Snowboarding is a recreational activity and Olympic and Paralympic
sport that involves descending a snow-covered slope while standing on
a snowboard attached to a rider's feet.
The development of snowboarding was inspired by skateboarding,
sledding, surfing and skiing. It was developed in the
United States in
the 1960s, became a Winter Olympic Sport at Nagano in 1998 and
first featured in the Winter Paralympics at
Sochi in 2014. Its
popularity (as measured by equipment sales) in the United States
peaked in 2007 and has been in a decline since.
2.4 Alpine snowboarding
2.6 Big air
5 Safety and precautions
6.3 Video games
7 See also
9 External links
Snowboarding in Valfréjus, France
Snowboarder riding off of a cornice
Freeride snowboarding, in areas off of the main trails
Modern snowboarding began in 1965 when Sherman Poppen, an engineer in
Muskegon, Michigan, invented a toy for his daughters by fastening two
skis together and attaching a rope to one end so he would have some
control as they stood on the board and glided downhill. Dubbed the
"snurfer" (combining snow and surfer) by his wife Nancy, the toy
proved so popular among his daughters' friends that Poppen licensed
the idea to a manufacturer, Brunswick Corporation, that sold about a
million snurfers over the next decade. And, in 1966 alone over half a
million snurfers were sold.
In February 1968, Poppen organized the first snurfing competition at a
Michigan ski resort that attracted enthusiasts from all over the
country.  One of those early pioneers was Tom Sims, a devotee of
skateboarding (a sport born in the 1950s when kids attached roller
skate wheels to small boards that they steered by shifting their
weight). As an eighth grader in Haddonfield, New Jersey, in the 1960s,
Sims crafted a snowboard in his school shop class by gluing carpet to
the top of a piece of wood and attaching aluminum sheeting to the
bottom.  He produced commercial snowboards in the mid-70s.[citation
needed] Articles about his invention in such mainstream magazines as
Newsweek helped publicize the young sport.
The pioneers were not all from the United States; in 1976, Welsh
skateboard enthusiasts Jon Roberts and Pete Matthews developed their
own snowboards to use at their local dry ski slope.
Also during this same period, in 1977, Jake Burton Carpenter, a
Vermont native who had enjoyed snurfing since the age of 14, impressed
the crowd at a Michigan snurfing competition with bindings he had
designed to secure his feet to the board. That same year, he founded
Burton Snowboards in Londonderry, Vermont. The "snowboards" were made
of wooden planks that were flexible and had water ski foot traps. Very
few people picked up snowboarding because the price of the board was
considered too high at $38, but eventually Burton would become the
biggest snowboarding company in the business.
The first competitions to offer prize money were the National Snurfing
Championship, held at Muskegon State Park in Muskegon Michigan. In
1979, Jake Burton Carpenter, came from Vermont to compete with a
snowboard of his own design. There were protests about Jake entering
with a non-snurfer board. Paul Graves, and others, advocated that Jake
be allowed to race. A "modified" "Open" division was created and won
by Jake as the sole entrant. That race was considered the first
competition for snowboards and is the start of what has now become
competitive snowboarding. Ken Kampenga, John Asmussen and Jim Trim
placed 1st, 2nd and 3rd respectively in the Standard competition with
best 2 combined times of 24.71, 25.02 and 25.41 and Jake Carpenter won
prize money as the sole entrant in the "open" division with a time of
26.35. In 1980 the event moved to Pando Winter Sports Park near
Grand Rapids, Michigan
Grand Rapids, Michigan because of a lack of snow that year at the
As snowboarding became more popular in the 1970s and 1980s, pioneers
such as Dimitrije Milovich (founder of Winterstick out of Salt Lake
Jake Burton Carpenter (founder of
Burton Snowboards from
Tom Sims (founder of Sims Snowboards), and Mike
Olson (founder of Gnu Snowboards) came up with new designs for boards
and mechanisms that slowly developed into the snowboards and other
related equipment that we know today.
In April of 1981 the "King of the Mountain"
Snowboard competition was
Ski Cooper ski area in Colorado.
Tom Sims along with an
assortment of other snowboarders of the time were present. One entrant
showed up on a homemade snowboard with a formica bottom that turned
out to not slide so well on the snow.
