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Slovio (from the Slavic ''word'' "slovo") is a constructed language begun in 1999 by Mark Hučko. Hučko claims that the language should be relatively easy for non-Slavs to learn as well, as an alternative to languages such as Esperanto which are based more on Latin root words.

Alphabet

: *For /j/, J is used at the beginnings of words, I elsewhere Optional characters: : Stress appears on the penultimate syllable, counting ''ai, oi, io, uo'' etc. as diphthongs.


Grammar


Slovio has a relatively simple grammar based on a mix of Esperanto grammar with Slavic elements. Just like in natural Slavic languages, new words can be formed with a variety of suffixes and prefixes. Most words are identified by their endings, such as adjectives, adverbs, and verbs.


Numerals


Fractions can be made by adding ''-tink'' to a numeral. ex. ''dvatink'' = 1/2, ''tritink'' = 1/3, ''tri piattink'' = 3/5 Ordinal numbers can be made by adding ''-ju'' to a numeral. ex. ''dinju'' = first, ''dvaju'' = second The names of shapes can also be made by adding ''-ugolik'' to a numeral. ex. ''triugolik'' = triangle, ''cxtirugolik'' = square/rectangle


Pronouns


The 3rd person singular high class pronoun ''to'' describes people or high animals with an unknown gender. ''Svoi'' is a genitive pronoun that means "my own, your own, his own, their own, etc.". The accusative of the 3rd person singular low class pronoun can optionally be written ''nam'', and the dative ''nas''. ''Vams'' functions in the same manner, optionally ''vam'' for the accusative and ''vas'' for the dative.


Nouns


Nouns have no special endings or declensions. Nouns can however be made plural, indicate subject or object, or describe direction. Nouns can be made plural by adding ''-s''. ex. ''okno'' (window) – ''oknos'' (windows). If the noun ends in ''a'' or a consonant, suffix ''-is'' is added, e.g. dom (house) domis (houses). This suffix can optionally be left out if the noun dealt with is clearly a plural. Optionally, to make a noun genitive, the suffix ''-(u)f'' is added. If the noun is plural, then it becomes ''-(i)fs''. Nouns are not changed if a preposition precedes them.


Adjectives


Adjectives normally end in ''-ju''. ex. ''dobrju'' (good), ''velju'' (big), ''silaju'' (strong). If the word ends in ''ia'' or ''ie'' then it replaces it. ex. galaktia (galaxy) – galaktju (galactical), morie (sea) – morju (marine). Adjectives can also end in ''-(e)sk'' if pronunciation with ''-ju'' would be difficult to pronounce or if it is unclear whether it is an adjective or adverb. If an adjective is slight, then add ''-just'' to the adjective. ex. ''zxoltju'' (yellow) – ''zxoltjust'' (yellowish, slightly yellow). This suffix is somewhat equivalent to English "-ish". The prefixes ''mal-'' or ''slab-'' can also be used in the same manner. ex. ''slabbelju'' (whitish). Opposites of adjectives can be formed with the prefix ''bez-''. ex. ''bezdobrju'' (bad); ''opasju'' (dangerous) – ''bezopasju'' (safe). Comparatives and superlatives To make an adjective more, precede it with ''plus'' or ''bolsx'' or add ''-jusx''. ex ''plus velju'', ''bolsx velju'', ''veljusx'' (bigger); ''mlodju'' (young) – ''plus mlodju'' (younger); ''Ti es'' ''krasjusx'' ''cxem ja''. (You are more beautiful than I). To make it less, precede it with ''mensx'' or ''minus''. ex ''mensx velju'', ''minus velju'' (less big). To make it the most, precede it with ''maks'' or ''nai-''. ex. ''maks velju'', ''naivelju'' (the biggest); ''maks mlodju'' (the youngest). To make it the least, precede it with ''min'' or ''naimensx''. ex. ''min velju'', ''naimensx velju'' (the least big/the smallest); ''min mlodju'', ''naimensx mlodju'' (the least young). Adjective participles. To make adjective participles, either the active adjective participles ''-bsju'' for future, ''-tsju'' for present, ''-lsju'' for past, or the passive adjective participles ''-bju'' for future, ''tju'' for present, ''lju'' for past. To make an adjective an active verb, add ''-juvit'' to the root. The ''-t'' can be changed to change its tense. ''dobrjuvit'' (make better/improve), ''veljuvit'' (enlarge/make bigger). To make it a passive verb, add ''-juvsit'' to the root. ''dobrjuvsit'' (become better/improve oneself), ''veljuvsit'' (grow up/become bigger). Adjectives do not have a plural form.


