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Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in
Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are sometimes also considered parts of Western Europe, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe. The concept of Central Europe is based on a common histo ...
. It is bordered by
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a continental part, delimited by the Alps, a peninsula and several islands surrounding it. Italy is located in Southern Europ ...
to the west,
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine federated states (''Bund ...
to the north,
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a country in Central Europe. It borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the south, Croatia and Slovenia to the southwest, and Austria to the west. H ...
to the northeast,
Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* it, Repubblica di Croazia :* rue, Републіка Хорватія :* sr, Република Хрватска :* sk, Chorvátska republika :* sl, Republika Hrvaška ...

Croatia
to the southeast, and the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest a ...
to the southwest. Slovenia's mostly mountainous and forested territory, covers , with a population of 2.1 million.
Slovenes The Slovenes, also known as Slovenians ( sl, Slovenci ), are a South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia, and also to Italy, Austria and Hungary in addition to having a diaspora throughout the world. Slovenes share a common ancestry, culture, ...
form the vast majority of the country's population, while
Serbs The Serbs ( sr, Срби, Srbi, ) are a South Slavic ethnic group and nation, native to the Balkans in Southeastern Europe. The majority of Serbs live in their nation state of Serbia, as well as in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro ...
are the largest minority. Slovene, the
South Slavic language The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages. There are approximately 30 million speakers, mainly in the Balkans. These are separated geographically from speakers of the other two Slavic branches (West and East) b ...
, is the official language. Slovenia has a mainly
continental climate Continental may refer to: Places * Continent * Continental, Arizona, a small community in Pima County, Arizona, US * Continental, Ohio, a small town in Putnam County, US Arts and entertainment * ''Continental'' (album), an album by Saint Etienne * ...
, with the exception of the
Slovene Littoral The Slovene Littoral ( sl, Primorska, ; it, Litorale; german: Küstenland) is one of the five traditional regions of Slovenia. Its name recalls the former Austrian Littoral (''Avstrijsko Primorje''), the Habsburg possessions on the upper Adriatic c ...
, which has a sub-
Mediterranean climate The coastal Mediterranean region of Costa Brava, Catalonia, Spain">Catalonia.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Costa Brava, Catalonia">Costa Brava, Catalonia, Spain A Mediterranean climate or dry summer c ...
, and of the
Julian Alps The Julian Alps ( sl, Julijske Alpe, it, Alpi Giulie, , ) are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps that stretch from northeastern Italy to Slovenia, where they rise to 2,864 m at Mount Triglav, the highest peak in Slovenia and of the forme ...
in the northwest, which have an
Alpine climate Alpine may refer to: Places * Alps, a European mountain range * Alpine states, associated with the mountain range, or relating to any lofty mountain areas * Mountainous or alpine; the mountains. Australia * Alpine, New South Wales, a Northern Vill ...
. Additionally, the
Dinaric Alps The Dinaric Alps (; , , , Bosnian.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="ìnarīdì">">ìnarīdì"> ìnarīdì">[dìnarīdì/nowiki>,_),_also_commonly_Dinarides,_are__...
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and the Pannonian Plain
meet in Slovenia. Ljubljana is the nation's capital and List of cities and towns in Slovenia, largest city. Slovenia has historically been the crossroads of Slavic languages, Slavic, Germanic languages, Germanic, and
Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love), emotional attraction towards another person and the courtship behaviors undertaken to express the feelings * Romance languages, a ...

Romance
languages and cultures. Historically, the territory of modern-day Slovenia has been part of many different states; the
Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Roman Empire, the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It surviv ...
, the
Carolingian Empire The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large Frankish-dominated empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages. It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, which had ruled as kings of the Franks since 751 and as kings of the Lom ...
, the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 180 ...
, the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation of th ...

Kingdom of Hungary
, the
Republic of Venice The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic of Venice, italics=yes; it, Sere ...
, the
Illyrian Provinces The Illyrian Provinces sl, Ilirske province hr, Ilirske provincije it, Province illirichegerman: Illyrische Provinzen, group=note were an autonomous province of France during the First French Empire that existed under Napoleonic Rule from 1809 to 181 ...
, the
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most ...
and
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy and great power in Central Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and was dis ...

Austria-Hungary
. In October 1918, the Slovenes co-founded the
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs ( sh, Država Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba / ; sl, Država Slovencev, Hrvatov in Srbov) was a political entity that was constituted in October 1918, at the end of World War I, by Slovenes, Croats and Serbs resid ...

State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
. In December 1918, they merged with the
Kingdom of Serbia The Kingdom of Serbia ( sr, Краљевина Србија, Kraljevina Srbija) was a country located in the Balkans which was created when the ruler of the Principality of Serbia, Milan I was proclaimed king in 1882. Since 1817, the Principality ...
into the
Kingdom of Yugoslavia The Kingdom of Yugoslavia ( sh, Kraljevina Jugoslavija / Краљевина Југославија; sl, Kraljevina Jugoslavija) was a state in Southeast and Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1941. From 1918 to 1929, it was officially c ...
. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—forming two opposing milit ...
,
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German , demonym = German , government_type = Federal parliamentary republi ...