In 1982, the first USA National
Snowboard race was held near
Woodstock, Vermont, at Suicide Six. The race, organized by Graves, was
won by Burton's first team rider Doug Bouton.
In 1983, the first World Championship halfpipe competition was held at
Soda Springs, California. Tom Sims, founder of Sims Snowboards,
organized the event with the help of Mike Chantry, a snowboard
instructor at Soda Springs.
In 1985, the first World Cup was held in Zürs, Austria, further
cementing snowboarding's recognition as an official international
In 1990, the International
Snowboard Federation (ISF) was founded to
provide universal contest regulations. In addition, the United States
Snowboard Association (USASA) provides instructing
guidelines and runs snowboard competitions in the U.S. today,
high-profile snowboarding events like the Winter X Games, Air &
Style, US Open,
Olympic Games and other events are broadcast
worldwide. Many alpine resorts have terrain parks.
At the 1998 Winter
Olympic Games in Nagano, Japan,
an official Olympic event. France's
Karine Ruby was the first ever to
win an Olympic gold medal for Woman's
Snowboarding at the 1998
Olympics, while Canadian Ross Rebagliati was the first ever to win
an Olympic gold medal for Men's Snowboarding.
Initially, ski areas adopted the sport at a much slower pace than the
winter sports public. Indeed, for many years, there was animosity
between skiers and snowboarders, which led to an ongoing skier vs
snowboarder feud. Early snowboards were banned from the slopes by
park officials. For several years snowboarders would have to take a
small skills assessment prior to being allowed to ride the chairlifts.
It was thought that an unskilled snowboarder would wipe the snow off
the mountain. In 1985, only seven percent of U.S. ski areas allowed
snowboarding, with a similar proportion in Europe. As equipment
and skills improved, gradually snowboarding became more accepted. In
1990, most major ski areas had separate slopes for snowboarders. Now,
approximately 97% of all ski areas in North America and Europe allow
snowboarding, and more than half have jumps, rails and half pipes.
An excellent year for snowboarding was 2004, with 6.6 million
participants. An industry spokesman said that "twelve year-olds
are out-riding adults." The same article said that most snowboarders
are 18–24 years old and that females constitute 25% of participants.
There were 8.2 million snowboarders in the USA and Canada for the
2009-2010 season. There was a 10% increase over the previous season,
accounting for more than 30% of all snow sports participants.
On 2 May 2012, the
International Paralympic Committee
International Paralympic Committee announced that
adaptive snowboarding (dubbed "para-snowboarding") would debut as a
men's and women's medal event in the 2014 Paralympic Winter Games
taking place in Sochi, Russia.
See also: List of snowboard tricks
Since snowboarding's inception as an established winter sport, it has
developed various styles, each with its own specialized equipment and
technique. The most common styles today are: freeride, freestyle, and
freecarve/race. These styles are used for both recreational and
professional snowboarding. While each style is unique, there is
overlap between them.
Main article: Jibbing
"Jibbing" is technical riding on non-standard surfaces, which usually
includes performing tricks. The word "jib" is both a noun and a verb,
depending on the usage of the word. As a noun: a jib includes metal
rails, boxes, benches, concrete ledges, walls, vehicles, rocks and
logs. As a verb: to jib is referring to the action of jumping, sliding
or riding on top of objects other than snow. It is directly
influenced by grinding a skateboard.
Jibbing is a freestyle
snowboarding technique of riding. Typically jibbing occurs in a
snowboard resort park but can also be done in urban environments.
Main article: Freeriding
Freeriding communicates the concept of dynamically altering various
snowboarding styles in a fluid motion, allowing for a spontaneous ride
on naturally rugged terrain. See also Backcountry snowboarding.
Freestyle snowboarding is any riding that includes performing tricks.
In freestyle, the rider utilizes natural and man-made features such as
rails, jumps, boxes, and innumerable others to perform tricks. It is a
popular all-inclusive concept that distinguishes the creative aspects
of snowboarding, in contrast to a style like alpine snowboarding.
Main article: Alpine snowboarding
An Alpine snowboarder executes a heel-side turn
Alpine snowboarding is a discipline within the sport of
snowboarding. It is practiced on groomed pistes. It has been an
Olympic event since 1998.
Sometimes called freecarving, this takes place on hard packed snow or
groomed runs and focuses on carving linked turns, much like surfing or
longboarding. Little or no jumping takes place in this discipline.
