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The Soča
Soča
(pronounced [ˈsoːtʃa] in Slovene) or Isonzo (pronounced [iˈzontso] in Italian; other names Friulian: Lusinç, German: Sontig, Latin: Aesontius or Isontius[2]) is a 138-kilometre (86 mi) long river that flows through western Slovenia
Slovenia
(96 kilometres or 60 miles) and northeastern Italy
Italy
(43 kilometres or 27 miles).[3] An Alpine river in character, its source lies in the Trenta Valley
Trenta Valley
in the Julian Alps
Julian Alps
in northwestern Slovenia, at an elevation of 876 metres (2,874 ft).[3] The river runs past the towns of Bovec, Kobarid, Tolmin, Kanal ob Soči, Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica
(where it is crossed by the Solkan
Solkan
Bridge), and Gorizia, entering the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
close to the town of Monfalcone. It has a nival-pluvial regime in its upper course and pluvial-nival in its lower course.[4] Prior to the First World War, the river formed part of the border between Kingdom of Italy
Italy
and the Austro-Hungarian Empire.[citation needed] During World War I, it was the scene of bitter fighting between the two countries, culminating in the Battle of Caporetto
Battle of Caporetto
in 1917.

Contents

1 Name 2 Major changes in the watershed 3 Attractions 4 Significance in World War I 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Name[edit] The river was recorded in antiquity as Aesontius, Sontius, and Isontius. Later attestations include super Sontium (in 507–11), a flumine Isontio (1028), in Lisonçum (1261), an die Ysnicz (1401), and an der Snicz (ca. 1440). The Slovene name Soča
Soča
is derived from the form *Sǫťa, which was borrowed from Latin (and Romance) Sontius. In turn, this is probably based on the substrate name *Aisontia, presumably derived from the PIE root *Hei̯s- 'swift, rushing', referring to a quickly moving river. Another possible origin is the pre-Romance root *ai̯s- 'water, river'.[5] Major changes in the watershed[edit]

Course of the Soča/Isonzo

The present course of the river is the result of several dramatic changes that occurred during the past 2,000 years. According to the Roman historian Strabo, the river named Aesontius, which in Roman times flowed past Aquileia
Aquileia
to the Adriatic Sea, was essentially the Natisone
Natisone
and Torre river system.[6] In 585, a landslide cut off the upper part of the Natisone
Natisone
riverbed, causing its avulsion and subsequent stream capture by the Bontius River. The original subterranean discharge of the Bontius into the Timavo
Timavo
became obstructed, and another avulsion returned the new watercourse into the bed of the lower Natisone. During the next centuries the estuary of this new river—the Soča—moved eastward until it captured the short coastal river Sdobba, through which the Soča
Soča
now discharges into the Adriatic Sea. The former estuary (of the Aesontius, and the early Soča/Isonzo) in the newly formed lagoon of Grado became an independent coastal rivulet.[7] Attractions[edit] Due to its emerald-green water, the river is marketed as "The Emerald Beauty." It is said to be one of the rare rivers in the world that retain such a colour throughout their length.[8] Giuseppe Ungaretti, one of the greatest Italian poets, describes the Isonzo in the poem "The Rivers." The Soča
Soča
inspired the poet Simon Gregorčič
Simon Gregorčič
to write his best-known poem Soči (To the Soča), one of the masterpieces of Slovene poetry. This region served as a location for the 2008 Disney
Disney
film Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian.[9] The Soča
Soča
is also well known for its unique trout species Salmo marmoratus (known as the marble trout), which lives in the upper course of the crystal-clear river. This species is endangered due to the introduction of other non-indigenous trout species sometime between World War I and World War II.[10] Significance in World War I[edit]

The Isonzo River
River
in Italian region.

The Soča
Soča
River

The valley was the stage of major military operations including the twelve battles of the Isonzo on the Italian front in World War I between May 1915 and November 1917, in which over 300,000 Austro-Hungarian and Italian soldiers lost their lives.[11] The Isonzo campaign comprised the following battles:

First Battle of the Isonzo: 23 June – 7 July 1915 Second Battle of the Isonzo: 18 July – 3 August 1915 Third Battle of the Isonzo : 18 October – 3 November 1915 Fourth Battle of the Isonzo: 10 November – 2 December 1915 Fifth Battle of the Isonzo: 9–17 March 1916 Sixth Battle of the Isonzo: 6–17 August 1916 Seventh Battle of the Isonzo: 14–17 September 1916 Eighth Battle of the Isonzo: 10–12 October 1916 Ninth Battle of the Isonzo: 1–4 November 1916 Tenth Battle of the Isonzo: 12 May – 8 June 1917 Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo: 19 August – 12 September 1917 Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo: 24 October – 7 November 1917, also known as the Battle of Caporetto

