The Info List - Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
(/smɪθˈsoʊniən/ smith-SOH-nee-ən), also known simply as the Smithsonian, is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. It was founded on August 10, 1846, "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge".[1] The institution is named after its founding donor, British scientist James Smithson.[2] It was originally organized as the "United States National Museum", but that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967.[3] Termed "the nation's attic"[4] for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items,[2] the Institution's 19 museums, nine research centers, and zoo include historical and architectural landmarks, mostly located in the District of Columbia.[5] Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York City, Pittsburgh, Texas, Virginia, and Panama. More than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states,[note 1] Puerto Rico, and Panama
are Smithsonian Affiliates.[6][7] The Institution's 30 million annual visitors[8] are admitted without charge. Its annual budget is around $1.2 billion, with two-thirds coming from annual federal appropriations.[9] Other funding comes from the Institution's endowment, private and corporate contributions, membership dues, and earned retail, concession, and licensing revenue.[2] Institution publications include Smithsonian and Air & Space magazines.


1 Founding 2 Development

2.1 Museums and buildings 2.2 Capital campaigns

3 Museums

3.1 Collections

4 Research centers and programs

4.1 Smithsonian Latino Center

4.1.1 History 4.1.2 Young Ambassadors Program

5 Publications 6 Awards 7 Administration

7.1 Secretaries of the Smithsonian Institution

8 Controversies

8.1 Enola Gay
Enola Gay
display 8.2 Censorship of "Seasons of Life and Land" 8.3 Copyright restrictions

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Founding[edit] The "Castle" (1847), the Institution's first building, which remains its headquarters The British scientist James Smithson
James Smithson
(1765–1829) left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford. When Hungerford died childless in 1835,[10] the estate passed "to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of knowledge among men", in accordance with Smithson's will.[11] Congress officially accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, and pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1, 1836.[12] The American diplomat Richard Rush
Richard Rush
was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
to collect the bequest. Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns (about $500,000 at the time, which is equivalent to $11,764,000 in 2018).[13][14] Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithson's rather vague mandate "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."[12][14] Unfortunately, the money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas, which soon defaulted. After heated debate, Massachusetts
Representative (and ex-President) John Quincy Adams persuaded Congress to restore the lost funds with interest[15] and, despite designs on the money for other purposes, convinced his colleagues to preserve it for an institution of science and learning.[16] Finally, on August 10, 1846, President James K. Polk
James K. Polk
signed the legislation that established the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
as a trust instrumentality of the United States, to be administered by a Board of Regents and a Secretary of the Smithsonian.[12][17]

Development[edit] Though the Smithsonian's first Secretary, Joseph Henry, wanted the Institution to be a center for scientific research,[18] it also became the depository for various Washington and U.S. government collections.[19] The United States Exploring Expedition
United States Exploring Expedition
by the U.S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842.[20] The voyage amassed thousands of animal specimens, an herbarium of 50,000 plant specimens, and diverse shells and minerals, tropical birds, jars of seawater, and ethnographic artifacts from the South Pacific Ocean.[20] These specimens and artifacts became part of the Smithsonian collections,[21] as did those collected by several military and civilian surveys of the American West, including the Mexican Boundary Survey and Pacific Railroad Surveys, which assembled many Native American artifacts and natural history specimens.[22] In 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation; in 1847, money was appropriated for meteorological research.[23] The Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, who formed a group called the Megatherium Club.[24] The Smithsonian played a critical role as the U.S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba.[25]