Snowboarding consists of a small portion of the general
snowboard population, that has a well connected social community and
its own specific board manufacturers. Alpine
Snowboard equipment is a
ski-like hardshell boot and plate binding system with a true
directional snowboard that is stiffer and narrower to manage linking
turns with greater forces and speed. Shaped skis can thank these
"freecarve" snowboards for the cutting-edge technology leading to
their creation. A skilled alpine snowboarder can link numerous
turns into a run placing their body very close to the ground each
turn, similar to a motogp turn or waterski carve. Depending on factors
including stiffness, turning radius and personality this can be done
slowly or fast. Carvers make perfect half-circles out of each turn,
changing edges when the snowboard is perpendicular to the fall line
and starting every turn on the downhill edge. Carving on a snowboard
is like riding a roller coaster, because the board will lock into a
turn radius and provide what feels like multiple Gs of
Alpine snowboarding shares more visual similarities with skiing
equipment than it does with snowboarding equipment. Compared to
freestyle snowboarding gear:
boards are narrower, longer, and stiffer to improve carving
boots are made from a hard plastic shell
bindings have a bail or step-in design and are sometimes placed on
suspension plates to provide a layer of isolation between an alpine
snowboarder and the board
Snowboarder in Tannheim, Tyrol, Austria
Main article: Slopestyle
Competitors perform tricks while descending a course, moving around,
over, across, up, or down terrain features. The course is full of
obstacles including boxes, rails, jumps, jibs (includes anything the
board or rider can slide across). Slope-style contests consists of
choosing your own line in a terrain park using a variety of boxes,
jibs and jumps. To win a slope-style contest one must pick the best
and most difficult line in the terrain park and have a smooth flowing
line of tricks performed on the obstacles. Overall impression is also
a huge factor in winning a slope-style contest. The rider who lands
the hardest tricks will not always win over the rider who lands easier
Main article: Big air
Sebastien Toutant at the downtown Québec big air competition
Snowboarder in the halfpipe
Big air competitions are contests where riders perform tricks after
launching off a man made jump built specifically for the event.
Competitors perform tricks in the air, aiming to attain sizable height
and distance, all while securing a clean landing. Many competitions
also require the rider to do a complex trick. But not all competitions
call for a trick to win the gold; some intermittent competitions are
based solely on height and distance of the launch of the snowboarder.
Some competitions also require the rider to do a specific trick to win
the major prize. One of the first snowboard competitions where
Travis Rice attempted and landed a "double back flip backside 180"
took place at the 2006 Red Bull Gap Session.
Main article: Half-pipe
The half-pipe is a semi-circular ditch dug into the mountain or
purpose-built ramp made up of snow, with walls between 8 and 23 feet
(7.0 m). Competitors perform tricks while going from one side to
the other and while in the air above the sides of the pipe.
Boardercross, also known as "Boarder X" and "
Snowboard X", is a very
popular but relatively recent winter sport, starting in the 1980s and
earning its place as an official Winter Olympic sport in the 2006
Turin games. In Boardercross, several riders (usually 4 to 6) race
down a course similar to a motorcycle motocross track (with jumps,
berms and other obstacles constructed out of snow on a downhill
course). Unlike traditional head-to-head races, competitors use the
same terrain, sometimes resulting in accidental collisions.
In snowboard racing, riders must complete a downhill course
constructed of a series of turning indicators (gates) placed in the
snow at prescribed distances apart. A gate consists of a tall pole,
and a short pole, connected by a triangular panel. The racer must pass
around the short side of the gate. There are 3 main formats used in
snowboard racing including; single person, parallel courses or
multiple people on the course at the same time (SBX).
Main articles: FIS
Snowboard World Cup and FIS
Some of the larger snowboarding contests include: the european Air
& Style, the japanese X-Trail Jam, Burton Global Open Series,
Shakedown, FIS World Championships, the annual FIS World Cup, the
Winter X Games
Winter X Games and the Winter Dew Tour.
Snowboarding has been a Winter Olympic sport since 1998 Winter
Olympics. Events has changed throught the years. During the 2018
Winter Olympics, the snowboarding events were big air, halfpipe,
parallel giant slalom, slopestyle and snowboard cross.