See also[edit]

Karst topography Battles of the Isonzo Gorizia Goriška

References[edit]

^ a b "Drainage Basin of the Mediterranean Sea". Second Assessment of Transboundary Rivers, Lakes and Groundwaters (PDF). United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. August 2011. p. 159. ISBN 978-92-1-117052-8.  ^ Richard J.A. Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World: Map-By-Map Directory. I. Princeton, NJ and Oxford, UK: Princeton University Press. p. 273. ISBN 0691049459.  ^ a b "Reke, dolge nad 25 km, in njihova padavinska območja" [Rivers, longer than 25 km, and their catchment areas] (in Slovenian and English). Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. 2002.  ^ Brečko Grubar,, Valentina; Kovačič, Gregor (2010). "Pokrajinskoekološka oznaka jadranskega povodja v Sloveniji s poudarkom na kakovosti vodnih virov" [Landscape Ecological Characterization of the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
Basin in Slovenia
Slovenia
with an Emphasis on Water Resource Quality]. Annales. Series historia et sociologia (in Slovenian). 20 (1): 153–168.  ^ Snoj, Marko. 2009. Etimološki slovar slovenskih zemljepisnih imen. Ljubljana: Modrijan and Založba ZRC, pp. 386–387. ^ Strabo, Geography, Vol. V, Chapter 1 ^ Brockhaus' Konversations-Lexikon. 14th ed., Leipzig, Berlin and Vienna 1894; Vol. 9, p. 727. ^ Soca River
River
Whitewater Rafting ^ "Filming locations for The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian". IMDb.com.  ^ "Marble trout (Salmo marmoratus)". Balkan Trout
Trout
Restoration Group. Retrieved 2009-05-29.  ^ FirstWorldWar.Com The Battles of the Isonzo, 1915-17

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Soča.

Condition of Soča
Soča
at Log Čezsoški
Log Čezsoški
and Solkan
Solkan
- graphs, in the following order, of water level, flow and temperature data for the past 30 days (taken in Log Čezsoški
Log Čezsoški
and Solkan
Solkan
by ARSO) The Walks of Peace in the Soča
Soča
Region Foundation. The Foundation preserves, restores and presents the historical and cultural heritage of the First World War
First World War
in the area of the Isonzo Front
Isonzo Front
for the study, tourist and educational purposes. (in Slovene) (in English) (in Italian) (in German) Galleries of Soca river in kayak Awarded "EDEN - European Destinations of Excellence" non traditional tourist destination 2008

v t e

Hydrography of Slovenia

Rivers

Bača Big Krka Bolska Čabranka Dragonja Drava Dravinja Dreta Fram Creek Gradaščica Hudinja Idrijca Iška Ledava Ložnica Kamnik Bistrica Kokra Koritnica Krka Kolpa Krupa Lahinja Ljubljanica Meža Mirna Mislinja Mura Nadiža Nevljica Oplotniščica Paka Pesnica Pivka Polskava Pšata Radulja Reka Rinža Rižana Sava Sava
Sava
Bohinjka Sava
Sava
Dolinka Savinja Ščavnica Soča Sora Sotla Temenica Tržič Bistrica Vipava Voglajna

Streams

Aslivka Besnica Big Božna Borovniščica Davščica Dobličica Glinščica Kobilje Creek Logaščica Nadiža Obrh Rak Reka Tunjščica

Waterfalls

Javornik Falls Peričnik Falls Rinka Falls

Lakes

Black Lake in the Triglav
Triglav
Lakes Valley Lake Bled Lake Bohinj Lake Cerknica Lake Gradišče Lake Kreda Lake Palčje Lake Ptuj Lake Trboje Lake Žovnek Wild Lake

Wetlands

Ljubljana Marshes Sečovlje Saltworks Škocjan Caves

Sea

Adriatic Sea

River
River
valleys

Log Koritnica Valley Logar Valley Radovna Valley Rak Škocjan Soča
Soča
Valley Trenta Valley Triglav
Triglav
Lakes Valley Tuhinj Valley Upper Sava
Sava
Valley Vipava Valley

Canyons and gorges

Bistrica Gorge Dovžan Gorge Hell Gorge Iška
Iška
Gorge Ribnica Gorge Vintgar Gorge

Coordinates: 45°59′40″N 13°38′29″E / 45.99444°N 13.64139°E /

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