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SLOVENE ISTRIA (Slovene : Slovenska Istra, Italian : Istria
Istria
slovena) is a region in southwest of Slovenia
Slovenia
. It comprises the northern part of the Istrian peninsula, and it is part of the wider geographical-historical region known as the Slovene Littoral (Primorska). Its largest urban center is Koper
Koper
. Other large settlements are Izola
Izola
, Piran
Piran
and Portorož
Portorož
. The whole region has around 120 settlements. In its coastal area, both the Slovene and Italian languages are official.

The Slovene Riviera
Slovene Riviera
(Slovenska obala in Slovene) is located in Slovene Istria; both terms are sometimes used interchangeably, especially in the media, although the Slovenian Istria
Istria
includes a wider geographical area.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Geography

* 3 Economy and transportation

* 3.1 Tourism * 3.2 Agriculture

* 4 Language

* 4.1 Slovene-Italian bilingualism * 4.2 Dialects

* 5 References * 6 External links

HISTORY

View of the Medieval centre of Piran
Piran
.

The Istrian peninsula was known to Romans as the terra magica. Its name is derived from the Histri , an Illyrian tribe who, as accounted by the geographer Strabo
Strabo
, lived in the region. Romans described them as pirates who were hard to conquer due to the difficulty of navigating their territory. After two military campaigns, Roman legions finally subdued them in 177 BC. A lot of remains of ancient harbours and settlements still remain today, mostly in Ankaran
Ankaran
, Hrvatini
Hrvatini
, Izola
Izola
, Koper
Koper
and Piran
Piran
.

With the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, Istria
Istria
was conquered by the Goths
Goths
, the Byzantines . With the end of the 6th century, Carantanians
Carantanians
arrived and built their first permanent settlement around the year 700. During Byzantine rule, it was shortly ruled by Avars. Istria
Istria
was annexed by the Lombards
Lombards
in 751 and by the Avars in 774. It came under Frankish rule during the reign of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
, when his son Carloman conquered the peninsula in 789, and was incorporated into the Carolingian March of Friuli
March of Friuli
.

In 952 King Otto I of Germany ceded Istria
Istria
together with the vast March of Verona
March of Verona
and Aquileia to the Dukes of Bavaria . From 976 Verona was ruled by the Dukes of Carinthia , until in 1040 King Henry III established the separate March of Istria
Istria
, which thereafter successively was controlled by various noble dynasties such as the Bavarian House of Andechs
House of Andechs
(temporarily ruling as Dukes of Merania ). In 1208/09 it fell to the Patriarchs of Aquileia , while large parts of the estates were held by the comital House of Gorizia
House of Gorizia
.

From 1267 the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
gradually annexed the Istrian coast, aided also by the strong presence of the autochthonous romance-speaking communities ; the region regained the oversea ties which were loosened by the barbarian invasions . The coastal area somewhat reflowered, but the venetian government enmity with Austria and the Ottoman empire
Ottoman empire
limited the relations with the hinterland. After Napoleon
Napoleon
's triumph in Padania , the Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
in 1797 gave most of Venetian Republic and all of the peninsula to the Habsburg. The fortified Church of the Holy Trinity in Hrastovlje
Hrastovlje

Between 1805 and 1813, it was under French rule, first as part of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy
Italy
, then as a province within the Illyrian Provinces . In 1813, it became part of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
, which unified the whole peninsula under a single administration with the capital in Pazin
Pazin
. In 1860, Istria
Istria
became an autonomous province within the Austrian Littoral
Austrian Littoral
, with its own Provincial diet (Assembly). What is today Slovenian Istria
Istria
was divided among the administrative district of Koper
Koper
and Volosko
Volosko
: the former extended to the present-day municipalities of Koper, Izola
Izola
and Piran, while the latter extended to the present-day municipality of Hrpelje-Kozina
Hrpelje-Kozina
.

After World War I
World War I
, according to the peace Treaty of Rapallo , in 1920 Istria
Istria
became part of Italy
Italy
. Fascism
Fascism
and, later, Nazi occupation spoiled ethnic relations. After World War II
World War II
, Istria
Istria
was assigned to Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
. As a consequence, between 1945 and 1954, an estimated 350,000 ethnic Italians left the Slovenian Istria
Istria
in the so-called Istrian exodus
Istrian exodus
, together with several thousand Slovenes
Slovenes
. Between 1947 and 1954, Slovenian Istria
Istria
was divided between the Federal People\'s Republic of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and the Free Territory of Trieste
Free Territory of Trieste
. After the abolition of the Free Territory in 1954, the region became part of the People\'s Republic of Slovenia
Slovenia
within Yugoslavia.

Between the 1950s and 1970s, the region experienced profound changes. A significant portion of the rural population moved to the coastal towns, which remained semi-deserted after the Istrian Exodus
Istrian Exodus
. The local Italian population shrank in number. Many villages were depopulated, while the towns grew in number. Koper
Koper
developed in an important portal town, and one of the major centres of Slovenian economy.

GEOGRAPHY

The 43 kilometers long coastline of Slovenian Istria
Istria
has numerous peninsulas and bays such as Piran
Piran
peninsula and Gulf of Piran, Gulf of Koper
Koper
and Ankaran
Ankaran
peninsula on which is at the same time one of only two nature reserves on Slovenian coast, the other one being the Strunjan
Strunjan
reserve . In the Strunjan
Strunjan
reserve lies the only coastal cliff in Slovenia
Slovenia
which is at the same time the only cliff in Trieste Bay . The inner part of the region is more hilly, with various types of landscape, including the most known karst landscape in the Karst region.

