Smolensk
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Smolensk ( rus, Смоленск, p=smɐˈlʲensk, a=smolensk_ru.ogg) is a
city A city is a human settlement of notable size.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be def ...
and the
administrative center An administrative center is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town In the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, Ireland, a county town is the most important town or city in a county. It is usually the locat ...
of
Smolensk Oblast Smolensk Oblast (russian: Смоле́нская о́бласть, ''Smolenskaya oblast''; informal name — ''Smolenschina'' (russian: Смоле́нщина)) is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administ ...
,
Russia Russia (, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Eastern Europe and North Asia, Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the ...
, located on the
Dnieper River } The Dnieper () or Dnipro (); , ; . is one of the major Transboundary river, transboundary list of rivers of Europe, rivers of Europe, rising in the Valdai Hills near Smolensk, Russia, before flowing through Belarus and Ukraine to the Black ...
, west-southwest of
Moscow Moscow ( , US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐskˈva, a=Москва.ogg) is the capital and largest city of Russia Russia (, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a List of transcontinental countries, transco ...
. First mentioned in 863, it is one of the oldest cities in Russia. Population: The city has been destroyed several times throughout its long history because it was on the invasion routes of various empires. Smolensk is known for its electronics, textiles, food processing, and diamond faceting industries.


Etymology

The name of the city is derived from the name of the Smolnya River. Smolnya river flows through Karelian and Murmansk areas of north-western Russia. The origin of the river's name is less clear. One possibility is the old Slavic word () for black soil, which might have colored the waters of the Smolnya. An alternative origin could be the Russian word (), which means
resin In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a solid or highly Viscosity, viscous substance of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers. Resins are usually mixtures of organic compounds. This article focus ...
,
tar Tar is a dark brown or black viscosity, viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic matter, organic materials through destructive distillation. Tar can be produced from coal, wood, petroleum, or peat. ...
, or
pitch Pitch may refer to: Acoustic frequency * Pitch (music), the perceived frequency of sound including "definite pitch" and "indefinite pitch" ** Absolute pitch or "perfect pitch" ** Pitch class, a set of all pitches that are a whole number of octave ...
.
Pine trees A pine is any conifer tree or shrub in the genus ''Pinus'' () of the family (biology), family Pinaceae. ''Pinus'' is the sole genus in the subfamily Pinoideae. The World Flora Online created by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanic ...
grow in the area, and the city was once a center of resin processing and trade. The
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...
emperor
Constantine VII Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (; 17 May 905 – 9 November 959) was the fourth Byzantine emperor, Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 6 June 913 to 9 November 959. He was the son of Emperor Leo VI and his f ...
(r. 913–959) recorded its name as ().


Geography

The city is located in
European Russia European Russia (russian: Европейская Россия, russian: европейская часть России, label=none) is the western and most populated part of Russia. It is geographically situated in Europe, as opposed to the cou ...
on the banks of the upper
Dnieper River } The Dnieper () or Dnipro (); , ; . is one of the major Transboundary river, transboundary list of rivers of Europe, rivers of Europe, rising in the Valdai Hills near Smolensk, Russia, before flowing through Belarus and Ukraine to the Black ...
, which crosses the city within the
Smolensk Upland The Smolensk Upland (russian: italic=yes, Смоленская возвышенность) is the Western part of the Smolensk–Moscow Upland at the East European Plain, which is located mainly in Smolensk Oblast of Russia, with small parts lying ...
, which is the western part of the Smolensk–Moscow Upland. The Dnieper River flows through the city from east to west and divides it into two parts: the northern (Zadneprove) and southern (center). Within the city and its surroundings the river takes in several small
tributaries A tributary, or affluent, is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage b ...
. In the valleys are stretched streets, high ridges, hills, and headlands form the mountain. Smolensk is situated on seven hills (mountains). The old part of the city occupies the high, rugged left (south) bank of the Dnieper River. The area features undulating terrain, with a large number of tributaries, creeks and ravines.


