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The Info List - Social Democratic Party Of Germany


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The SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF GERMANY (German : Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany
Germany
. The party, led by Chairman Martin Schulz since 2017, has become one of the two major contemporary political parties in Germany, along with the Christian Democratic Union (CDU).

The SPD has governed at the federal level in Germany
Germany
as part of a grand coalition with the CDU and the Christian Social Union (CSU) since December 2013 following the results of the 2013 federal election . The SPD participates in 14 state governments, nine of them governed by SPD Minister-Presidents .

The SPD is a member of the Party of European Socialists and of the Socialist International , and became a founding member of the Progressive Alliance on 22 May 2013. Established in 1863, the SPD is the oldest extant political party represented in the German Parliament and was one of the first Marxist -influenced parties in the world.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Party platform
Party platform

* 2.1 Internal groupings

* 3 Base of support

* 3.1 Social structure * 3.2 Geographic distribution

* 4 Election results

* 4.1 Federal Parliament (Bundestag) * 4.2 European Parliament
European Parliament

* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links

HISTORY

Membership development after 1945 Main article: History of the Social Democratic Party of Germany
Germany

The General German Workers\' Association (Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein, ADAV), founded in 1863, and the Social Democratic Workers\' Party (Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, SDAP), founded in 1869, merged in 1875, under the name Socialist Workers' Party of Germany
Germany
(Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, SAPD). From 1878 to 1890, any grouping or meeting that aimed at spreading socialist principles was banned under the Anti-Socialist Laws , but the party still gained support in elections. In 1890, when the ban was lifted and it could again present electoral lists, the party adopted its current name. In the years leading up to World War I , the party remained ideologically radical in official principle, although many party officials tended to be moderate in everyday politics. By 1912, the party claimed the most votes of any German party.

Despite the agreement of the Second International to oppose the First World War, the SPD voted in favor of war in 1914. In response to this and the Bolshevik Revolution , members of the left and of the far-left of the SPD formed alternative parties, first the Spartacus League
Spartacus League
, then the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany and later the Communist Party of Germany
Communist Party of Germany
. After 1918 the SPD played an important role in the political system of the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
, although it took part in coalition governments only in few years (1918–1921, 1923, 1928–1930). Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
prohibited the party in 1933 under the Enabling Act – party officials were imprisoned, killed or went into exile. In exile, the party used the name Sopade . The SPD had been the only party to vote against the Enabling Act (while the Communist Party was blocked from voting).

In 1945, the allied occupants in the Western zones initially allowed four parties to be established, which led to the Christian Democratic Union , the Free Democratic Party , the Communist Party of Germany
Communist Party of Germany
, and the SPD being established. In the Soviet Zone of Occupation , the Soviets forced the Social Democrats to form a common party with the Communists ( Socialist Unity Party of Germany
Socialist Unity Party of Germany
or SED). In the Western zones, the Communist Party was later (1956) banned by West Germany's Federal Constitutional Court. Since 1949, in the Federal Republic of Germany, the SPD has been one of the two major parties, with the other being the Christian Democratic Union. From 1969 to 1982 and 1998 to 2005 the Chancellors of Germany
Germany
were Social Democrats whereas the other years the Chancellors were Christian Democrats.

PARTY PLATFORM

The SPD was established as a Marxist party in 1875. However, the SPD underwent a major shift in policies reflected in the differences between the Heidelberg Program of 1925, which "called for the transformation of the capitalist system of private ownership of the means of production to social ownership", and the Godesberg Program of 1959, which aimed to broaden its voter base and move its political position toward the centre. After World War II
World War II
, under the leadership of Kurt Schumacher , the SPD re-established itself as a socialist party, representing the interests of the working class and the trade unions . With the Godesberg Program
Godesberg Program
of 1959, however, the party evolved from a socialist working-class party to a modern social-democratic party working within capitalism. Sigmar Gabriel , Vice-Chancellor of Germany (2013-present), former chairman of SPD.

The current party platform of the SPD espouses the goal of social democracy , which is seen as a vision of a societal arrangement in which freedom and social justice are paramount. According to the party platform, freedom , justice , and social solidarity , form the basis of social democracy. The coordinated social market economy should be strengthened, and its output should be distributed fairly. The party sees that economic system as necessary in order to ensure the affluence of the entire population. The SPD also tries to protect the society's poor with a welfare state . Concurrently, it advocates a sustainable fiscal policy that doesn't place a burden on future generations while eradicating budget deficits. In social policy , the SPD stands for civil and political rights in an open society . In foreign policy , the SPD aims at ensuring global peace by balancing global interests with democratic means. Thus, European integration is one of the main priorities of the SPD. SPD supports economic regulations to limit potential losses for banks and people. They support a common European economic and financial policy, and to prevent speculative bubbles. They support environmentally sustainable growth.