The most important water-flows in Slovenian Istria
Istria
are the Dragonja and Rižana rivers.

*

Rural landscape in Slovenian Istria
Istria
*

Dragonja
Dragonja
Valley *

Karst
Karst
landscape near Osp
Osp
*

Sečovlje Saltworks *

Moon Bay, Strunjan
Strunjan
*

Ankaran
Ankaran
Peninsula *

Škocjan Inlet

ECONOMY AND TRANSPORTATION

Slovenian Istria
Istria
is the second most prosperous region in Slovenia after Central Slovenia
Slovenia
. The two most important economic branches are transport and tourism, followed by services and industry.

The Port of Koper
Koper
is the only international port in Slovenia
Slovenia
and one of the largest in the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
. It is considered as one of the strategically most important firms in Slovenian economy.

TOURISM

Tourism is one of the main industries on the Slovenian coast, especially in Portorož
Portorož
, Piran
Piran
, Izola
Izola
and Sečovlje
Sečovlje
, Izola
Izola

where the most important historical monument is the Venetian Gothic Mediterranean town of Piran. The neighboring town of Portorož
Portorož
is a popular modern tourist resort, offering entertainment in gambling tourism. The former fishermen town of Izola
Izola
has also been transformed into a popular tourist destination; many tourists also appreciate the old Medieval center of the port of Koper, which is however less popular among tourists than the other two Slovenian coastal towns. Near the village of Sečovlje
Sečovlje
there is the Sečovlje
Sečovlje
Salina Nature Park , which is a cultural heritage site and a tourist attraction.

Among other less important are the Strunjan
Strunjan
nature reserve , various small camps in the nature, village of Ankaran
Ankaran
and Debeli Rtič
Debeli Rtič
.

AGRICULTURE

See also: Wines of Slovenia
Slovenia

Slovenian Istria
Istria
is especially renowned for its wines and olive oil . The most common wine varieties are refosco (red) and malvasia (white). Other products include cherries , figs , and vegetables, such as radicchio , tomatoes and asparagus .

LANGUAGE

See also: Italian language
Italian language
in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Languages of Slovenia
Slovenia
A multilingual sign in Slovene and Italian (also partly in Croatian) near Koper.

In the Slovenian Riviera and some villages in the interior, both Slovene and Italian are official languages. In the rest of Slovenian Istria, comprising most of its rural area, only Slovene is recognized as official language.

According to the 2002 census, Slovene is spoken as the first language by 70,2% of the inhabitants of Slovenian Istria, Italian by 3,3%, and various forms of Croatian by 16% of the population. The highest percentage of Italian speakers is in the municipality of Piran
Piran
(7%), while the highest percentage of Croatian speakers is in Izola
Izola
(31%). Polls show that the majority of the population in Slovenian Istria
Istria
is fluent in four languages: Slovene, Italian, Croatian and English.

SLOVENE-ITALIAN BILINGUALISM

Both Slovene and Italian are official in the municipalities of Piran, Izola
Izola
and Koper. However, Italian is co-official only in the strip of land on the coast, traditionally inhabited by Istrian Italians
Istrian Italians
. In the villages in the interior, only Slovene is official.

According to law, all official signs are to be written in both languages, as should all public notifications. Italian is to be used in all public offices in the bilingual area. For most jobs in the public administration and other public offices, the knowledge of both Slovene and Italian is required. Beside Slovene language
Slovene language
schools, there are also elementary, high and grammar schools with Italian as the language of instruction. Pupils may choose between an education in Slovene or Italian; in either case, the other official language is being taught during the whole period of education, in order to provide that all residents speak both languages. At the state-owned University of Primorska , however, which is also established in the bilingual area, Slovene is the only language of instruction (although the official name of the university additionally includes the Italian version).

Italian may be used in the municipal assemblies of Koper, Izola
Izola
and Piran, although in practice almost all discussions are carried out in Slovene.

DIALECTS

In the rural areas of Slovenian Istria, the Istrian dialect of Slovene is still spoken. It is divided into two sub-dialects: the Rižana subdialect , spoken in the northern areas, and the Šavrini Hills subdialect , spoken in the southern areas. In the municipality of Hrpelje-Kozina
Hrpelje-Kozina
, the Inner Carniolan dialect is spoken. In a few villages on the border with Croatia
Croatia
, the Čičarija dialect is spoken, which is considered a transitional dialect between Slovene and Čakavian
Čakavian
Croatian .

In the urban areas, a hybrid regional version of Slovene is spoken, which is phonetically very different from the rural dialects. It developed after World War Two, when new settlers from all Slovenia (many of whom from Slovenian Styria
Slovenian Styria
) moved into the towns, left by the Istrian Italians
Istrian Italians
. Although it has borrowed many words from the Istrian dialect, it is markedly distinguishable from it.

Traditionally, the Istrian Italians
Istrian Italians
living in Slovenian Istria
Istria
have spoken the Venetian language
Venetian language
, which is nowadays being increasingly replaced by standard Italian.

REFERENCES

* ^ Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, census of 2002 * ^ Strunjan
Strunjan
Nature Reserve site * ^ https://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/travel/destinations/the-mediterranean-you-dontknow/article25591358/

EXTERNAL