History


Medieval origins

Smolensk is among the oldest Russian cities of the known Rus' era. The first recorded mention of the city was 863 AD, two years after the founding of
Kievan Rus' Kievan Rusʹ, also known as Kyivan Rusʹ ( orv, , Rusĭ, or , , ; Old Norse: ''Garðaríki''), was a state in Eastern Europe, Eastern and Northern Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century.John Channon & Robert Hudson, ''Penguin Hist ...
. According to
Russian Primary Chronicle The ''Tale of Bygone Years'' ( orv, Повѣсть времѧньныхъ лѣтъ, translit=Pověstĭ vremęnĭnyxŭ lětŭ; ; ; ; ), often known in English as the ''Rus' Primary Chronicle'', the ''Russian Primary Chronicle'', or simply the ...
, Smolensk (probably located slightly downstream, at the archaeological site of
Gnezdovo Gnezdovo or Gnyozdovo (russian: Гнёздово) is an archeological site located near the types of inhabited localities in Russia, village of Gnyozdovo in Smolensky District, Smolensk Oblast, Smolensky District, Smolensk Oblast, Russia. The site ...
) was located on the area settled by the East Slavic
Radimichs The Radimichs (also Radimichi) ( be, Радзiмiчы, russian: Радимичи, uk, Радимичі and pl, Radymicze) were an East Slavic languages, East Slavic tribe of the last several centuries of the 1st millennium, which inhabited up ...
tribe in 882 when
Oleg of Novgorod Oleg ( orv, Ѡлегъ, Ольгъ; non, Helgi; died 912), also known as Oleg the Wise (russian: Олег Вещий, lit=Oleg the Prophet; uk, Олег Віщий), was a Varangians, Varangian prince of the Rus' people, Rus' who was ruler o ...
took it in passing from
Novgorod Veliky Novgorod ( rus, links=no, Великий Новгород, t=Great Newtown, p=vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj ˈnovɡərət), also known as just Novgorod (), is the largest city and administrative centre of Novgorod Oblast, Russia. It is one of the ol ...
to
Kiev Kyiv, also spelled Kiev, is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine. It is in north-central Ukraine along the Dnieper, Dnieper River. As of 1 January 2021, its population was 2,962,180, making Kyiv the List of European cities by populat ...
. The town was first attested two decades earlier, when the
Varangian The Varangians (; non, Væringjar; gkm, Βάραγγοι, ''Várangoi''; is a Nordic countries, Nordic c .... Between the 9th and 11th centuries, Varangians ruled the medieval In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medie ...
chieftains
Askold and Dir Askold and Dir (''Haskuldr'' or ''Hǫskuldr'' and ''Dyr'' or ''Djur'' in Old Norse; died in 882), mentioned in both the Primary Chronicle and the Nikon Chronicle, were the earliest known ''purportedly Norsemen, Norse'' rulers of Kyiv, Kiev. Prima ...
, while on their way to Kiev, decided against challenging Smolensk on account of its large size and population. The first foreign writer to mention the city was the Byzantine Emperor
Constantine Porphyrogenitus Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (; 17 May 905 – 9 November 959) was the fourth Byzantine emperor, Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 6 June 913 to 9 November 959. He was the son of Emperor Leo VI and his f ...
. In ''
De Administrando Imperio ''De Administrando Imperio'' ("On the Governance of the Empire") is the Latin title of a Greek-language work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII. The Greek title of the work is ("To yown son Romanos"). It is a dom ...
'' (c. 950) he described Smolensk as a key station on the
trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks The trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks was a medieval trade route that connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus' and the Eastern Roman Empire. The route allowed merchants along its length to establish a direct prosperous trade with the Empir ...
. The
Rus' people The Rusʹ (Old East Slavic: Рѹсь; Belarusian language, Belarusian, Russian language, Russian, Rusyn language, Rusyn, and Ukrainian language, Ukrainian: Русь; Old Norse: ''Garðaríki, Garðar''; Greek language, Greek: Ῥῶς, ''Rhos ...
sailed from the Baltic region up the
Western Dvina The Daugava ( ltg, Daugova; german: Düna) or Western Dvina (russian: Западная Двина, translit=Západnaya Dviná; be, Заходняя Дзвіна; et, Väina; fi, Väinäjoki) is a large river rising in the Valdai Hills of Russia ...
( Daugava) River as far as they could then they portaged their boats to the upper
Dnieper } The Dnieper () or Dnipro (); , ; . is one of the major Transboundary river, transboundary list of rivers of Europe, rivers of Europe, rising in the Valdai Hills near Smolensk, Russia, before flowing through Belarus and Ukraine to the Black ...
. It was in Smolensk that they supposedly mended any leaks and small holes that might have appeared in their boats from being dragged on the ground and they used
tar Tar is a dark brown or black viscosity, viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic matter, organic materials through destructive distillation. Tar can be produced from coal, wood, petroleum, or peat. ...
to do that, hence the city name. The
Principality of Smolensk The Principality of Smolensk (eventually Grand Principality of Smolensk) was a Kievan Rus' lordship from the 11th to the 16th century. Until 1127, when it passed to Rostislav Mstislavich, the principality was part of the land of Kiev. The princip ...
was founded in 1054. Due to its central position in
Kievan Rus' Kievan Rusʹ, also known as Kyivan Rusʹ ( orv, , Rusĭ, or , , ; Old Norse: ''Garðaríki''), was a state in Eastern Europe, Eastern and Northern Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century.John Channon & Robert Hudson, ''Penguin Hist ...
, the city developed rapidly. By the end of the 12th century, the princedom was one of the strongest in
Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is a subregion of the Europe, European continent. As a largely ambiguous term, it has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, ethnic, cultural, and socio-economic connotations. The vast majority of the region is covered by Russ ...
, so that Smolensk princes frequently controlled the Kievan throne. Numerous churches were built in the city at that time, including the church of Sts. Peter and Paul (1146, reconstructed to its presumed original appearance after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
) and the church of St. 
John the Baptist John the Baptist or , , or , ;Wetterau, Bruce. ''World history''. New York: Henry Holt and Company. 1994. syc, ܝܘܿܚܲܢܵܢ ܡܲܥܡܕ݂ܵܢܵܐ, Yoḥanān Maʿmḏānā; he, יוחנן המטביל, Yohanān HaMatbil; la, Ioannes Bapti ...
(1180, also partly rebuilt). The most remarkable church in the city is called Svirskaya (1197, still standing); it was admired by contemporaries as the most beautiful structure east of
Kiev Kyiv, also spelled Kiev, is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine. It is in north-central Ukraine along the Dnieper, Dnieper River. As of 1 January 2021, its population was 2,962,180, making Kyiv the List of European cities by populat ...
. Smolensk had its own
veche Veche ( rus, вече, véče, ˈvʲet͡ɕe; pl, wiec; uk, ві́че, víče, ; be, ве́ча, viéča, ; cu, wikt:вѣще#Old Church Slavonic, вѣще, věšte) was a popular assembly in medieval Slavic peoples, Slavic countries. In Ve ...
since the very beginning of its history. Its power increased after the disintegration of
Kievan Rus' Kievan Rusʹ, also known as Kyivan Rusʹ ( orv, , Rusĭ, or , , ; Old Norse: ''Garðaríki''), was a state in Eastern Europe, Eastern and Northern Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century.John Channon & Robert Hudson, ''Penguin Hist ...
, and although it was not as strong as the veche in Novgorod, the princes had to take its opinion into consideration; several times in 12th and 13th centuries there was an open conflict between them.