Snowboarder Magazine's Superpark event was created in 1996. Over
150 of the World's top pros are invited to advance freestyle
snowboarding on the most progressive terrain parks.
Part of the snowboarding approach is to ensure maximum fun, friendship
and event quality. Reflecting this perspective of snowboarding, you
can find "Anti Contests" including are an important part of its
identity including The Holy Oly Revival at The Summit at
Snoqualmie, The Nate Chute Hawaiian Classic at Whitefish, the original
anti-contst, the World Quarterpipe Championships and the Grenade
United States of America
Snowboarding Association (USASA) features
three different divisions which include alpine, freestyle, and
boardercross. Alpine consists of giant slalom and slalom which is a
competition in which the agility and ability to make sharp turns of
the snowboarders are tested. Freestyle consists of slopestyle and
halfpipe. In boardercross, the idea is to be the first snowboarder
down the mountain where everyone is racing each other through an
obstacle course of harsh turns and wipeout potential is very
likely. The USASA has 36 regional snowboard series in which anyone
The snowboarding way of life came about as a natural response to the
culture from which it emerged. Early on, there was a rebellion against
skiing culture and the view that snowboarders were inferior. Skiers
did not easily accept this new culture on their slopes. The two
cultures contrasted each other in several ways including how they
spoke, acted, and their entire style of clothing. Snowboarders first
embraced the punk and later the hip-hop look into their style. Words
such as "dude", "gnarly", and "Shred the Gnar" are some examples of
words used in the snowboarding culture.
Snowboarding subculture became
a crossover between the urban and suburban styles on snow, which made
an easy transition from surfing and skateboarding culture over to
The early stereotypes of snowboarding included "lazy", "grungy",
"punk", "stoners", "troublemakers", and numerous others, many of which
are associated with skateboarding and surfing as well. However, these
stereotypes may be considered "out of style".
Snowboarding has become
a sport that encompasses a very diverse international based crowd and
fanbase of many millions, so much so that it is no longer possible to
stereotype such a large community. Reasons for these dying stereotypes
include how mainstream and popular the sport has become, with the
shock factor of snowboarding's quick take off on the slopes wearing
off. Skiers and snowboarders are becoming used to each other, showing
more respect to each other on the mountain. "The typical stereotype of
the sport is changing as the demographics change".
Safety and precautions
Like some other winter sports, snowboarding comes with a certain level
The injury rate for snowboarding is about four to six per thousand
persons per day, which is around double the injury rate for alpine
skiing. Injuries are more likely amongst beginners, especially
those who do not take lessons with professional instructors. A quarter
of all injuries occur to first-time riders and half of all injuries
occur to those with less than a year of experience. Experienced riders
are less likely to suffer injury, but the injuries that do occur tend
to be more severe.
Two thirds of injuries occur to the upper body and one third to the
lower body. This contrasts with alpine skiing where two thirds of
injuries are to the lower body. The most common types of injuries are
sprains, which account for around 40% of injuries. The most common
point of injury is the wrists – 40% of all snowboard injuries are to
the wrists and 24% of all snowboard injuries are wrist fractures.
There are around 100,000 wrist fractures worldwide among snowboarders
each year. For this reason the use of wrist guards, either
separate or built into gloves, is very strongly recommended. They are
often compulsory in beginner's classes and their use reduces the
likelihood of wrist injury by half. In addition it is important
for snow boarders to learn how to fall without stopping the fall with
their hand by trying to "push" the slope away, as landing a wrist
which is bent at a 90 degree angle increase the chance of it breaking.
Rather, landing with the arms stretched out (like a wing) and slapping
the slope with the entire arm is an effective way to break a fall.
This is the method used by practitioners of judo and other martial
arts to break a fall when they are thrown against the floor by a
The risk of head injury is two to six times greater for snowboarders
than for skiers and injuries follow the pattern of being rarer, but
more severe, with experienced riders. Head injuries can occur both as
a consequence of a collision and when failing to carry out a heel-side
turn. The latter can result in the rider landing on his or her back
and slamming the back of his or her head onto the ground, resulting in
an occipital head injury. For this reason, helmets are widely
recommended. Protective eyewear is also recommended as eye injury can
be caused by impact and snow blindness can be a result of exposure to
strong ultra-violet light in snow-covered areas. The wearing of
ultra-violet-absorbing goggles is recommended even on hazy or cloudy
days as ultra-violet light can penetrate clouds.