Museums and buildings[edit] Construction began on the Smithsonian Institution Building
Smithsonian Institution Building
("the Castle") in 1849. Designed by architect James Renwick Jr., its interiors were completed by general contractor Gilbert Cameron. The building opened in 1855.[26] The Smithsonian's first expansion came with construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881. Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income. It did, and the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss
Adolf Cluss
and Paul Schulze, based on original plans developed by Major General Montgomery C. Meigs
Montgomery C. Meigs
of the United States Army Corps of Engineers. It opened in 1881.[27] The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonian's Department of Living Animals.[28] The park was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted.[28] The National Museum of Natural History
National Museum of Natural History
opened in June 1911 to similarly accommodate the Smithsonian's United States National Museum, which had previously been housed in the Castle and then the Arts and Industries Building.[29] This structure was designed by the D.C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall.[30] When Detroit
philanthropist Charles Lang Freer
Charles Lang Freer
donated his private collection to the Smithsonian and funds to build the museum to hold it (which was named the Freer Gallery), it was among the Smithsonian's first major donations from a private individual.[31] The gallery opened in 1923.[32] More than 40 years would pass before the next museum, the Museum of History and Technology (renamed the National Museum of American History in 1980), opened in 1964. It was designed by the world-renowned firm of McKim, Mead & White.[33] The Anacostia
Community Museum, an "experimental store-front" museum created at the initiative of Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley, opened in the Anacostia
neighborhood of Washington, D.C., in 1967.[34][35][36] That same year, the Smithsonian signed an agreement to take over the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration (now the Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum).[37] The National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum opened in the Old Patent Office Building
Old Patent Office Building
(built in 1867) on October 7, 1968.[38] The reuse of an older building continued with the opening of the Renwick Gallery
Renwick Gallery
in 1972 in the 1874 Renwick-designed art gallery originally built by local philanthropist William Wilson Corcoran
William Wilson Corcoran
to house the Corcoran Gallery of Art.[39] The first new museum building to open since the National Museum of Natural History was the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, which opened in 1974.[40] The National Air and Space Museum, the Smithsonian's largest in terms of floor space, opened in June 1976.[41] Eleven years later, the National Museum of African Art
National Museum of African Art
and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery opened in a new, joint, underground museum between the Freer Gallery
Freer Gallery
and the Smithsonian Castle.[42][43][44] Reuse of another old building came in 1993 with the opening of the National Postal Museum in the 1904 former City Post Office building, a few city blocks from the Mall.[45] In 2004, the Smithsonian opened the National Museum of the American Indian in a new building near the United States Capitol.[46] Twelve years later almost to the day, in 2016, the latest museum opened: the National Museum of African American History and Culture, in a new building near the Washington Monument.[47]

Capital campaigns[edit] In 2011, the Smithsonian undertook its first-ever capital fundraising campaign.[48] The $1.5 billion effort raised $1 billion at the three-year mark. Smithsonian officials made the campaign public in October 2014 in an effort to raise the remaining $500 million. More than 60,000 individuals and organizations donated money to the campaign by the time it went public.[49] This included 192 gifts of at least $1 million.[49] Members of the boards of directors of various Smithsonian museums donated $372 million.[49] The Smithsonian said that funds raised would go toward completion of the National Museum of African American History and Culture building, and renovations of the National Air and Space Museum, National Museum of American History, and the Renwick Gallery.[49] A smaller amount of funds would go to educational initiatives and digitization of collections.[49] As of September 2017, the Smithsonian claimed to have raised $1.79 billion, with three months left in the formal campaign calendar.[50] Separately from the major capital campaign, the Smithsonian has begun fundraising through Kickstarter.[51] An example is a campaign to fund the preservation and maintenance of the ruby slippers worn by Judy Garland
Judy Garland
for her role as Dorothy Gale
Dorothy Gale
in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz.[52]

Museums[edit] Main article: List of Smithsonian museums Aircraft on display at the National Air and Space Museum, including a Ford Trimotor
Ford Trimotor
and Douglas DC-3
Douglas DC-3
(top and second from top) Nineteen museums and galleries, as well as the National Zoological Park, comprise the Smithsonian museums.[53] Eleven are on the National Mall, the park that runs between the Lincoln Memorial
Lincoln Memorial
and the United States Capitol. Other museums are located elsewhere in Washington, D.C., with two more in New York City
New York City
and one in Chantilly, Virginia. The Smithsonian has close ties with 168 other museums in 39 states, Panama, and Puerto Rico.[53] These museums are known as Smithsonian Affiliated museums. Collections of artifacts are given to these museums in the form of long-term loans. The Smithsonian also has a large number of traveling exhibitions, operated through the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES).[54] In 2008, 58 of these traveling exhibitions went to 510 venues across the country.[53] The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
announced in January 2015 that it is in talks to build its first permanent overseas exhibition space within London's Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park.[55]