Between Lithuania and Russia

Although spared by the Mongol armies in 1240, Smolensk paid tribute to the
Golden Horde The Golden Horde, self-designated as Ulug Ulus, 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongols, Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. With the fr ...
, gradually becoming a pawn in the long struggle between
Grand Duchy of Lithuania The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that existed from the 13th century to 1795, when the territory was Partitions of Poland, partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Habsburg Empire, Habsburg Empire of ...
and the
Grand Duchy of Moscow The Grand Duchy of Moscow, Muscovite Russia, Muscovite Rus' or Grand Principality of Moscow (russian: Великое княжество Московское, Velikoye knyazhestvo Moskovskoye; also known in English language, English simply as Mus ...
. The last sovereign monarch of Smolensk was
Yury of Smolensk Yury Svyatoslavich or Georgy Svyatoslavovich (russian: Юрий Святославович or Георгий Святославович) was the last sovereign ruler of the Principality of Smolensk and Bryansk (1386–95, 1401–04) whose life was ...
; during his reign the city was taken by
Vytautas the Great Vytautas (c. 135027 October 1430), also known as Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian language, Lithuanian: ', be, Вітаўт, ''Vitaŭt'', pl, Witold Kiejstutowicz, ''Witold Aleksander'' or ''Witold Wielki'' Ruthenian language, Ruthenian: ''Vit ...
of Lithuania on three occasions: in 1395, 1404, and 1408. After the city's incorporation into the
Grand Duchy of Lithuania The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that existed from the 13th century to 1795, when the territory was Partitions of Poland, partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Habsburg Empire, Habsburg Empire of ...
, some of Smolensk's
boyar A boyar or bolyar was a member of the highest rank of the Feudalism, feudal nobility in many Eastern European states, including Kievan Rus', Bulgarian Empire, Bulgaria, Russian nobility, Russia, Boyars of Moldavia and Wallachia, Wallachia and ...
s (e.g., the Sapiehas) moved to
Vilnius Vilnius ( , ; see also #Etymology and other names, other names) is the capital and List of cities in Lithuania#Cities, largest city of Lithuania, with a population of 592,389 (according to the state register) or 625,107 (according to the munic ...
; descendants of the ruling princes (e.g., the Tatishchevs,
Kropotkin Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin (; russian: link=no, Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин ; 9 December 1842 – 8 February 1921) was a Russian anarchist, socialist, revolutionary, historian, scientist, philosopher, and activist ...
s,
Mussorgsky Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky ( rus, link=no, Модест Петрович Мусоргский, Modest Petrovich Musorgsky , mɐˈdɛst pʲɪˈtrovʲɪtɕ ˈmusərkskʲɪj, Ru-Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky version.ogg; – ) was a Russian compo ...
s, Vyazemskys) fled to
Moscow Moscow ( , US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐskˈva, a=Москва.ogg) is the capital and largest city of Russia Russia (, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a List of transcontinental countries, transco ...
. Three Lithuanian Smolensk regiments took part in the 1410
Battle of Grunwald The Battle of Grunwald, Battle of Žalgiris or First Battle of Tannenberg was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War. The alliance of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led respe ...
(Tannenberg) against the
Teutonic Knights The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem, commonly known as the Teutonic Order, is a religious order (Catholic), Catholic religious institution founded as a military order (religious society), military society in ...
. It was a severe blow to Lithuania when the city was taken by Vasily III of Russia in 1514. To commemorate this event, the
Tsar Tsar ( or ), also spelled ''czar'', ''tzar'', or ''csar'', is a title used by East Slavs, East and South Slavs, South Slavic monarchs. The term is derived from the Latin word ''Caesar (title), caesar'', which was intended to mean "emperor" i ...
founded the
Novodevichy Convent Novodevichy Convent, also known as Bogoroditse-Smolensky Monastery (russian: Новоде́вичий монасты́рь, Богоро́дице-Смоле́нский монасты́рь), is probably the best-known clois ...
in Moscow and dedicated it to the
icon An icon () is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, in the cultures of the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Catholic Church, Catholic churches. They are not simply artworks; "an icon is a sacred image used in religious devo ...
of Our Lady of Smolensk. In order to repel future Polish–Lithuanian attacks,
Boris Godunov Borís Fyodorovich Godunóv (; russian: Борис Фёдорович Годунов; 1552 ) ruled the Tsardom of Russia as ''de facto'' regent from c. 1585 to 1598 and then as the first non-Rurik Dynasty, Rurikid tsar from 1598 to 1605. After ...
made it his priority to heavily fortify the city. The stone kremlin constructed in 1597–1602 is the largest in Russia. It features thick walls and numerous watchtowers. Heavy fortifications did not prevent the fortress from being taken by the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and, after 1791, as the Commonwealth of Poland, was a bi-confederal state, sometimes called a federation, of Crown of the Kingdom of ...
in 1611 after a long twenty-month siege, during the
Time of Troubles The Time of Troubles (russian: Смутное время, ), or Smuta (russian: Смута), was a period of political crisis during the Tsardom of Russia which began in 1598 with the death of Feodor I of Russia, Fyodor I (Fyodor Ivanovich, the l ...
and Dimitriads. Weakened Muscovy temporarily ceded Smolensk land to the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and, after 1791, as the Commonwealth of Poland, was a bi-confederal state, sometimes called a federation, of Crown of the Kingdom of ...
in the Truce of Deulino. The city was granted
Magdeburg rights Magdeburg rights (german: Magdeburger Recht; also called Magdeburg Law) were a set of town privileges first developed by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor (936–973) and based on the Flemish Law, which regulated the degree of internal autonomy within c ...
in 1611 and was the seat of Smolensk Voivodeship for the next forty-three years. To recapture the city, the
Tsardom of Russia The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus' also externally referenced as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the centralized Russian state from the assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan the Terrible, Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian E ...
launched the so-called "
Smolensk War The Smolensk War (1632–1634) was a conflict fought between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Tsardom of Russia, Russia. Hostilities began in October 1632 when Russian forces tried to capture the city of Smolensk. Small military engag ...
" against the Commonwealth in 1632. After a defeat at the hands of king Wladislaw IV, the city remained in Polish–Lithuanian hands. In 1632, the Uniate bishop Lew Kreuza built his apartments in Smolensk; they were later converted into the
Eastern Orthodox Church The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptized members. It operates as a Communion (Christ ...
of
Saint Barbara Saint Barbara ( grc, Ἁγία Βαρβάρα; cop, Ϯⲁⲅⲓⲁ Ⲃⲁⲣⲃⲁⲣⲁ; ; ), known in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the Great Martyr Barbara, was an Early Christianity, early Christian Lebanese and Greek saint and martyr. Acc ...
. The hostilities resumed in 1654 when the Commonwealth was being affected by the
Khmelnytsky Uprising The Khmelnytsky Uprising,; in Ukraine known as Khmelʹnychchyna or uk, повстання Богдана Хмельницького; lt, Chmelnickio sukilimas; Belarusian: Паўстанне Багдана Хмяльніцкага; russian: ...
and the Swedish deluge. After another siege, on September 23, 1654, Smolensk was recaptured by Russia. In the 1667
Truce of Andrusovo The Truce of Andrusovo ( pl, Rozejm w Andruszowie, russian: Андрусовское перемирие, ''Andrusovskoye Pieriemiriye'', also sometimes known as Treaty of Andrusovo) established a thirteen-and-a-half year truce, signed in 1667 bet ...
, the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and, after 1791, as the Commonwealth of Poland, was a bi-confederal state, sometimes called a federation, of Crown of the Kingdom of ...
renounced its claims to Smolensk.