Unlike ski bindings, snowboard bindings are not designed to release
automatically in a fall. The mechanical support provided by the feet
being locked to the board has the effect of reducing the likelihood of
knee injury – 15% of snowboard injuries are to the knee, compared
with 45% of all skiing injuries. Such injuries are typically to the
knee ligaments, bone fractures are rare. Fractures to the lower
leg are also rare but 20% of injuries are to the foot and ankle.
Fractures of the talus bone are rare in other sports but account for
2% of snowboard injuries – a lateral process talus fracture is
sometimes called "snowboarder's ankle" by medical staff. This
particular injury results in persistent lateral pain in the affected
ankle yet is difficult to spot in a plain X-ray image. It may be
misdiagnosed as just a sprain, with possibly serious consequences as
not treating the fracture can result in serious long-term damage to
the ankle. The use of portable ultrasound for mountainside
diagnostics has been reviewed and appears to be a plausible tool for
diagnosing some of the common injuries associated with the sport.
Four to eight percent of snowboarding injuries take place while the
person is waiting in ski-lift lines or entering and exiting ski lifts.
Snowboarders push themselves forward with a free foot while in the
ski-lift line, leaving the other foot (usually that of the lead leg)
locked on the board at a 9–27 degree angle, placing a large torque
force on this leg and predisposing the person to knee injury if a fall
Snowboard binding rotating devices are designed to
minimize the torque force, Quick Stance being the first developed
in 1995. They allow snowboarders to turn the locked foot straight
into the direction of the tip of the snowboard without removing the
boot from the boot binding.
Avalanches are a clear danger when on snowy mountain slopes. It is
best to learn the different kinds of avalanches, how to prevent
causing one and how to react when one is going to happen. Also when
going out onto the snow, all who practice an activity with increased
chances of injury should have a basic First Aid knowledge and know how
to deal with injuries that may occur.
Snowboarding boots should be well-fitted, with toes snug in the end of
the boot when standing upright and slightly away from the end when in
the snowboarding position. Padding or "armor" is recommended on
other body parts such as hips, knees, spine, and shoulders. To further
help avoid injury to body parts, especially knees, it is recommended
to use the right technique. To acquire the right technique, one should
be taught by a qualified instructor. Also, when snowboarding alone,
precaution should be taken to avoid tree wells, a particularly
dangerous area of loose snow that may form at the base of trees.
Some care is also required when waxing a board as fluorocarbon waxes
emit toxic fumes when overheated. Waxing is best performed in a
ventilated area with care being taken to use the wax at the correct
temperature – the wax should be melted but not smoking or
In a study conducted to examine the types of snowboarding injuries and
changes in injury patterns over time, data was collected on injured
snowboarders and skiers in a base-lodge clinic of a ski resort in
Vermont over 18 seasons (1988–2006) and included extensive
information about injury patterns, demographics, and experience. In
conclusion of the study, the highest rate of injury was among young,
inexperienced, female snowboarders. Injury rates in snowboarders have
fluctuated over time but still remain higher than skiers. No evidence
was found that those who spend more time in terrain parks are over
represented in the injury population.
Skiing and snowboarding on film and video
Snowboarding films have become a main part of progression in the
sport. Each season, many films are released, usually in Autumn. These
are made by many snowboard specific video production companies as well
as manufacturing companies that use these films as a form of
Snowboarding videos usually contain video footage of
professional riders sponsored by companies. An example of commercial
use of snowboarding films would be The White Album, a film by
snowboarding legend and filmmaker Dave Seoane about Shaun White, that
includes cameos by
Tony Hawk and was sponsored by PlayStation,
Mountain Dew and Burton Snowboards.
Snowboarding films are also used
as documentation of snowboarding and showcasing of current trends and
styles of the sport. In addition, the 2011 movie The Art of Flight
showcased snowboarders such as Travis Rice attempting to attain
greater feats in the sport of snowboarding.
