Slovenia competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom. This was the nation's sixth consecutive appearance at the Summer Olympics. The Slovenian Olympic Committee (Slovene: Olimpijski Komite Slovenije) sent the nation's third-largest delegation to the Games. A total of 65 athletes, 28 men and 37 women, competed in 15 sports. For the first time in its Olympic history, Slovenia was represented by more female than male athletes. Slalom kayaker and multiple-time world champion Peter Kauzer was the nation's flagbearer at the opening ceremony. The London Games also marked Slovenia's Olympic debut in triathlon.

The Slovenian team featured two Olympic medalists from Beijing: hammer thrower and defending champion Primož Kozmus, and Finn sailor Vasilij Žbogar, who both competed at their fourth Olympics. Rifle shooter and former gold medalist Rajmond Debevec, the oldest athlete of the team at age 49, became the first Slovenian to compete in eight Olympic games (including two appearances for Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). Rower and four-time medalist Iztok Čop competed at his sixth Olympics, while Čop's rowing partner Luka Špik and butterfly swimmer Peter Mankoč both made their fifth Olympic appearances.

Slovenian athletes earned four medals in London: one gold, one silver, and two bronze. All of Slovenia's medal winners had already medalled at one or more previous Olympics.