Modern history

Smolensk has been a special place to Russians for many reasons, not least for the fact that the local
cathedral A cathedral is a church (building), church that contains the ''cathedra'' () of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, Annual conferences within Methodism, conference, or episcopate. Churches with the function of "cathedral ...
housed one of the most venerated Orthodox icons, attributed to St. Luke. Building the new Cathedral of the Assumption was a great project which took more than a century to complete. Despite slowly sinking into an economic backwater, Smolensk was still valued by the Tsars as a key fortress defending the route to
Moscow Moscow ( , US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐskˈva, a=Москва.ogg) is the capital and largest city of Russia Russia (, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a List of transcontinental countries, transco ...
. It was made the seat of
Smolensk Governorate Smolensk Governorate (russian: Смоленская губерния, Smolenskaja gubernija), or the Government of Smolensk, was an administrative division (a '' guberniya'') of the Tsardom of Russia The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus' als ...
in 1708. In August 1812, two of the largest armies ever assembled clashed in Smolensk. During the hard-fought battle, described by
Leo Tolstoy Count Lev Nikolayevich TolstoyTolstoy pronounced his first name as , which corresponds to the romanization ''Lyov''. () (; russian: link=no, Лев Николаевич Толстой,In Tolstoy's day, his name was written as in Reforms of ...
in ''
War and Peace ''War and Peace'' (russian: Война и мир, translit=Voyna i mir; Reforms of Russian orthography, pre-reform Russian: ; ) is a literary work by the Russian author Leo Tolstoy that mixes fictional narrative with chapters on history and phil ...
'' (Book Three Part Two Chapter 4),
Napoleon Napoleon Bonaparte ; it, Napoleone Bonaparte, ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821), later known by his regnal name Napoleon I, was a French military commander and political leader who ...
entered the city. Total losses were estimated at 30,000 men. Apart from other military monuments, central Smolensk features the Eagles monument, unveiled in 1912 to mark the centenary of Napoleon's Russian campaign. At the beginning of
World War I World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, ...
, the 56th Smolensk Infantry Division was first assigned to the First Army of the
Imperial Russian Army The Imperial Russian Army (russian: Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия, Romanization of Russian, tr. ) was the armed land force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917. In the earl ...
. They fought at the
Battle of Tannenberg The Battle of Tannenberg, also known as the Second Battle of Tannenberg, was fought between Russian Empire, Russia and German Empire, Germany between 26 and 30 August 1914, the first month of World War I. The battle resulted in the almost co ...
. It was subsequently transferred to the 10th Army and fought at the Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes. In March 1918, the
Belarusian People's Republic The Belarusian People's Republic (BNR; be, Беларуская Народная Рэспубліка, Bielaruskaja Narodnaja Respublika, ), or Belarusian Democratic Republic, was a state proclaimed by the Council of the Belarusian Democratic R ...
, proclaimed in
Minsk Minsk ( be, Мінск ; russian: Минск) is the capital and the largest city of Belarus, located on the Svislach (Berezina), Svislach and the now subterranean Nyamiha, Niamiha rivers. As the capital, Minsk has a special administrative stat ...
under the German occupation, declared Smolensk part of it. In February–December 1918, Smolensk was home to the headquarters of the Western Front, North-West Oblast Bolshevik Committee and Western Oblast Executive Committee. On January 1, 1919, the
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; be, Беларуская Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка, Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; russian: Белор ...
was proclaimed in Smolensk, but its government moved to Minsk as soon as the German forces had been driven out of the city several days later.


