
^ Sir Thomas Heath, Aristarchus of Samos: The Ancient Copernicus
(Chapter IX (page first) Courier Corporation, 9 December 2004
ISBN 0486438864 Accessed November 24th, 2017 "assume"
^ Linda Pound, Quick Guides for Early Years: Cognitive Development
Socrates Hachette UK, 26 April 2013 ISBN 144419965X
Accessed November 24th, 2017
^ John Burnet,
Platonism  Edicions Enoanda, 19 July 2014, Classical
Sather Lectures. California 1928, Accessed November 24th, 2017
^ B. Hudson McLean, The Cursed Christ: Mediterranean Expulsion Rituals
and Pauline Soteriologyp.91 A&C Black, 1996 ISBN 1850755892,
Accessed November 24th, 2017
^ P. E. Easterling, The Cambridge Companion to Greek Tragedy, p. 352
Cambridge University Press, 1997 ISBN 0521423511 Retrieved
November 19th, 2017
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G.W.F. Hegel (trans. Frances H. Simon), Lectures on History of
^ a b Nails, D., "Socrates" - A Chronology of the historical Socrates
in the context of Athenian history and the dramatic dates of Plato's
dialogues, The Stanford Encyclopedia of
Philosophy (Spring 2014
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Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Retrieved 2015-04-17.
^ Howatson, M.C. (2013). The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature
(reprint, 3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 528.
Plato (1999) . Theaetetus. Translated by Fowler, Harold N.
(reprint of London, William Heinemann Ltd. ed.). Cambridge, MA.:
Harvard University Press. p. 149a.
^ A Grafton, GW Most, Settis, S., The Classical Tradition Harvard
University Press, 2010, ISBN 0674035720.
^ "Plato, ''Phaedo'' 116b". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved
^ The ancient tradition is attested in Pausanias, 1.22.8; for a modern
denial, see Kleine Pauly, "Sokrates" 7; the tradition is a confusion
with the sculptor,
Socrates of Thebes, mentioned in Pausanias 9.25.3,
a contemporary of Pindar.
^ Xen. Mem. 4.2.1.
^ J. Sellars, (2003),
Simon the Shoemaker and the Problem of Socrates.
Classical Philology 98, 207–216.
^ Colaiaco, J.A.
Socrates Against Athens:
Philosophy on Trial.
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^ Monoson, S.S., Meineck, P., Konstan, D., Combat Trauma and the
Ancient Greeks (p. 136), Palgrave Macmillan, 2014,
Iain King details Socrates' military service, including how it may
have affected his ideas, in
Socrates at War (article), accessed
^ Ober, J., Political Dissent in Democratic Athens: Intellectual
Critics of Popular Rule (p. 184 - footnote 54), Martin Classical
Lectures, Princeton University Press, 2001, ISBN 0691089817.
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Ancient Greek and Roman
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Documents from Archaic Times to the Death of Alexander (p. 119),
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Archaic Times to the Death of
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^ Larcher, P.H. (1829). Larcher's Notes on Herodotus: Historical and
Critical Remarks on the Nine Books of the History of Herodotus, with a
Chronological Table. 2. John R. Priestley. p. 330. Retrieved
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Athens in the Age of
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Order of a Free People. ISBN 0226321266. Retrieved
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Socrates Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 167–169.
^ LD LeCaire, Tyranny and Terror:The Failure of Athenian
the Reign of the Thirty Tyrants. Eastern Washington University. Spring
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the Phaedo: With Notes from Stallbaum, Schleiermacher's Introductions,
A Life of Socrates, and Schleiermacher's Essay on the Worth of
Socrates as a Philosopher. Taylor Walton and Maberly. p. ciii
^ Wilson, Emily R. (2007). The Death of Socrates. Harvard University
Press. p. 55.
^ Here it is telling to refer to
Thucydides (3.82.8): "Reckless
audacity came to be considered the courage of a loyal ally; prudent
hesitation, specious cowardice; moderation was held to be a cloak for
unmanliness; ability to see all sides of a question inaptness to act
on any. Frantic violence, became the attribute of manliness; cautious
plotting, a justifiable means of self-defense. The advocate of extreme
measures was always trustworthy; his opponent a man to be suspected."
^ a b Waterfield, Robin (2009). Why
Socrates Died: Dispelling the
Myths. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
^ Brun (1978).
^ M.F. Burnyeat (1997), The
publications ; Ancient
Philosophy 17 Accessed November 23rd, 2017
^ Debra Nails, A Companion to Greek and Roman Political Thought
Chapter 21 - The Trial and Death of
Socrates John Wiley & Sons, 21
December 2012 ISBN 1118556682 Accessed November 23, 2017
^ Plato. Apology, 24–27.
^ Fallon, Warren J. (2001). "Socratic suicide." PMID 19681231. US
National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health.
121:91–106. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
^ Linder, Doug (2002). "The Trial of Socrates". University of
Missouri–Kansas City School of Law. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
Socrates (Greek philosopher)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved
September 12, 2013.
^ R. G. Frey (January 1978). Did
Socrates Commit Suicide?. Philosophy,
Volume 53, Issue 203, pp 106–108. University of Liverpool.
^ C. Gill (1973), "The Death of Socrates" Cambridge University Press:
The Classical Quarterly & Houston Community College, Accessed
November 23rd, 2017
^ C. Gill (1973),
The Death of Socrates
The Death of Socrates Cambridge University Press:
The Classical Quarterly Accessed November 23rd, 2017
^ Laurel A. Madison (2002), “Have We Been Careless with Socrates’
Last Words? A Rereading of the Phaedo” Journal of the History of
Philosophy Wilson Quarterly Archives Accessed November 23rd, 2017
Socrates and Platon (translated by Benjamin Jowett), excerpt of
Phaedo "And the true philosophers, and they only, study and are eager
to release the soul"
^ a b J. Crooks, Socrates' Last Words: Another Look at an Ancient
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Classical
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