The SOčA (pronounced in Slovene ) or ISONZO (pronounced in
Italian ) (other names Friulian : Lusinç, German : Sontig, Latin :
Aesontius or Isontius ) is a 138-kilometre (86 mi) long river that
flows through western
An Alpine river in character, its source lies in the
Trenta Valley in
Prior to the
First World War
* 1 Name * 2 Major changes in the watershed * 3 Attractions * 4 Significance in World War I * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links
The river was recorded in antiquity as Aesontius, Sontius, and Isontius. Later attestations include super Sontium (in 507–11), a flumine Isontio (1028), in Lisonçum (1261), an die Ysnicz (1401), and an der Snicz (ca. 1440). The Slovene name Soča is derived from the form *Sǫťa, which was borrowed from Latin (and Romance) Sontius. In turn, this is probably based on the substrate name *Aisontia, presumably derived from the PIE root *Hei̯s- 'swift, rushing', referring to a quickly moving river. Another possible origin is the pre-Romance root *ai̯s- 'water, river'.
MAJOR CHANGES IN THE WATERSHED
Course of the Soča/Isonzo
The present course of the river is the result of several dramatic
changes that occurred during the past 2,000 years. According to the
In 585, a landslide cut off the upper part of the Natisone riverbed, causing its avulsion and subsequent stream capture by the Bontius River. The original subterranean discharge of the Bontius into the Timavo became obstructed, and another avulsion returned the new watercourse into the bed of the lower Natisone.
During the next centuries the estuary of this new river—the Soča—moved eastward until it captured the short coastal river Sdobba, through which the Soča now discharges into the Adriatic Sea. The former estuary (of the Aesontius, and the early Soča/Isonzo) in the newly formed lagoon of Grado became an independent coastal rivulet.
Due to its emerald -green water, the river is marketed as "The
The Soča inspired the poet
Simon Gregorčič to write his best-known
poem Soči (To the Soča ), one of the masterpieces of Slovene poetry.
This region served as a location for the 2008
The Soča is also well known for its unique trout species Salmo marmoratus (known as the marble trout), which lives in the upper course of the crystal-clear river. This species is endangered due to the introduction of other non-indigenous trout species sometime between World War I and World War II.
SIGNIFICANCE IN WORLD WAR I
The valley was the stage of major military operations including the twelve battles of the Isonzo on the Italian front in World War I between May 1915 and November 1917, in which over 300,000 Austro-Hungarian and Italian soldiers lost their lives.
The Isonzo campaign comprised the following battles:
First Battle of the Isonzo : 23 June – 7 July 1915
Second Battle of the Isonzo : 18 July – 3 August 1915
Third Battle of the Isonzo : 18 October – 3 November 1915
Fourth Battle of the Isonzo : 10 November – 2 December 1915
Fifth Battle of the Isonzo : 9–17 March 1916
Sixth Battle of the Isonzo : 6–17 August 1916
Seventh Battle of the Isonzo : 14–17 September 1916
Eighth Battle of the Isonzo : 10–12 October 1916
Ninth Battle of the Isonzo : 1–4 November 1916
Tenth Battle of the Isonzo : 12 May – 8 June 1917
Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo
* ^ A B "Drainage Basin of the Mediterranean Sea". Second
Assessment of Transboundary Rivers, Lakes and Groundwaters (PDF).
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. August 2011. p. 159.
ISBN 978-92-1-117052-8 .
* ^ Richard J.A. Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek
and Roman World: Map-By-Map Directory. I. Princeton, NJ and Oxford,
UK: Princeton University Press. p. 273. ISBN 0691049459 .
* ^ A B "Reke, dolge nad 25 km, in njihova padavinska območja"
(in Slovenian and English). Statistical Office of the Republic of
* ^ Brečko Grubar,, Valentina; Kovačič, Gregor (2010).
"Pokrajinskoekološka oznaka jadranskega povodja v Sloveniji s
poudarkom na kakovosti vodnih virov" . Annales. Series historia et
sociologia (in Slovenian). 20 (1): 153–168.
* ^ Snoj, Marko. 2009. Etimološki slovar slovenskih zemljepisnih
imen. Ljubljana: Modrijan and Založba ZRC, pp. 386–387.
* ^ Strabo, Geography, Vol. V, Chapter 1
* ^ Brockhaus' Konversations-Lexikon. 14th ed., Leipzig, Berlin and
Vienna 1894; Vol. 9, p. 727.
* ^ Soca
Wikimedia Commons has media related to