Collections[edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2012) Smithsonian collections include 156 million artworks, artifacts, and specimens. The National Museum of Natural History
National Museum of Natural History
houses 145 million of these specimens and artifacts, which are mostly animals preserved in Formaldehyde. The Collections Search Center has 9.9 million digital records available online. The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
Libraries hold 2 million library volumes. Smithsonian Archives hold 156,830 cubic feet of archival material.[56][57] The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
has many categories of displays that can be visited at the museums. In 1912, First Lady Helen Herron Taft donated her inauguration gown to the museum to begin the First Ladies' Gown display,[58] one of the Smithsonian's most popular exhibits.[59] The museum displays treasures such as the Star-Spangled Banner, the stove pipe hat that was worn by President Lincoln, the ruby slippers worn by Judy Garland
Judy Garland
in The Wizard Of Oz, and the original Teddy Bear that was named after President Theodore Roosevelt.[60] In 2016, the Smithsonian's Air & Space museum curators restored the large model Enterprise from the original Star Trek
Star Trek
TV series.[61]

Research centers and programs[edit] The following is a list of Smithsonian research centers, with their affiliated museum in parentheses:

Archives of American Art California State Railroad Museum[62] Carrie Bow Marine Field Station (Natural History Museum) Center for Earth and Planetary Studies (Air and Space Museum) Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage Marine Station at Fort Pierce (Natural History Museum) Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center (National Zoo) Museum Conservation Institute Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
and the associated Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute
Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute
(National Zoo) Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
Archives[63] Smithsonian Libraries Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
Scholarly Press Smithsonian Latino Center[64] Smithsonian Provenance Research Initiative (SPRI)[65] Smithsonian Science Education Center[66] Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
(Panamá) Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Also of note is the Smithsonian Museum Support Center
Smithsonian Museum Support Center
(MSC), located in Silver Hill, Maryland
(Suitland), which is the principal off-site conservation and collections facility for multiple Smithsonian museums, primarily the National Museum of Natural History. The MSC was dedicated in May 1983.[67] The MSC covers 4.5 acres (1.8 ha) of land, with over 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2) of space, making it one of the largest set of structures in the Smithsonian. It has over 12 miles (19 km) of cabinets, and more than 31 million objects.

Smithsonian Latino Center[edit] In 1997, the Smithsonian Latino Center was created as a way to recognize Latinos across the Smithsonian Institution. The primary purpose of the center is to place Latino contributions to the arts, history, science, and national culture across the Smithsonian's museums and research centers.[68] The center is a division of the Smithsonian Institution.[69] As of May 2016, the center is run by an executive director, Eduardo Díaz.[70]

History[edit] At the time of its creation, the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
had other entities dedicated to other minority groups: National Museum of the American Indian, Freer-Sackler Gallery for Asian Arts and Culture, African Art Museum, and the National Museum of African-American Heritage and Culture.[71] The opening of the center was prompted, in part, by the publishing of a report called "Willful Neglect: The Smithsonian and U.S. Latinos".[71] According to documents obtained by The Washington Post, when former Latino Center executive director Pilar O'Leary
Pilar O'Leary
first took the job, the center faced employees who had "serious performance issues". No performance plans existed for the staff and unfulfilled financial obligations to sponsors existed. The website's quality was poor, and the center did not have a public affairs manager, a programs director, adequate human resources support, or cohesive mission statement.[71] After difficult times in the first few years, the center improved. According to the Smithsonian, the center "support[s] scholarly research, exhibitions, public and educational programs, web-based content and virtual platforms, and collections and archives. [It] also manage[s] leadership and professional development programs for Latino youth, emerging scholars and museum professionals."[68] Today, the website features a high-tech virtual museum.[72]