Soviet period

After the revolution, there was debate on whether to include Smolensk in the Byelorussian SSR. In 1920 a provincial census was held, according to which the Russian population prevailed over the Belarusian one, meaning Smolensk had to be transferred to the
Russian SFSR The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russian SFSR or RSFSR ( rus, Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, Rossíyskaya Sovétskaya Federatívnaya Soci ...
. In 1940, from Smolensk, the
Katyn Massacre The Katyn massacre, "Katyń crime"; russian: link=yes, Катынская резня ''Katynskaya reznya'', "Katyn massacre", or russian: link=no, Катынский расстрел, ''Katynsky rasstrel'', "Katyn execution" was a series of ma ...
occurred, in which some 22,000 Polish
POW A prisoner of war (POW) is a person who is held Captivity, captive by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates back to 1610. Belligerents hold priso ...
s were murdered by the
NKVD The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (russian: Наро́дный комиссариа́т вну́тренних дел, Naródnyy komissariát vnútrennikh del, ), abbreviated NKVD ( ), was the Ministry of home affairs, interior minis ...
. At this time Boris Menshagin was mayor of Smolensk, with his deputy Boris Bazilevsky. Both of them would be key witnesses in the
Nuremberg Trials The Nuremberg trials were held by the Allies of World War II, Allies against representatives of the defeated Nazi Germany, for plotting and carrying out invasions of other countries, and other crimes, in World War II. Between 1939 and 1945 ...
over the massacre. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
, Smolensk once again saw wide-scale fighting during the first Battle of Smolensk when the city was captured by the Germans on July 16, 1941. The first Soviet counteroffensive against the German army was launched in August but failed. However, the limited Soviet victories outside the city halted the German advance for a crucial two months, granting time to Moscow's defenders to prepare in earnest. Over 93% of the city was destroyed during the fighting; the ancient icon of Our Lady of Smolensk was lost. Nevertheless, it escaped total destruction. In late 1943,
Hermann Göring Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering; ; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader and convicted war criminal. He was one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party The Nazi Party, officially ...
had ordered Gotthard Heinrici to destroy Smolensk in accordance with the Nazi "scorched earth" policy. He refused and was punished for it. The city was finally liberated on September 25, 1943, during the second Battle of Smolensk. The rare title of
Hero City Hero City may refer to: * Hero City (Soviet Union) Hero City (, Łacinka: ''horad-hieroj''; ; ) is a Soviet title of honor, honorary title awarded for outstanding heroism during World War II (the Eastern Front (World War II), Eastern Front is ...
was bestowed on Smolensk after the war. After the Germans captured the city in 1941, they found the intact archives of the Smolensk Oblast Committee of the Communist Party, the so-called Smolensk Archive. The archive was moved to Germany, and a significant part of it eventually ended up in the United States, providing Western scholars and intelligence specialists with unique information during the
Cold War The Cold War is a term commonly used to refer to a period of Geopolitics, geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies, the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc. The term ''Cold war (term), co ...
on the local workings of the Soviet government during its first two decades. The archives were returned to Russia by the United States in 2002.


Recent events

On April 10, 2010, a Tu-154 military jet carrying Polish president Lech Kaczyński, his wife, and many notable political and military figures crashed in a wooded area near Smolensk while approaching the local military airport. All ninety-six passengers died immediately on impact. The purpose of the visit was to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the
Katyn massacre The Katyn massacre, "Katyń crime"; russian: link=yes, Катынская резня ''Katynskaya reznya'', "Katyn massacre", or russian: link=no, Катынский расстрел, ''Katynsky rasstrel'', "Katyn execution" was a series of ma ...
. In June 2013, archaeologists of the
Russian Academy of Sciences The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; russian: Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) ''Rossíyskaya akadémiya naúk'') consists of the national academy A national academy is an organizational body, usually operating wi ...
discovered and unearthed ancient temples in Smolensk dated to the middle to second half of the 12th century, built on the left bank of the Dnieper River. At the time the city was the capital of Smolensk principality. In September 2013, Smolensk widely celebrated its 1,150th anniversary with funds spent on different construction and renovation projects in the city. In celebration the
Central Bank of Russia The Central Bank of the Russian Federation (CBR; ), Trade name, doing business as the Bank of Russia (russian: Банк России}), is the central bank of the Russia, Russian Federation. The bank was established on July 13, 1990. The predeces ...
issued
commemorative coin Commemorative coins are coins issued to commemorate some particular event or issue with a distinct design with reference to the occasion on which they were issued. Many coins of this category serve as collectors items only, although some countries ...
s made of precious metals.