However, sometimes the snowboarding industry is not supportive of all
snowboarding-themed films. In 2013, The Crash Reel, a feature-length
documentary by filmmaker Lucy Walker about former
Shaun White rival
Kevin Pearce, premiered on the film festival circuit to critical
acclaim and was subsequently broadcast on HBO. Using Pearce's
career-ending traumatic brain injury and subsequent recovery as a
backdrop, the film examines the physical dangers inherent to pro
snowboarders and other extreme sports professional athletes under
pressure by sponsors and the media to perform increasingly spectacular
feats. Although there are significant references to various brands
in the film, Walker is "adamant" that the snowboarding industry did
not sponsor the film in any way and in fact has been unsupportive,
despite the film's mainstream media success.
Snowboard magazines are integral in promoting the sport, although less
so with the advent of the internet age. Photo incentives are written
into many professional riders' sponsorship contracts giving
professionals not only a publicity but a financial incentive to have a
photo published in a magazine.
Snowboard magazine staff travel with
professional riders throughout the winter season and cover travel,
contests, lifestyle, rider and company profiles, and product reviews.
Snowboard magazines have recently made a push to expand their brands
to the online market, and there has also been a growth in online-only
publications. Popular magazines include Kronicle (USA), Transworld
Snowboarder Magazine (USA),
(USA), snowboarderMBM (Germany), Yobeat, (USA)
Pleasure (Germany), Method (Europe), Onboard (Europe), Whiteroom
Snowboard Canada (Canada), NZ Snowboarder, (New
Zealand) Pyramid Magazine, and
Snowboard Colorado, (USA).
Snowboarding video games provide interactive entertainment on and off
season. Most games for this genre have been made for consoles, such as
the Xbox and PlayStation. A plethora of online casual snowboarding
games also exist along with games for mobile phone. More recently,
snowboard simulators have been implemented as a way to practice during
the off season or a way to learn altogether.
American Association of
Snowboard equipment and history". International Olympic Committee.
2015. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
^ "About IPC Snowboard". International Paralympic Committee. March
2016. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
^ Sheridan, Tom (February 22, 2015). "Is
Snowboarding Melting in
Popularity?". Orange County Register. p. News 3. Retrieved 5
^ "American English A Website for Teachers and Learners of English
As a Foreign Language Abroad" (PDF). Exchanges.state.gov. Retrieved
^ "Muskegon Area Sports Hall of Fame - History of the Snurfer,
Snurfing and the sport of
Snowboarding - 1968". www.mashf.com.
^ Chamber, Creation. "SIMS Snowboards History". www.simsnow.com.
^ "History of Snowboarding." Bulgaria Ski. Bononia, 2008-2011. Web. 28
^ "National Snurfing Championship - 1978, Muskegon, MI." Muskegon Area
Sports Hall of Fame.
^ "National Snurfing Championship - 1979, Muskegon, MI." Muskegon Area
Sports Hall of Fame.
^ "Grand Rapids Press". Grand Rapids Press. Grand Rapids, Michigan.
January 15, 2008. pp. B1–B2.
^ "main page". Pando website. Retrieved 2008-01-16.
^ "First Stoke". SnowBoard Education. Retrieved July 29, 2008.
Snowboard History". the beginning of Snowboarding. Retrieved
^ "Transworld Snowboarding". A Complete History of the Snowboard
^ Ross Rebagliati
^ "Skiers vs Snow boarders: The Dying Feud". Snowsphere.com.
2007-10-01. Retrieved 2014-02-17.
^ Corporation, Xap. "CFNC.org - Cluster Article". www1.cfnc.org.
^ Marquardt, Katy (September 29, 2008). "
Burton Snowboards Is King of
the Hill". U.S.News & World Report.
^ Mike Lewis (Jun 29, 2011). "snowboard participation increases 10%".
Snowboard Included in
Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games
IPC". Paralympic.org. 2012-05-28. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
^ "Jib -
Snowboard - Definitions - Glossary". Snowboarding.about.com.
2012-04-09. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
Snowboard World Cup - Alpine Snowboard". FIS. Retrieved 13 November
^ "How to Buy an Alpine Snowboard" (PDF). 2005. Retrieved
^ "The Carver's Almanac - Hard booting and carving on an alpine
snowboard". Alpinecarving.com. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
^ "Alpine snowboarding". Retrieved 13 November 2014.
^ "Alpine Snowboarding". Retrieved 13 November 2014.
^ Making it Big in Big Air Archived May 18, 2015, at the Wayback
Big air competitions". Retrieved 5 Sep 2016.