Young Ambassadors Program[edit] The Smithsonian Latino Center's Young Ambassadors Program (YAP) is a program within the Latino Center that reaches out to Latino high school students with the goal of encouraging them to become leaders in arts, sciences, and the humanities.[73] Students selected for the program travel to Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
for an "enrichment seminar" that lasts approximately five days. Afterwards, students return to their communities to serve in a paid, one-month internship.[69] Pilar O'Leary
Pilar O'Leary
launched the program when she served as executive director of the Smithsonian Latino Center.[74] According to the Latino Center, O'Leary told the press in 2007: "Our goal is to help our Young Ambassadors become the next generation of leaders in the arts and culture fields. This program encourages students to be proud of their roots and learn more about their cultural heritage to inspire them to educate the public in their own communities about how Latinos are enriching America's cultural fabric."[69]

Publications[edit] The Institution publishes Smithsonian magazine monthly and Air & Space magazine bimonthly. Smithsonian was the result of Secretary of the Smithsonian S. Dillon Ripley asking the retired editor of Life magazine Edward K. Thompson to produce a magazine "about things in which the Smithsonian Institution is interested, might be interested or ought to be interested."[75] Another Secretary of the Smithsonian, Walter Boyne, founded Air & Space.[76][77]

Awards[edit] The Smithsonian makes a number of awards to acknowledge and support meritorious work.

The James Smithson
James Smithson
Medal, the Smithsonian Institution's highest award, was established in 1965 and is given in recognition of exceptional contributions to art, science, history, education and technology. The James Smithson
James Smithson
Bicentennial Medal, established in 1965, is given to persons who have made distinguished contributions to the advancement of areas of interest to the Smithsonian. The Hodgkins Medal, established in 1893, is awarded for important contributions to the understanding of the physical environment. The Henry Medal, established in 1878, is presented to individuals in recognition of their distinguished service, achievements or contributions to the prestige and growth of the Smithsonian Institution. The Langley Gold Medal
Langley Gold Medal
is awarded for meritorious investigations in connection with the science of aerodromics and its application to aviation.[78] Administration[edit] The Smithsonian Castle doorway The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
was established as a trust instrumentality by act of Congress.[79] More than two-thirds of the Smithsonian's workforce of some 6,300 persons are employees of the federal government. The Smithsonian Office of Protection Services oversees security at the Smithsonian facilities and enforces laws and regulations for National Capital Parks
National Capital Parks
together with the United States Park Police. The President's 2011 budget proposed just under $800 million in support for the Smithsonian, slightly increased from previous years. Institution exhibits are free of charge, though in 2010 the Deficit Commission recommended admission fees.[80][81] As approved by Congress on August 10, 1846, the legislation that created the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
called for the creation of a Board of Regents to govern and administer the organization.[79] This 17-member board meets at least four times a year and includes as ex officio members the Chief Justice of the United States
Chief Justice of the United States
and the Vice President of the United States. The nominal head of the Institution is the Chancellor, an office which has traditionally been held by the Chief Justice. In September 2007, the board created the position of Chair of the Board of Regents, a position currently held by David Rubenstein.[82] Other members of the Board of Regents are three members of the U.S. House of Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the House; three members of the Senate, appointed by the President pro tempore of the Senate; and nine citizen members, nominated by the board and approved by the Congress in a joint resolution signed by the President of the United States.[83] Regents who are senators or representatives serve for the duration of their elected terms, while citizen Regents serve a maximum of two six-year terms. Regents are compensated on a part-time basis. The chief executive officer (CEO) of the Smithsonian is the Secretary, who is appointed by the Board of Regents. The Secretary also serves as secretary to the Board of Regents, but is not a voting member of that body. The Secretary of the Smithsonian has the privilege of the floor at the United States Senate. On September 18, 2013, Secretary G. Wayne Clough announced he would retire in October 2014. The Smithsonian Board of Regents said it asked regent John McCarter, Jr. to lead a search committee.[84] On March 10, 2014, the Smithsonian Board selected Dr. David Skorton, a physician and president of Cornell University, as the 13th Secretary of the Smithsonian. Skorton took the reins of the institution on July 1, 2015.[85] Upon Skorton's announced resignation in 2019, the Board selected Lonnie Bunch
Lonnie Bunch
III as the 14th Secretary.[86]