INTERNAL GROUPINGS

The SPD is mostly composed of members belonging to either of the two main wings: Keynesian social democrats and Third Way moderate social democrats belonging to the Seeheimer Kreis . While the moderate, Seeheimer Kreis social democrats strongly support the Agenda 2010 reformist programs introduced by Chancellor Gerhard Schröder
Gerhard Schröder
, the Keynesian social democrats continue to defend classical left-wing policies and the welfare state . The classical left-wing of the SPD claims that in recent years the welfare state has been curtailed through reform programs such as the Agenda 2010, Hartz IV and the more economic liberal stance of the SPD, which were endorsed by right-wing social democrats. As a reaction to the Agenda 2010, there was in 2005 the ascension of an inner party dissident movement, which led ultimately to the foundation of the new party Labour and Social Justice
Justice
– The Electoral Alternative (Arbeit ">131 / 402

First Opposition

1953 8,131,257 7,944,943 28.8 162 / 509 22 First Opposition

1957 11,975,400 11,875,339 31.8 181 / 519 19 First Opposition

1961 11,672,057 11,427,355 36.2 203 / 521 22 First Opposition

1965 12,998,474 12,813,186 39.3 217 / 518 14 Junior in Govt Coalition with the CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU

1969 14,402,374 14,065,716 42.7 237 / 518 20 Leading Govt coalition with the FDP

1972 18,228,239 17,175,169 45.8 242 / 518 5 Leading Govt coalition with the FDP

1976 16,471,321 16,099,019 42.6 224 / 518 18 Leading Govt coalition with the FDP

1980 16,808,861 16,260,677 42.9 228 / 519 4 Leading Govt coalition with the FDP

First Opposition (from 1982)

1983 15,686,033 14,865,807 38.2 202 / 520 26 First Opposition

1987 14,787,953 14,025,763 37.0 193 / 519 9 First Opposition

1990 16,279,980 15,545,366 33.5 239 / 662 46 First Opposition

1994 17,966,813 17,140,354 36.4 252 / 672 13 First Opposition

1998 21,535,893 20,181,269 40.9 298 / 669 43 Leading Govt coalition with the Greens

2002 20,059,967 18,484,560 38.5 251 / 603 47 Leading Govt coalition with the Greens

2005 18,129,100 16,194,665 34.2 222 / 614 29 Junior in Govt Coalition with the CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU

2009 12,077,437 9,988,843 23.0 146 / 622 76 First Opposition

2013 12,835,933 11,247,283 25.7 193 / 630 42 Junior in Govt Coalition with the CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT

ELECTION YEAR # of overall votes % of overall vote # of overall seats won +/–

1979 11,370,045 40.8 (#1) 33 / 81

1984 9,296,417 37.4 (#2) 32 / 81 1

1989 10,525,728 37.3 (#1) 30 / 81 2

1994 11,389,697 32.2 (#1) 40 / 99 10

1999 8,307,085 30.7 (#2) 33 / 99 7

2004 5,547,971 21.5 (#2) 23 / 99 10

2009 5,472,566 20.8 (#2) 23 / 99 0

2014 7,999,955 27.2 (#2) 27 / 96 4

SEE ALSO

* Socialism
Socialism
portal * Germany
Germany
portal

* Politics of Germany
Politics of Germany
* Party finance in Germany * List of political parties in Germany * Bundestag
Bundestag
(Federal Assembly of Germany) * Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
* Mierscheid Law * Elections in the Free State of Prussia

REFERENCES

* ^ "Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) – Parteiprofil". Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung. Retrieved 2014-08-21. * ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved 10 May 2015. * ^ "Greek debt crisis: Violence in Athens ahead of Germany
Germany
vote". BBC News. 26 February 2015. Retrieved 26 February 2015. * ^ Merkel, Wolfgang; Alexander Petring; Christian Henkes; Christoph Egle (2008). Social Democracy in Power: the capacity to reform. London: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-43820-9 . * ^ Dimitri Almeida (2012). The Impact of European Integration on Political Parties: Beyond the Permissive Consensus. CRC Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-136-34039-0 . Retrieved 14 July 2013. * ^ Ashley Lavelle (2013). The Death of Social Democracy: Political Consequences in the 21st Century. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-4094-9872-8 . Retrieved 18 July 2013. * ^ "Progressive Alliance: Sozialdemokraten gründen weltweites Netzwerk". SPIEGEL ONLINE. Hamburg, Germany. 22 May 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2015. * ^ Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung GmbH (22 May 2013). "Sozialdemokratie: "Progressive Alliance" gegründet". FAZ.NET. Retrieved 10 May 2015. * ^ n-tv Nachrichtenfernsehen (22 May 2013). "Sozialistische Internationale hat ausgedient: SPD gründet "Progressive Alliance"". n-tv.de. Retrieved 10 May 2015. * ^ Brustein, William. Logic of Evil: The Social Origins of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
1925–1933. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996. p. 131. * ^ Cooper, Alice Holmes. Paradoxes of Peace: German Peace Movements since 1945. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1996. p. 85 * ^ * ^ Nils Schnelle: Die WASG – Von der Gründung bis zur geplanten Fusion mit der Linkspartei, Munich
Munich
2007.

FURTHER READING

* Orlow, Dietrich. Common Destiny: A Comparative History of the Dutch, French, and German Social Democratic Parties, 1945–1969 (2000) online * Carl E. Schorske , German Social Democracy, 1905–1917: The Development of the Great Schism (Harvard University Press, 1955). * Vernon L. Lidtke, The Outlawed Party: Social Democracy in Germany, 1878–1890 (Princeton University Press, 1966). * Berlau, Abraham. German Social Democratic Party, 1914–1921 (Columbia University Press, 1949). * McAdams, A. James. " Germany
Germany
Divided: From the Wall to Reunification." Princeton University Press, 1992 and 1993. * Erich Matthias, The Downfall of the Old Social Democratic Party in 1933 pages 51–105 from Republic to Reich The Making of the Nazi Revolution Ten Essays edited by Hajo Holborn , (New York: Pantheon Books, 1972). * Eric D. Weitz, Creating German Communism, 1890-1990: From Popular Protests to Socialist State. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997 * David Priestand, Red
Red
Flag: A History of Communism," New York: Grove Press, 2009

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia

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