Verbs


Slovio verbs can have various endings. To create the infinitive and present, add ''-vit'' if the root ends in an ''o'', ''-it'' if it ends in a consonant, and ''-t'' and optionally ''-vit'' if it ends in ''a'', ''e'', ''i'', or ''u''. Other conjugations can be derived from the infinitive by replacing ''-t'' with the ending which corresponds to whichever tense is needed. Replace it with ''-b'' for future, ''-l'' for past, and ''-lbi'' conditional, and ''-j'' for imperative. The exceptions to this rule are ''es'' (to be), ''mozx'' (can), ''hce'' (want) ''dolzx'' (have to), and ''dolzxbi'' (should). ''Es'' is replaced by the other helping verbs to change its tense, ''mozx'', ''dolzx'', and ''dolzxbi'' are preceded by the helping verbs to change tense, and ''hce'' is simply a variant of ''hotit'' (want). The helping verbs are ''bu'' (will do/will be), ''es'' (does/is), ''bil'' (did/has done/was), and ''bi'' (would have done/would have been). To make the verb show duration or repetition, add ''-va-'' between the root and the tense suffix. This affix is somewhat like English "used to" in past tense. ex. ''Ja cxudovil'' (I wondered) – ''Ja cxudovavil'' (I used to wonder). To make it show completion, add the prefix ''zu-''. To make a verb into a noun which is the action or activity of the verb, add ''-(e)nie'', ''-ie'', ''-(a)cia'', or ''-ba''. These suffixes are used similarly to English "-ment". ex. vidit (to see) – videnie, viditie (seeing/vision); razvit (to develop) – razvitie, razvenie (development), sluzxit (to serve), sluzxba (service). To make the verb an adjective with possibility, add ''-mozxju'' or ''-mju''. ex. ''vidit'' (see) – ''vidimozxju'' or ''vidimju'' (visible), ''mozg-cxistit'' (brainwash) ''mozg-cxistimju'' (brainwashable). To make it an adverb with possibility, add ''-mozxuo'' or ''-muo''. ex. ''vidimozxuo'' or ''vidimuo'' (visibly). To make it a noun with possibility, add ''-mozxost'' or ''-most''. ex. ''vidimozxost'' or ''vidimost'' (visibility). These suffixes are similar to English "-able". To make it an adjective with necessity, add ''-nuzxju''. ex. ''vidit'' (see) – ''vidinuzxju'' (which needs to be seen). To make it an adverb with necessity, add ''-nuzxuo''. ex. ''vidinuzxuo'' (with a need to be seen). To make it a noun with necessity, add ''-nuzxost''. ex. ''vidinuzxost'' (the need to be seen/need to see something). These suffixes are similar to English "needs to be". To make it an adjective with obligation, add ''-dolzxju''. ex. ''vidit'' (see) – ''vididolzxju''(which must be seen). To make it an adverb with obligation, add ''-dolzxuo''. ex. ''vididolzxuo'' (with obligation to be seen). To make it a noun with necessity, add ''-dolzxost''. ex. ''vididolzxost'' (the obligation to be seen).


Adverbs


Adverbs normally end in ''-uo''. ex. ''dobruo'' (well), ''bistruo'' (quickly). They can also end in ''-(e)sk'' if pronunciation with ''-uo'' is difficult or it is unclear whether it is an adverb or adjective. Opposites of adverbs can be formed with the prefix ''bez-''. ex. ''opasuo'' (dangerously), ''bezopasuo'' (safely). Comparatives and superlatives To make an adverb more, precede it with ''plus'' or ''bolsx'' or add ''-ue''. ex. ''plus bistruo'', ''bolsx bistruo'', ''bistrue'' (quicker); ''plus dobruo'', ''bolsx dobruo'', ''dobrue'' (better). To make it less, precede it with ''mensx'' or ''minus''. ex ''mensx bistruo'', ''minus bistruo'' (less quick/slower); ''mensx dobruo'', ''minus dobruo'' (less well). To make it the most, precede it with ''maks'' or ''nai-''. ex. ''maks bistruo'', ''naibistruo'' (the quickest); ''maks dobruo'', ''naidobruo (the best). To make it the least, precede it with ''min'' or ''naimensx''. ex. ''min velju'', ''naimensx velju'' (the least big/the smallest); ''min mlodju'', ''naimensx mlodju'' (the least young); ''min dobruo'', ''naimensx dobruo'' (the least well).