Secretaries of the Smithsonian Institution[edit]

Joseph Henry, 1846–1878 Spencer Fullerton Baird, 1878–1887 Samuel Pierpont Langley, 1887–1906 Charles Doolittle Walcott, 1907–1927 Charles Greeley Abbot, 1928–1944 Alexander Wetmore, 1944–1952 Leonard Carmichael, 1953–1964 Sidney Dillon Ripley, 1964–1984 Robert McCormick Adams, Jr., 1984–1994 Ira Michael Heyman, 1994–1999 Lawrence M. Small, 2000–2007 G. Wayne Clough, 2008–2015[85] David J. Skorton, 2015–2019 Lonnie Bunch, 2019–present

Controversies[edit] Enola Gay
Enola Gay
display[edit] See also: Enola Gay
Enola Gay
exhibition controversy In 1995, controversy arose over the exhibit at the National Air and Space Museum with the display of the Enola Gay, the Superfortress
used by the United States to drop the first atomic bomb used in World War II. The American Legion
American Legion
and Air Force Association
Air Force Association
believed the exhibit put forward only one side of the debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and that it emphasized the effect on victims without discussing its use within the overall context of the war. The Smithsonian changed the exhibit, displaying the aircraft only with associated technical data and without discussion of its historic role in the war.

Censorship of "Seasons of Life and Land"[edit] In 2003, a National Museum of Natural History
National Museum of Natural History
exhibit, Subhankar Banerjee's Seasons of Life and Land, featuring photographs of the Arctic
National Wildlife Refuge, was censored and moved to the basement by Smithsonian officials because they feared that its subject matter was too politically controversial.[87] In November 2007, The Washington Post
The Washington Post
reported internal criticism has been raised regarding the institution's handling of the exhibit on the Arctic. According to documents and e-mails, the exhibit and its associated presentation were edited at high levels to add "scientific uncertainty" regarding the nature and impact of global warming on the Arctic. Acting Secretary of the Smithsonian Cristián Samper
Cristián Samper
was interviewed by the Post, and claimed the exhibit was edited because it contained conclusions that went beyond what could be proven by contemporary climatology.[88] The Smithsonian is now a participant in the U.S. Global Change Research Program.[89]

Copyright restrictions[edit] The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
provides access to its image collections for educational, scholarly, and nonprofit uses. Commercial uses are generally restricted unless permission is obtained. Smithsonian images fall into different copyright categories; some are protected by copyright, many are subject to license agreements or other contractual conditions, and some fall into the public domain, such as those prepared by Smithsonian employees as part of their official duties. The Smithsonian's terms of use for its digital content, including images, are set forth on the Smithsonian Web site.[90][91] In April 2006, the institution entered into an agreement of "first refusal" rights for its vast silent and public domain film archives with Showtime Networks, mainly for use on the Smithsonian Channel, a network created from this deal. Critics contend this agreement effectively gives Showtime control over the film archives, as it requires filmmakers to obtain permission from the network to use extensive amounts of film footage from the Smithsonian archives.[92]

See also[edit]

District of Columbia portal List of aircraft in the Smithsonian Institution Smithsonian Ocean Portal 3773 Smithsonian Notes[edit]

^ States without Smithsonian Affiliates: Idaho, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Dakota, Utah.