Attractions

Owing to its long and rich history, Smolensk is home to many examples of
Russian architecture The architecture of Russia refers to the architecture of modern Russia as well as the architecture of both the original Kievan Rus', Kievan Rus’ state, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, Russian principalities, and Russian Empire, Imperial Russia. D ...
ranging from the
Kievan Rus Kievan Rusʹ, also known as Kyivan Rusʹ ( orv, , Rusĭ, or , , ; Old Norse: ''Garðaríki''), was a state in Eastern Europe, Eastern and Northern Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century.John Channon & Robert Hudson, ''Penguin Hist ...
period to post-WWII Stalinist style. Although the city was destroyed several times over, many historically and culturally significant buildings remain, including a large number of churches and cathedrals. The most famous of these are the Cathedral of the Assumption, the Immaculate Conception Church, and the Church of St. Michael the Archangel, which is one of the few structures from before the Mongol invasion remaining in Russia. File:Смоленск. Дом Энгельгардта..JPG, House Engelhardt File:Смоленск. Дом Будникова..JPG, House Budnikova File:Смоленск. Сбербанк..JPG, Sberbank Building File:Смоленск. Здание 1930-х годов..JPG, Editorial office of the newspaper Krasnoarmeyskaya Pravda File:Смоленск. Концертный зал филармонии..JPG, Smolensk Philharmonic Concert Hall File:Smolensk train station.jpg, Smolensk railway station File:Смоленск. Здание универмага..JPG, Department Store building File:Смоленский драматический театр.JPG, The A. Griboedov Smolensk Drama Theater


The Smolensk Kremlin

The
Smolensk Kremlin The Smolensk Kremlin (russian: Смоленский кремль) is a fortified complex (kremlin The Kremlin ( rus, Московский Кремль, r=Moskovskiy Kreml', p=ˈmɐˈskofskʲɪj krʲemlʲ, t=Moscow Kremlin) is a fortified com ...
, built at the end of the 16th century during the reign of Tsars Fyodor I Ioannovich and
Boris Godunov Borís Fyodorovich Godunóv (; russian: Борис Фёдорович Годунов; 1552 ) ruled the Tsardom of Russia as ''de facto'' regent from c. 1585 to 1598 and then as the first non-Rurik Dynasty, Rurikid tsar from 1598 to 1605. After ...
, under the supervision of the architect Fyodor Kon, is one of the greatest achievement of Russian medieval architecture and military engineering. File:BD090090(2).jpg, The walls of Smolensk File:Федор Конь.jpg, Monument to Fyodor Kon File:Bub.jpg, Bubleika Tower File:Долгочевская башня первая в ансамбле.jpg, Dolgochevskaya Tower File:Башня Орел вечером.jpg, Oryol Tower


Churches and cathedrals

File:Вид вечером.jpg, Cathedral of the Assumption File:Smolensk Catholic Church 2.JPG, Immaculate Conception Church File:Свирская Церковь.jpg, Church of St. Michael the Archangel File:Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul on Gorodyanka in Smolensk (2013-11-08) 06.JPG, Church of St. Peter and St. Paul on Gorodyanska File:Церковь Иоанна Богослова.JPG, Temple of St. John the Divine File:Смоленск. Церковь Николая Чудотворца..JPG, Church of St. Nicholas File:Смоленск. Вознесенский собор..JPG, Ascension Cathedral File:Смоленск. Богоявленский собор..JPG, Epiphany Cathedral File:Avraamiev monastery in Smolensk - the view from the tower Zaaltarnoy.JPG, Savior-Transfiguration Avraamiev Monastery File:Smolensk Trinity Monastery Holy Trinity Cathedral IMG 1913 2175.jpg, Holy Trinity Cathedral


Monuments

Being the site of many great battles in Russian history, Smolensk is home to many monuments commemorating its rich military history. File:Opalennyiy tsvetok, Scorched Flower.jpg, The Scorched Flower, a monument to child prisoners of Nazi concentration camps File:Tvardovsky Monument Smolensk.JPG, Monument to
Alexander Tvardovsky Aleksandr Trifonovich Tvardovsky ( rus, links=no, Александр Трифонович Твардовский, p=ɐlʲɪkˈsandr ˈtrʲifənəvʲɪtɕ tvɐrˈdofskʲɪj; – 18 December 1971) was a Soviet Union, Soviet poet and writer and chi ...
and Vasily Turkin


Lopatinsky garden

File:Памятник Софийскому полку в Смоленске.JPG, Monument to the 2nd Sofia Infantry Regiment File:Смоленск. Пушка в Лопатинском саду..JPG, Cannon in Lopatinsky garden File:Смоленск. Лопатинский сад..JPG, Monument to the defenders of Smolensk


Square of Memory of Heroes

File:Smolensk skver pamyati geroyev.jpg, View of the Heroes' Square File:Смоленск. Памятник Благодарная Россия..JPG, The "Grateful Russia" Monument, commemorating the centenary of the Russian victory over Napoleon File:Смоленск. Бюст Кутузова в Сквере Памяти Героев.JPG, The bust of
Mikhail Kutuzov Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov ( rus, Князь Михаи́л Илларио́нович Голени́щев-Куту́зов, Knyaz' Mikhaíl Illariónovich Goleníshchev-Kutúzov; german: Mikhail Illarion Golenishchev-Kut ...


