(; originally , "butter and bread") is a traditional Danish open-faced sandwich that usually consists of a piece of buttered rye bread (), a dense, dark brown bread
, topped with commercial or homemade cold cut
s, pieces of meat
, and garnishes.
Bread is a very important part of the Scandinavian table, primarily , which is sourdough
rye bread. It is a dark, heavy bread which is often bought sliced, in varieties from light-coloured rye to very dark, and from refined to whole-grain. It forms the basis of , which is closely related to the Swedish . Some toppings are served on (), a very light, crusty wheat bread. The bread is usually buttered, though for some variants, a spread of lard is customary.
thumb|Dark rye bread topped with breaded fish, salad, cucumber, shrimps, black lumpfish roe, and tomato.|alt=
Traditional toppings include pickled herrings (plain, spiced or curried), slightly sweeter than Dutch or German herrings; thinly sliced cheese in many varieties; sliced cucumber, tomato and boiled eggs; pork liver-paste; dozens of types of cured or processed meat in thin slices, or smoked fish such as salmon; mackerel in tomato sauce; pickled cucumber; boiled egg, and rings of red onion. Mayonnaise mixed with peas, sliced boiled asparagus and diced carrot, called (lit. "Italian salad", so named because the colours match the Italian flag), remoulade or other thick sauces often top the layered open sandwich, which is usually eaten with utensils. It is custom to pass the dish of sliced breads around the table, and then to pass around each dish of toppings, and people help themselves.
More festive meals can be loosely divided into courses: Fish toppings first (such as herring, shrimp, or smoked salmon) followed by cold cuts and salads, and finally cheese with bread or crackers and a little fruit. One or several warm dishes are often served with the meats on special occasions, for example: breaded plaice filet, fried sausage, with pickled red cabbage, or (pork tenderloin with sauteed onions or a creamy mushroom sauce). Toppings change with the seasons and some are mostly associated with Easter or Christmas lunches, like head cheese
and (lit. "apple pork", roast pork or bacon in apple sauce). Summer offers lighter fare such as smoked mackerel, (lit. "summer salad", radish and cucumber in a smoked cheese dressing), new potatoes, and freshly peeled shrimp.
Hundreds of combinations and varieties of are available, and some traditional examples include:
* (Danish: Veterinarian's midnight snack) — on a piece of dark rye bread, a layer of liver pâté, topped with a slice of salt beef
and a slice of meat aspic
. This is all decorated with raw onion
rings and garden cress
— smoked eel on dark rye bread, topped with scrambled eggs and sliced radish
es or chopped chives
* — warm rough-chopped liver pâté served on dark rye bread, topped with bacon
, and sauteed mushroom
* Roast beef
— thin sliced and served on dark rye bread, topped with a portion of remoulade
, and decorated with a sprinkling of shredded horseradish
and toasted onion.
* Roast pork
— thin sliced and served on dark rye bread, topped with red sweet and sour cabbage
, and decorated with a slice of orange
* Salmon — slices of cold-smoked salmon
salmon) on white bread, topped with shrimp
and decorated with a slice of lemon
and fresh dill
* Spiced meat roll
- thin sliced and topped with meat aspic, raw onion rings and garden cress.
*''Stjerneskud'' (lit. "shooting star") — on a base of buttered white bread, two pieces of fish
: a piece of steamed white fish on one half, a piece of fried, battered plaice on the other half. On top is piled a mound of shrimp, which is then decorated with a dollop of mayonnaise
, red caviar
, and a lemon
— raw lean beef mince with salt and pepper, served on dark rye bread, topped with raw onion rings, grated horseradish and a raw egg yolk.
A lavish piece of restaurant can almost be a meal unto itself, whereas everyday toppings are much simpler and often ungarnished.
The Norwegian-Danish poet Johan Herman Wessel
(1742-1785) wrote a classic poem about smørrebrød:Forfatterportræt Wessel
Danish Literature Archive. Accessed on 19 November 2015.
* Katrine Klinken, ''Smørrebrød – Danish open'', Thaning & Appel, 2008.
* Ida Davidsen and Mia Davidsen, ''Open your heart to the Danish open – : the Davidsen dynasty and their best recipes'', Lindhardt og Ringhof, 2006. .
* Inge Lotz, ''Danish open sandwiches'', Aschehoug Fakta, 1997. .
* Troelsø, Ole (2012), Smørrebrød i Danmark - Stederne, stykkerne og historien, København: Forlaget Lucullus, .
Dine with the Danes
Video of Danish open-face sandwiches
Category:Foods featuring butter