^ Barlow, William (1847). The Smithsonian Institution, "for the Increase and Diffusion of Knowledge Among Men": An Address on the Duties of Government, in Reference Chiefly to Public Instruction : with the Outlines of a Plan for the Application of the Smithsonian Fund to that Object. B.R. Barlow..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

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Further reading[edit] Nina Burleigh, Stranger and the Statesman: James Smithson, John Quincy Adams, and the Making of America's Greatest Museum, The Smithsonian. New York: HarperCollins, 2003. Heather Ewing, The Lost World of James Smithson: Science, Revolution, and the Birth of the Smithsonian. Bloomsbury, 2007. United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Collections Stewardship at the Smithsonian: Hearing before the Committee on House Administration, House of Representatives, One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, First Session. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2013. William S. Walker, A Living Exhibition: The Smithsonian and the Transformation of the Universal Museum. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts
Press, 2013. External links[edit]

Smithsonian Institutionat's sister projects

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Official website A brief history of the U.S. National Museum/National Museum of Natural History vteSmithsonian InstitutionMuseums African American History and Culture African Art Air and Space Udvar–Hazy American Art American History Numismatic Collection American Indian Heye Center Anacostia Arts and Industries Castle Cooper–Hewitt Design Freer Gallery
Freer Gallery
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vteSecretaries of the Smithsonian Institution Joseph Henry
Joseph Henry
(1846) Spencer Fullerton Baird
Spencer Fullerton Baird
(1878) Samuel Pierpont Langley
Samuel Pierpont Langley
(1887) Charles Doolittle Walcott
Charles Doolittle Walcott
(1907) Charles Greeley Abbot
Charles Greeley Abbot
(1928) Alexander Wetmore
Alexander Wetmore
(1944) Leonard Carmichael
Leonard Carmichael
(1953) Sidney Dillon Ripley
Sidney Dillon Ripley
(1964) Robert McCormick Adams Jr.
Robert McCormick Adams Jr.
(1984) Ira Michael Heyman
Ira Michael Heyman
(1994) Lawrence M. Small (2000) Cristián Samper
Cristián Samper
# (2007) G. Wayne Clough
G. Wayne Clough
(2008) David J. Skorton
David J. Skorton
(2015) Lonnie Bunch
Lonnie Bunch
(2019) # denotes an acting secretary

vteLandmarks of Washington, D.C.Memorials Adams African American Civil War American Veterans Disabled for Life Belmont-Paul Women's Equality National Monument Mary McLeod Bethune Boy Scout James Buchanan D.C. War Albert Einstein Emancipation John Carroll John Ericsson First Division James A. Garfield Samuel Gompers Ulysses S. Grant Holocaust Museum Holodomor Genocide Japanese American Patriotism During World War II Jefferson Memorial Lyndon Baines Johnson Grove John Paul Jones Marquis de Lafayette Law Enforcement Officers Lincoln Memorial statue Martin Luther King, Jr. Korean War Veterans George Mason George Meade Peter Muhlenberg National Statuary Hall Collection Navy – Merchant Marine Nuns of the Battlefield Peace Monument Second Division Signers of the Declaration of Independence The Extra Mile The Three Soldiers Jean de Rochambeau Franklin Delano Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Island Taras Shevchenko Statues of the Liberators Oscar Straus Robert A. Taft Titanic United States Navy Victims of Communism Vietnam Veterans Vietnam Women's Washington Monument Daniel Webster World War II Rainbow Pool Other Capitol Reflecting Pool Immaculate Conception Basilica Exorcist steps Ford's Theatre Petersen House Healy Hall Islamic Center Jefferson Pier John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts Library of Congress Jefferson Adams Madison National Arboretum National Capitol Columns National Building Museum National Gallery of Art Lincoln's Cottage at Soldiers' Home Lincoln Memorial
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Historical Society holdings Adams Papers Editorial Project Life andhomes Early life Abigail Adams
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John Quincy Adams
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Monroe Doctrine
Centennial half dollar Popularculture Profiles in Courage
Profiles in Courage
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Mutiny on the Amistad
(1987 book) Amistad (1997 film) John Adams
John Adams
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Louisa Adams
(wife) George W. Adams (son) Charles Adams Sr. (son) John Adams II
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Henry Adams
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Brooks Adams
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John Quincy Adams
II (grandson) John Adams father presidency Abigail Adams mother First Lady Quincy family Abigail Adams
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