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The Soanian
Soanian
is an archaeological culture of the Lower Paleolithic
Lower Paleolithic
in the Siwalik region of the Indian subcontinent.[1] Contemporary to the Acheulean, it is named after the Soan Valley in Pakistan. Soanian sites are found along the Sivalik region in present-day India, Nepal and Pakistan.[2]

Contents

1 Findings 2 Spread across Shivalik Hills region 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Findings[edit]

Chauntra

Khasala Kalan

Sivalik Hills

Soan River

Map of the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
showing important sites of the Soanian culture.

The term "Soan Culture" was first used by Hellmut De Terra in 1936,[3] but D. N. Wadia had identified the presence of these archaeological implements in 1928.[4] Further archaeological research was conducted by Stephen Lycett in order to determine the morphometric assessment of the Soanian
Soanian
techno-complex. The result of this experiment concluded that the Soanian
Soanian
techno-complex contains a Mode 3 Levallois technique core component.[1] At Adiyala
Adiyala
and Khasala, about 16 km (9.9 mi) from Rawalpindi terrace on the bend of the river, hundreds of edged pebble tools were discovered. At Chauntra
Chauntra
in Himachal Pradesh, hand axes and cleavers were found. Tools up to two million years old have been recovered. In the Soan River
Soan River
Gorge, many fossil bearing rocks are exposed on the surface. 14 million year old fossils of gazelle, rhinoceros, crocodile, giraffe and rodents have been found there. Some of these fossils are on display at the Pakistan
Pakistan
Museum of Natural History in Islamabad.

Spread across Shivalik Hills region[edit] The earliest palaeolithic hominin archaeological site in the Indian subcontinent at Soan River
Soan River
valley,[5] is part of Soan Culture, sites of are found in the Sivalik region across what are now India, Pakistan, and Nepal.[2][6][2] See also[edit]

The Paleolithic

Pliocene
Pliocene
(before Homo)

Lower Paleolithic (c. 3.3 Ma – 300 ka)

Oldowan
Oldowan
(2.6–1.7 Ma) Madrasian Culture (1.5 Ma) Soanian
Soanian
(0.5–0.13 Ma) Acheulean
Acheulean
(1.76–0.1 Ma) Clactonian
Clactonian
(0.3–0.2 Ma)

Middle Paleolithic (300–45 ka)

Mousterian
Mousterian
(160–40 ka) Aterian
Aterian
(c. 145,000–c. 30,000 bp) Micoquien
Micoquien
(130–70 ka)

Upper Paleolithic (50–10 ka)

Emiran
Emiran
(50,000–40,000 bp) Bohunician (~48,000 bp) Ahmarian (46,000-42,000 bp) Châtelperronian
Châtelperronian
(~44,500 – 36,000 bp) Lincombian-Ranisian-Jerzmanowician (43-32 ka) Aurignacian
Aurignacian
(46-43,000 – c. 26,000 bp) Khormusan (42,000-18,000 bp) Baradostian (36-18 ka) Périgordian (35–20 ka) Gravettian
Gravettian
(33–24 ka) Antelian
Antelian
(32–20 bp) Mal'ta–Buret' culture
Mal'ta–Buret' culture
(24,000 - 15,00 bp) Solutrean
Solutrean
(22–17 ka) Halfan culture (22,000-14,000) Afontova Gora
Afontova Gora
(21,000-12,000 Epigravettian
Epigravettian
(20-10 ka) Zarzian culture
Zarzian culture
(20,000-10,000 bp) Iberomaurusian
Iberomaurusian
(~20,000-10,000 bp) Kebaran (18,000 – 12,500 bp) Magdalenian
Magdalenian
(17–12 ka) Trialetian
Trialetian
(16,000-8,000 bp) Hamburg (15,500-13,100 bp) Eburran industry (15,000-5,000 bp) Qadan culture
Qadan culture
(15,000 BP — 11,000 bp) Sebilian (15,00 -11,00 bp) Natufian culture
Natufian culture
(14,500–11,500 bp) Federmesser (14–13 ka) Ahrensburg (13–12 ka) Khiamian
Khiamian
(12,200 and 10,800 bp) Swiderian (11–8 ka)

↓ Mesolithic ↓ Stone Age

v t e

Madrasian Culture

References[edit]

^ a b Lycett, Stephen J., Is the Soanian
Soanian
techno-complex a Mode 1 or Mode 3 phenomenon? A morphometric assessment. ^ a b c Chauhan, Parth R., [1] An Overview of the Siwalik Acheulian & Reconsidering Its Chronological Relationship with the Soanian – A Theoretical Perspective. ^ Hellmut De Terra (1969). George Grant MacCurdy, ed. Early man: as depicted by leading authorities at the International symposium, the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, March 1937. pp. 267–. ISBN 978-0-8369-1184-8. Retrieved 16 October 2011.  ^ Kenneth Oakley (30 April 2007) [1964]. Frameworks for Dating Fossil Man. Transaction Publishers. pp. 224–. ISBN 978-0-202-30960-6. Retrieved 16 October 2011.  ^ Rendell, H. R.; Dennell, R. W.; Halim, M. (1989). Pleistocene and Palaeolithic
Palaeolithic
Investigations in the Soan Valley, Northern Pakistan. British Archaeological Reports International Series. Cambridge University Press. p. 364. ISBN 0-86054-691-8. OCLC 29222688.  ^ Is the Soanian
Soanian
techno-complex a Mode 1 or Mode 3 phenomenon? A morphometric assessment

Further reading[edit]

Dani Ahmad Hasan (1964). "Prehistoric Pakistan" (PDF). Asian Perspectives. 7: 183–188.  B. B. Lal (1964). "A Decade of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Archaeology
Archaeology
in India, 1951–1960". Asian Perspectives. 7 (1–2): 144–159.  Hellmut De Terra (1969). Early man: as depicted by leading authorities at the International symposium, the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, March 1937. Ayer Publishing, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. pp. 263–. ISBN 978-0-8369-1184-8. Retrieved 21 August 2011.  J. Armand (1979). "The Middle Pleistocene Pebble Tool Site of Durkadi in Central India". Paleorient. 5: 105–144.  J. Armand (1985). "The Emergence of the Handaxe Tradition in Asia, with Special
Special
Reference to India". In V. N. Misra, Peter S. Bellwood. Recent advances in Indo-Pacific prehistory: proceedings of the international symposium held at Poona, December 19–21, 1978. BRILL. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-90-04-07512-2. Retrieved 22 August 2011.  V. A. Ranov; D. Dorj; Lu Zün-E (1999). Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson, ed. History of civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 45–. ISBN 978-81-208-1407-3. Retrieved 21 August 2011.  Kenneth Oakley (30 April 2007). Frameworks for Dating Fossil
Fossil
Man. Transaction Publishers. pp. 223–. ISBN 978-0-202-30960-6. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 

External links[edit]

The Acheulian/ Soanian
Soanian
dichotomy

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