Word order


The usual word order for Slovio is "subject, verb, object". ex. ''Mlodic lubil mlodica.'' (Boy loved girl). If the subject and object are to be switched, ''-(u)f'' is added to the object. ex. "Mlodicaf lubil mlodic." (Boy loved girl). If the object is plural, the ending is changed to ''-(i)fs''. This ending can also emphasize direction: ''Peter sidijt na stul.'' (Peter is sitting on a chair.) ''Peter sidijt na stuluf.'' (Peter is sitting down on a chair.) (Direction) ''Peter idijt v sxkol.'' (Peter is walking inside school.) ''Peter idijt v sxkoluf.'' (Peter is walking towards school.) (Direction.) ''Peter idijt na gora.'' (Peter is walking on a mountain.) ''Peter idijt na goraf.'' (Peter is going onto a mountain.) (Direction) ''Peter sberijt gribis v les.'' (Peter is picking mushrooms in a forest.) ''Peter bu idit sberit gribis v lesuf.'' (Peter will go to pick mushrooms into a forest.) (direction) Adjectives usually come before the noun, but can also come after. ex. ''dobrju mlodic'' = ''mlodic dobrju'' (good boy).


Sample text


Mark 16.1 – 8: Latin Posle Sabat koncil, Maria Magdalena i Maria, Jakubvoi i Salomavoi mama, kupili pikantis, abi mozxili jeg namazat. I velm ranuo, om pervju den siemdenuf, posle sunce visxil, oni idili ko grobuf. I oni skazali drug druguf, "Kto bu ottiskit tot kamen pred vhod grobuf dla nams?". Pogledits, oni vidili zxe kamen bil ottiskilju – to bil velm velju kamen. Vstupits vo grobuf oni vidili mlodju muzx, siditsju na pravju storon, odevilju vo belju toga, i oni bili trevogilju. On onif skazal, " Ne bu trevogju. Vi iskate Jesus iz Nazaret, ktor bil ukrestilju. On visxil; on ne es tugde. Vidijte mesto gde jeg kladili. Idijte i skazajte jeg priverzxnikis i Peter zxe on bu idit pred vams vo Galileaf. Tamgde vi jeg bu naidit, takak on vams skazal." I oni izhodili i otbegili ot grob ibo oni bili hvatilju ot trepetenie i udiv, i oni skazali nisxto niktof, ibo oni boiali. Cyrillic После Сабат концил, Мариа Магдалена и Мариа, Якубвои и Саломавои мама, купили пикантис, аби можили йег намазат. И велм рануо, ом первю ден сиемденуф, после сунце вишил, они сказали друг другуф, "Кто бу оттискит тот камен пред вход гробуф дла намс?”. Погледитс, они видили же камен бил оттискилю – то бил велм велю камен. Вступитс во гробуф они видили млодю муж, сидитсю на правю сторон, одевилю во белю тога, и они били тревогилю. Он ониф сказал, “ Не бу тревогю. Ви искате Йесус из Назарет, ктор бил укрестилю. Он вишил; он не ес тугде. Видийте место где йег кладили. Идийте и сказайте йег привержникис и Петер же он бу идит пред вамс во Галилеаф. Тамгде ви йег бу наидит, такак он вамс сказал". И они изходили и отбегили от гроб ибо они били хватилю от трепетение и удив, и они сказали ништо никтоф, ибо они боиали.


Sources


''This article was translated from the equivalent article on the German Wikipedia on 22 January 2011.'' * Tilman Berger:
Vom Erfinden slawischer Sprachen
'. In: Miloš Okuka u. a. (Hrsg.): ''Germano-slavistische Beiträge. Festschrift für Peter Rehder zum 65. Geburtstag''. Sagner, München 2004, , (''Die Welt der Slaven'' Sammelbände 21). * Cornelia Mannewitz: Sprachplanung im Internet. Das Projekt Slovio. In: ''Fiedler, Sabine (Hg.): Esperanto und andere Sprachen im Vergleich.'' Beiträge der 18. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Interlinguistik e. V., 21. – 23. Nov. 2008, in Berlin. S. 157 – 164 * Tilman Berger

Panslavismus und Internet, 2009, pp. 25–29, p. 33. * Katherine Barber

"Old Church Slavonic and the 'Slavic Identity'"

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. * Langmaker.co

*http://www.ahistoria.pl/?s=slovio&x=13&y=15 * Živo

2/2005 (Slovak Magazin

* Extraplus

October 2004 (Slovak Magazine

* Tilman Berger

Potemkin im Netz 2009. * F5, 20 (62),07.06.10–13.06.10, p. 22

* Hučko, Mark. "Slavic Language – Simplified Universal International and Interslavic Planned Language." N.p., 24 October 2010. Web. 30 March 2015. . * Jan van Steenbergen
''The Slovio Myth''
In: Fiat Lingua, 1 May 2016.


See also


* Interslavic language * Pan-Slavic language * Zonal constructed languages


External links



Slovio at Omniglot
*
Say Hello in Slovio
' – a short documentary about the language * {{Pan-Slavism Category:Zonal constructed languages Category:Pan-Slavic languages Category:Constructed languages introduced in the 1990s Category:1999 introductions Category:Constructed languages