Education buildings

File:Смоленск. Университет..JPG, Smolensk State University building File:Russia sgtep april2007.jpg, Smolensk Polytechnic College building File:Смоленск. Академия физической культуры..JPG, Smolensk Academy of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism building File:Смоленск. Колледж телекоммуникаций..JPG, Smolensk College of Telecommunications building


Post-war Stalinist buildings

File:Смоленск. Здание советского периода..JPG File:Смоленск. Жилой дом..JPG File:Смоленск. Сталинка..JPG


Administrative and municipal status

Smolensk serves as the administrative center of the ''
oblast An oblast (; ; Cyrillic script, Cyrillic (in most languages, including Russian language, Russian and Ukrainian language, Ukrainian): , Bulgarian language, Bulgarian: ) is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgy ...
'' and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Smolensky District, even though it is not a part of it.Resolution #261 As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as Smolensk Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the
districts A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or county, counties, several municipality, municipa ...
. As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban okrug status.Decision #164


Climate

Smolensk has a warm-summer
humid continental climate A humid continental climate is a climate, climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by four distinct seasons and large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and ...
(
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, nota ...
''Dfb''). By European standards, the climate is quite cold for its latitude on 54°N. The far inland position warms springs up relatively quickly, with May being quite a bit milder than September.


Economy

Smolensk has several factories including the
Smolensk Aviation Plant The Smolensk Aviation Plant (SmAZ) is a Russian aircraft production and servicing company. Founded in 1926, since 1993 it has been a Joint stock company A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's capital stock ...
and several electronics and agricultural machinery factories.


Transportation

Smolensk is located on the M1 main highway and Moscow–Brest Railway. Since 1870, there is a railway connection between Smolensk and Moscow. Local public transport includes buses and trolleybuses. Public transportation network includes buses, trolleybuses, trams, and ''
marshrutka ''Marshrutka''Smolensk South (civilian) and Smolensk North (military); however, there are no regular flights scheduled to Smolensk South Airport.


Education

Smolensk is home to the Smolensk State University (SMOLGU) and the Smolensk State Medical University (affiliated as university in 2015) (SSMU); together with colleges of further education and other educational institutes.


Twin towns – sister cities

Smolensk is twinned with: *
Colorado Springs Colorado Springs is a home rule municipality Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a Subnational administrative division, subnational level, such as a regional or ...
, United States (1993- suspended 2022) *
Hagen Hagen () is the Largest cities in Germany, 41st-largest List of cities and towns in Germany, city in Germany. The municipality is located in the States of Germany, state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is located on the south eastern edge of the R ...
, Germany (1985) *
Kerch Kerch ( uk, Керч; russian: Керчь, ; Old East Slavic Old East Slavic (traditionally also Old Russian; be, старажытнаруская мова; russian: древнерусский язык; uk, давньоруська м ...
, Ukraine (2000) *
Kragujevac Kragujevac ( sr-Cyrl, Крагујевац, ) is the List of cities in Serbia, fourth largest city in Serbia and the administrative centre of the Šumadija District. It is the historical centre of the geographical region of Šumadija in central Se ...
, Serbia (2009) * Targovishte, Bulgaria (2002) * Tulle, France (1981) *
Vitebsk Vitebsk or Viciebsk (russian: Витебск, ; be, Ві́цебск, ; , ''Vitebsk'', lt, Vitebskas, pl, Witebsk), is a city in Belarus. The capital of the Vitebsk Region, it has 366,299 inhabitants, making it the country's fourth-largest ci ...
, Belarus


Notable people

*Ivan Ivanovich Baryatinsky (1772-1825), Russian Rurikid Prince; father of Prince Aleksandr Baryatinsky. * Sergey Belavenets (1910–1942), chess master, theoretician, and chess journalist * Alexander Belyayev (1884–1942), science fiction writer * Lydia Durnovo (1885–1963), art restorer and historian * Dzham (born 1986), hip hop musician * Peter Fishman (born 1955), sculptor *
Yuri Gagarin Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin; Gagarin's first name is sometimes transliterated as ''Yuriy'', ''Youri'', or ''Yury''. (9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut who became the first human to journey into outer space. Tr ...
(1934–1968), cosmonaut * Fyodor Glinka (1786–1880) a Russian poet and author. *
Mikhail Glinka Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka ( rus, link=no, Михаил Иванович Глинка, Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka., mʲɪxɐˈil ɪˈvanəvʲɪdʑ ˈɡlʲinkə, Ru-Mikhail-Ivanovich-Glinka.ogg; ) was the first Russian composer to gain wide recogni ...
(1804 in Novospasskoye – 1857), composer. * Sergey Glinka (1774–1847) a minor Russian author of the Romantic period. *
Elizaveta Golovanova Elizaveta Igorevna Golovanova (russian: Елизаве́та И́горевна Голова́нова, born 2 April 1993) is a Russian model and beauty pageant titleholder. She was crowned Miss Russia 2012 and represented her country at Miss Wor ...
(born 1993),
Miss Russia 2012 Miss Russia 2012, the 20th national beauty pageant of Russia, was held in a concert hall Barvikha Luxury Village in Moscow on 3 March 2012. 50 contestants from all over the Russia competed for the crown. Natalia Gantimurova of Moscow Mosco ...
* Natalia Ishchenko (born 1986), swimmer * Anatoly Kharlampiyev (1906–1979), founder of
Sambo , aka = Sombo (in English-speaking countries) , focus = Hybrid martial arts, Hybrid , country = Soviet Union , pioneers = Viktor Spiridonov, Vasili Oshchepkov, Anatoly Kharlampiev , famous_pract = List of Samb ...
* Eduard Khil (1934–2012), singer * Patriarch Kirill of Moscow (born 1946), religious leader * Ivan Kirpa (born 1978), boxer * Vladimir Kirpichnikov (1903–1950), general *
Sergey Konenkov Sergey Timofeyevich Konenkov (Сергей Тимофеевич Коненков) (also Sergei Konyonkov) (russian: Серге́й Тимофеевич Конёнков; – 9 December 1971) was a Russian and Soviet Union, Soviet sculptor. ...
(1874–1971), sculptor *
Dina Korzun Dianna Aleksandrovna "Dina" Korzun (russian: Диа́нна Алекса́ндровна "Ди́на" Ко́рзун; born 13 April 1971) is a Russian theater and film actress. Life and career Dina Korzun was born in Smolensk. She graduated from ...
(born 1971), theater and film actress * Pavel Kucherov, (born 1964), football player and coach * Olga Kuzenkova, (born 1970), athlete *
Semyon Lavochkin Semyon Alekseyevich Lavochkin (russian: Семён Алексе́евич Ла́вочкин; 11 September 1900 - 9 June 1960) was a Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a List of form ...
(1900–1960), aircraft designer * Maria Itkina (1932–2020), runner * Natalia Levchenkova (born 1977), biathlete * Anatoly Lukyanov (1930–2019), politician * Grigorii Maksimov (1893–1950), politician * Morris Markin (1893–1970), businessman and founder of
Checker Motors Corporation Checker Motors Corporation was a Kalamazoo, Michigan, Automotive industry, vehicle manufacturer and tier-one subcontractor that manufactured taxicabs used by Checker Taxi. Morris Markin established the company in 1922, initially named the Check ...
* Timofey Mikhaylov (1859–1881), revolutionary, one of the assassins of
Tsar Alexander II Alexander II ( rus, Алекса́ндр II Никола́евич, Aleksándr II Nikoláyevich, p=ɐlʲɪˈksandr ftɐˈroj nʲɪkɐˈlajɪvʲɪtɕ; 29 April 181813 March 1881) was Emperor of Russia The emperor or empress of all the Rus ...
* Uladzimir Navumau (born 1956), Belarusian politician and general * Viktor Nemytskii (1900–1967), mathematician * Anatoly Onishchuk (born 1946), sport shooter * Taisiya Osipova (born 1984), political activist *
Yevgeny Polivanov Yevgeny Dmitrievich Polivanov (russian: Евге́ний Дми́триевич Полива́нов; – 25 January 1938) was a Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a List of forme ...
(1891–1938), linguist, orientalist * Grigory Potyomkin (1739 at Chizheva – 1791), statesman. * Andrey Starovoytov, (1915–1997), IIHF Hall of Fame inductee * Aleksandr Tvardovsky (1910–1971), writer * Olga Voronets (1926–2014), mezzo-soprano folk singer


