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SNOWBOARDING is a recreational activity and Olympic and Paralympic sport that involves descending a snow-covered slope while standing on a snowboard attached to a rider's feet.

The development of snowboarding was inspired by skateboarding , sledding , surfing and skiing . It was developed in the United States in the 1960s, became a Winter Olympic Sport at Nagano in 1998 and first featured in the Winter Paralympics at Sochi
Sochi
in 2014 . Its popularity (as measured by equipment sales) in the United States peaked in 2007 and has been in a decline since.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Styles

* 2.1 Jibbing * 2.2 Freeriding * 2.3 Freestyle * 2.4 Alpine Snowboarding
Snowboarding
* 2.5 Slopestyle
Slopestyle
* 2.6 Big Air * 2.7 Half-pipe
Half-pipe
* 2.8 Boardercross * 2.9 Snowboard
Snowboard
Racing

* 3 Competitions * 4 Subculture * 5 Safety and precautions

* 6 Media

* 6.1 Films * 6.2 Magazines * 6.3 Video games

* 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links

HISTORY

Snowboarder riding off of a cornice Freeride snowboarding is snowboarding in areas off of the main trails.

Modern snowboarding began in 1965 when Sherman Poppen, an engineer in Muskegon, Michigan
Muskegon, Michigan
, invented a toy for his daughters by fastening two skis together and attaching a rope to one end so he would have some control as they stood on the board and glided downhill. Dubbed the "snurfer " (combining snow and surfer) by his wife Nancy, the toy proved so popular among his daughters' friends that Poppen licensed the idea to a manufacturer, Brunswick Corporation
Brunswick Corporation
, that sold about a million snurfers over the next decade. And, in 1966 alone over half a million snurfers were sold.

In the early 1970s, Poppen organized snurfing competitions at a Michigan ski resort that attracted enthusiasts from all over the country. One of those early pioneers was Tom Sims , a devotee of skateboarding (a sport born in the 1950s when kids attached roller skate wheels to small boards that they steered by shifting their weight). As an eighth grader in Haddonfield, New Jersey, in the 1960s, Sims crafted a snowboard in his school shop class by gluing carpet to the top of a piece of wood and attaching aluminum sheeting to the bottom. He produced commercial snowboards in the mid-70s. Articles about his invention in such mainstream magazines as Newsweek
Newsweek
helped publicize the young sport.

The pioneers were not all from the United States; in 1976, Welsh skateboard enthusiasts Jon Roberts and Pete Matthews developed their own snowboards to use at their local dry ski slope.

Also during this same period, in 1977, Jake Burton Carpenter , a Vermont native who had enjoyed snurfing since the age of 14, impressed the crowd at a Michigan snurfing competition with bindings he had designed to secure his feet to the board. That same year, he founded Burton Snowboards
Burton Snowboards
in Londonderry, Vermont
Londonderry, Vermont
. The "snowboards" were made of wooden planks that were flexible and had water ski foot traps. Very few people picked up snowboarding because the price of the board was considered too high at $38, but eventually Burton would become the biggest snowboarding company in the business.

The first competitions to offer prize money were the National Snurfing Championship, held at Muskegon State Park in Muskegon Michigan. In 1979, Jake Burton Carpenter, came from Vermont to compete with a snowboard of his own design. There were protests about Jake entering with a non-snurfer board. Paul Graves, and others, advocated that Jake be allowed to race. A "modified" "Open" division was created and won by Jake as the sole entrant. That race was considered the first competition for snowboards and is the start of what has now become competitive snowboarding. Ken Kampenga, John Asmussen and Jim Trim placed 1st, 2nd and 3rd respectively in the Standard competition with best 2 combined times of 24.71, 25.02 and 25.41 and Jake Carpenter won prize money as the sole entrant in the "open" division with a time of 26.35. In 1980 the event moved to Pando Winter Sports Park near Grand Rapids, Michigan
Grand Rapids, Michigan
because of a lack of snow that year at the original venue.

As snowboarding became more popular in the 1970s and 1980s, pioneers such as Dimitrije Milovich, Jake Burton Carpenter (founder of Burton Snowboards from Londonderry, Vermont), Tom Sims (founder of Sims Snowboards ), and Mike Olson (founder of Gnu Snowboards ) came up with new designs for boards and mechanisms that slowly developed into the snowboards and other related equipment that we know today.

In 1982, the first USA National Snowboard
Snowboard
race was held near Woodstock, Vermont, at Suicide Six . The race, organized by Graves, was won by Burton's first team rider Doug Bouton.

In 1983, the first World Championship halfpipe competition was held at Soda Springs, California. Tom Sims , founder of Sims Snowboards, organized the event with the help of Mike Chantry, a snowboard instructor at Soda Springs.

In 1985, the first World Cup was held in Zürs, Austria, further cementing snowboarding's recognition as an official international competitive sport.