^ http://www.snowrev.com/Search?q=red+bull+gap+session/ Archived
2010-10-31 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Snowboardermag.com Archived June 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Snowboarder-community.com Archived April 30, 2010, at the Wayback
^ "The Anti Contests". Yobeat.com. 2009-02-05. Retrieved
^ Summitatsnoqualmie.com Archived February 26, 2009, at the Wayback
^ "Snowboarding-Boardercross." Kidz World. Kidzworld, 2010. Web. 2 Feb
Snowboard Racing." The Carver's Almanac. The Carver's
Almanac, n.d. Web. 2 Feb 2011.
^ Heino, Rebecca (2000). "New Sports: What is So Punk about
Snowboarding". Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 24, 176-199.
Retrieved February 25, 2008, from EBSCOHost.
^ BYU NewsNet - Snowboarder stereotype squelched Archived 2008-07-05
at the Wayback Machine.
Snowboarding Safety & Guidelines". Abc-of-snowboarding.com.
Archived from the original on 2012-07-21. Retrieved 2014-02-17.
^ Roberts, William O. (February 2004). Bull's Handbook of Sports
Injuries. McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 550.
^ a b c d Roberts, William O. (February 2004). Bull's Handbook of
Sports Injuries. McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 555.
Snowboarding Injuries - An Overview". Sports-Med. Retrieved
Snowboarding Injuries - Wrist Fractures". Abc-of-snowboarding.com.
Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2014-02-17.
^ Roberts, William O. (February 2004). Bull's Handbook of Sports
Injuries. McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 556.
^ a b Roberts, William O. (February 2004). Bull's Handbook of Sports
Injuries. McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 557.
^ Peterson, Lars; Renstrom, Per (February 2001). Sports Injuries,
Their Prevention and Treatment. Martin Dunitz. p. 464.
^ Nowak, M. R.; Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Bouffard, J. A.; Amponsah, D.;
Dulchavsky, S. A. (March 2009). "
Snowboarding injuries: a review of
the literature and an analysis of the potential use of portable
ultrasound for mountainside diagnostics". Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med.
2 (1): 25–9. doi:10.1007/s12178-008-9040-5. PMC 2684950 .
^ Davidson TM, Laliotis AT (1996)
Snowboarding injuries, a four-year
study with comparison with alpine ski injuries. West J Med; p.231
^ Callé SC, Evans JT. (1995)
Snowboarding trauma. J Pediatr Surg;
Quick Stance Website". Quickstance.com. Retrieved 2014-02-17.
United States Patent: 1995". Patft.uspto.gov. Retrieved
Snowboarding Safety - Avalanche Awareness".
Abc-of-snowboarding.com. Retrieved 2014-02-17.
Ski Safety - First Aid for
Snowboarding & Skiing".
Abc-of-snowboarding.com. Retrieved 2014-02-17.
^ "Best Way to Choose Right
Snowboard Bindings". Extremepedia.
2015-10-27. Retrieved 2018-02-16.
^ Kim, Suezie; Endres, N. K.; Johnson, R. J. (April 1, 2012).
Snowboarding Injuries Trends Over Time and Comparisons With Alpine
Skiing Injuries". American Journal of Sports Medicine. 40 (4):
^ "Home". The Crash Reel. 2012-01-19. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
^ POV American Documentary Inc. "And Now A Word NOT From Our
Sponsors Doc Soup POV Blog". PBS. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
Snowboarding Magazine". Height of Land Publications.
^ "Making Fun of
Snowboarding Since 1997". YoBeat. Retrieved
Snowboarding Magazines". World-newspapers.com. Retrieved
^ "NZsnowboarder.nzl". NZsnowboarder.nzl. Retrieved 2014-02-17.
^ "Pyramid Magazine". Pyramid Magazine. Retrieved 2015-06-15.
Snowboard Colorado Magazine". Snowboard-colorado.com. Retrieved
^ http://www.skytechsport.com/sochi-downhill-course. Missing or
empty title= (help)
Find more aboutSnowboardingat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Snowboarding links at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Winter Olympic sports
Short track speed skating
Paralympic sports and Summer Olympic sports
Extreme and adventure sports
Free solo climbing
Downhill mountain biking
Aggressive inline skating
Skiing and snowboarding
History of skiing
Technique / learning
Equipment / venues
Resorts / amenities
Dry ski slope