Honors

Smolensk Strait between
Livingston Island Livingston Island (Russian name ''Smolensk'', ) is an Antarctic island in the Southern Ocean, part of the South Shetland Islands, South Shetlands Archipelago, a group of List of Antarctic and subantarctic islands, Antarctic islands north of the A ...
and Deception Island in the
South Shetland Islands The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands with a total area of . They lie about north of the Antarctic Peninsula, and between southwest of the nearest point of the South Orkney Islands. By the Antarctic Treaty of 19 ...
,
Antarctica Antarctica () is Earth's southernmost and least-populated continent. Situated almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle and surrounded by the Southern Ocean, it contains the geographic South Pole. Antarctica is the fifth-largest contine ...
is named after the city.Ivanov, L
General Geography and History of Livingston Island.
In: ''Bulgarian Antarctic Research: A Synthesis''. Eds. C. Pimpirev and N. Chipev. Sofia: St. Kliment Ohridski University Press, 2015. pp. 17–28.
A Soviet post
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
project planned the creation of a
light cruiser A light cruiser is a type of small or medium-sized warship. The term is a shortening of the phrase "light armored cruiser", describing a small ship that carried armor in the same way as an armored cruiser: a protective belt and deck. Prior to thi ...
vessel named Smolensk. It was never constructed.


See also

*
Battle of Orsha The Battle of Orsha ( be, Бітва пад Оршай, translit=Bitva pad Oršaj, lt, Oršos mūšis, pl, bitwa pod Orszą, uk, Битва під Оршею), was a battle A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposin ...
*
Immaculate Conception Church, Smolensk The Immaculate Conception Church (russian: Храм Непорочного Зачатия Пресвятой Девы Марии; pl, Kościół wezwaniem Niepokalanego Najświętszej Maryi) is an old Catholic Church, Catholic church in the city o ...


References


Notes


Sources

* * * "Była notatka o opcjach prawnych śledztwa". Były dyplomata o katastrofie smoleńskiej - Polsat News, polsatnews.pl ostęp 2020-03-18(pol.)https://www.polsatnews.pl/wiadomosc/2016-10-24/byla-notatka-o-opcjach-prawnych-sledztwa-byly-dyplomata-o-katastrofie-smolenskiej/.


Bibliography


External links

*
Official website of Smolensk

Travel in Smolensk

Smolensk news

Smolensk Wiki

Homepage of the Smolensk fortressSome photos of the Smolensk fortressMore photos of Smolensk
*(in English
Smolensk photos in Soviet times, 1983 in color

Basketball in Smolensk

News of Smolensk sport

News of Smolensk medicineThe murder of the Jews of Smolensk
during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
, at
Yad Vashem Yad Vashem ( he, יָד וַשֵׁם; literally, "a memorial and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust. It is dedicated to preserving the memory of the Jews who were murdered; honoring Jews who fought against th ...
website. *
Smolensk State Medical University
* {{Use mdy dates, date=December 2012 Forts in Russia Portages Smolensk Voivodeship Smolensky Uyezd Populated places on the Dnieper in Russia