In 1990, the International Snowboard
Snowboard
Federation (ISF) was founded to provide universal contest regulations. In addition, the United States of America Snowboard
Snowboard
Association (USASA) provides instructing guidelines and runs snowboard competitions in the U.S. today, high-profile snowboarding events like the Winter X Games
Winter X Games
, Air "> Freestyle snowboarding

FREESTYLE

Freestyle snowboarding is any riding that includes performing tricks. In freestyle, the rider utilizes natural and man-made features such as rails, jumps, boxes, and innumerable others to perform tricks. It is a popular all-inclusive concept that distinguishes the creative aspects of snowboarding, in contrast to a style like alpine snowboarding.

ALPINE SNOWBOARDING

An Alpine snowboarder executes a heel-side turn

ALPINE SNOWBOARDING is a discipline within the sport of snowboarding. It is practised on groomed pistes . It has been an Olympic event since 1998 .

Sometimes called freecarving, this takes place on hard packed snow or groomed runs and focuses on carving linked turns, much like surfing or longboarding. Little or no jumping takes place in this discipline. Alpine Snowboarding
Snowboarding
consists of a small portion of the general snowboard population, that has a well connected social community and its own specific board manufacturers. Alpine Snowboard
Snowboard
equipment is a ski-like hardshell boot and plate binding system with a true directional snowboard that is stiffer and narrower to manage linking turns with greater forces and speed. Shaped skis can thank these "freecarve" snowboards for the cutting-edge technology leading to their creation. A skilled alpine snowboarder can link numerous turns into a run placing their body very close to the ground each turn, similar to a motogp turn or waterski carve. Depending on factors including stiffness, turning radius and personality this can be done slowly or fast. Carvers make perfect half-circles out of each turn, changing edges when the snowboard is perpendicular to the fall line and starting every turn on the downhill edge. Carving on a snowboard is like riding a roller coaster, because the board will lock into a turn radius and provide what feels like multiple Gs of acceleration.

Alpine snowboarding shares more visual similarities with skiing equipment than it does with snowboarding equipment. Compared to freestyle snowboarding gear:

* boards are narrower, longer, and stiffer to improve carving performance * boots are made from a hard plastic shell * bindings have a bail or step-in design and are sometimes placed on suspension plates to provide a layer of isolation between an alpine snowboarder and the board

Snowboarder in Tannheim, Tyrol , Austria
Austria

SLOPESTYLE

Competitors perform tricks while descending a course, moving around, over, across, up, or down terrain features. The course is full of obstacles including boxes, rails, jumps, jibs (includes anything the board or rider can slide across). Slope-style contests consists of choosing your own line in a terrain park using a variety of boxes, jibs and jumps. To win a slope-style contest one must pick the best and most difficult line in the terrain park and have a smooth flowing line of tricks performed on the obstacles. Overall impression is also a huge factor in winning a slope-style contest. The rider who lands the hardest tricks will not always win over the rider who lands easier tricks.

BIG AIR

Main article: Big air Sebastien Toutant at the downtown Québec big air competition Snowboarder in the halfpipe

Big air competitions are contests where riders perform tricks after launching off a man made jump built specifically for the event. Competitors perform tricks in the air, aiming to attain sizable height and distance, all while securing a clean landing. Many competitions also require the rider to do a complex trick. But not all competitions call for a trick to win the gold; some intermittent competitions are based solely on height and distance of the launch of the snowboarder. Some competitions also require the rider to do a specific trick to win the major prize. One of the first snowboard competitions where Travis Rice attempted and landed a "double back flip backside 180" took place at the 2006 Red Bull Gap Session.

HALF-PIPE

The half-pipe is a semi-circular ditch dug into the mountain or purpose built ramp made up of snow, with walls between 8 and 23 feet (7.0 m). Competitors perform tricks while going from one side to the other and while in the air above the sides of the pipe.

BOARDERCROSS

Further information: Snowboard
Snowboard
cross

Boardercross, also known as "Boarder X" and " Snowboard
Snowboard
X", is a very popular but relatively recent winter sport, starting in the 1980s and earning its place as an official Winter Olympic sport in the 2006 Turin games. In Boardercross, several riders (usually 4 to 6) race down a course similar to a motorcycle motocross track (with jumps, berms and other obstacles constructed out of snow on a downhill course). Unlike traditional head-to-head races, competitors use the same terrain, sometimes resulting in accidental collisions.

SNOWBOARD RACING

Main article: Snowboard
Snowboard
racing

In Snowboarding
Snowboarding
Racing, riders must complete a downhill course constructed of a series of turning indicators (gates) placed in the snow at prescribed distances apart. A gate consists of a tall pole, and a short pole, connected by a triangular panel. The racer must pass around the short side of the gate. There are 3 main formats used in snowboard racing including; single person, parallel courses or multiple people on the course at the same time (SBX).

COMPETITIONS

Main articles: FIS Snowboard
Snowboard
World Cup and FIS Snowboard
Snowboard
World Championships

Some of the larger snowboarding contests include: the Air -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

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EXTERNAL

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