Germany
,
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a continental part, delimited by the Alps, a peninsula and several islands surrounding it. Italy is located in Southern Europ ...
, and
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a country in Central Europe. It borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the south, Croatia and Slovenia to the southwest, and Austria to the west. H ...
occupied and annexed Slovenia, with a tiny area transferred to the
Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* it, Repubblica di Croazia :* rue, Републіка Хорватія :* sr, Република Хрватска :* sk, Chorvátska republika :* sl, Republika Hrvaška ...
, a
Nazi Nazism (), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus; ), is the ideology and practices associated with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (german: link=no, Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP, or National Social ...

Nazi
puppet state A puppet state, puppet régime or puppet government is a state that is ''de jure'' independent but ''de facto'' completely dependent upon an outside power and subject to its orders.Compare: Puppet states have nominal sovereignty, but a foreign p ...
at that time. In 1945, It became a founding member of
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (; sh, Jugoslavija / ; sl, Jugoslavija ; mk, Југославија ;; rup, Iugoslavia; hu, Jugoszlávia; Pannonian Rusyn: , transcr. ; sk, Juhoslávia; ro, Iugoslavia; cs, Jugoslávie; it, Iugoslavia ; tr, Yugoslavya; bg, Юго ...
. Post-war, Yugoslavia was initially allied with the
Eastern Bloc#REDIRECT Eastern Bloc#REDIRECT Eastern Bloc {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...

Eastern Bloc, but after the Tito-Stalin split of 1948, it never subscribed to the
Warsaw Pact The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), officially the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, commonly known as the Warsaw Pact (WP), was a collective defense treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland between the Soviet Union and seven o ...
, and in 1961, it became one of the founders of the
Non-Aligned Movement The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a forum of 120 developing world states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. After the United Nations, it is the largest grouping of states worldwide. Drawing on the principles agre ...
. In June 1991, Slovenia became the first
republic A republic ( la, res publica, links=yes, meaning "public affair") is a form of government in which "power is held by the people and their elected representatives". In republics, the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern ...
that split from Yugoslavia and became an independent
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government ...
. Slovenia is a
developed country 450px, Classifications by the IMF and the UN in 2008.A developed country, industrialized country (or post-industrial country), more developed country (MDC), or more economically developed country (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a high q ...
, with an advanced
high-income economy A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita of US$12,536 or more in 2019, calculated using the Atlas method. While the term "high-income" is often used interchangeably with "First World" an ...
; ranking very high in the
Human Development Index#REDIRECT Human Development Index#REDIRECT Human Development Index {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
. It is a member of various international organizations, including the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million. The EU has developed an internal s ...
, the
Eurozone The eurozone, officially called the euro area, is a monetary union of 19 member states of the European Union (EU) that have adopted the euro (€) as their primary currency and sole legal tender. The monetary authority of the eurozone is the Eur ...

Eurozone
, the
Schengen Area The Schengen Area (; ) is an area comprising 26 European countries that have officially abolished all passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders. The area mostly functions as a single jurisdiction for international ...

Schengen Area
, the
OSCE The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization. Its mandate includes issues such as arms control, promotion of human rights, freedom of the press, and fair el ...
, the
Council of Europe The Council of Europe (CoE) (french: Conseil de l'Europe, CdE) is an international organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe. Founded in 1949, it has 47 member states, with a ...

Council of Europe
and
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 European and North American countries. The ...
.


Etymology

Slovenia's name means the "Land of the
Slovenes The Slovenes, also known as Slovenians ( sl, Slovenci ), are a South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia, and also to Italy, Austria and Hungary in addition to having a diaspora throughout the world. Slovenes share a common ancestry, culture, ...
" in Slovene and other
South Slavic languages The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages. There are approximately 30 million speakers, mainly in the Balkans. These are separated geographically from speakers of the other two Slavic branches (West and East) b ...
. It is thus a
cognate In linguistics, cognates, also called lexical cognates, are words that have a common etymological origin. Cognates are often inherited from a shared parent language, but they may also involve borrowings from some other language. For example, the ...
of the words
Slavonia Slavonia (; hr, Slavonija) is, with Dalmatia, Croatia proper and Istria, one of the four historical regions of Croatia. Taking up the east of the country, it roughly corresponds with five Croatian counties: Brod-Posavina, Osijek-Baranja, Pože ...

Slavonia
,
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no, ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the we ...
and Slavia. The etymology of itself remains uncertain. The reconstructed autonym ' is usually derived from the word ''slovo'' ("word"), originally denoting "people who speak (the same language)," i. e. people who understand each other. This is in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely , meaning "silent, mute people" (from Slavic "
mute Muteness is a speech disorder in which a person lacks the ability to speak. Mute may also refer to: Technology * Mute (music), a device used to alter the sound of a musical instrument ** The mute switch or button on an electronic audio mixer, whic ...
, mumbling"). The word ''slovo'' ("word") and the related ''slava'' ("glory, fame") and ''slukh'' ("hearing") originate from the
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family. Its proposed features have been derived by linguistic reconstruction from documented Indo-European languages. No direct record of Proto-Indo-Europea ...
root ("be spoken of, glory"), cognate with Ancient Greek ( "fame"), as in the name
Pericles Pericles (; grc-x-attic, Περικλῆς, in Classical Attic; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a Greek statesman and general of Athens during its golden age. Pericles was prominent and influential in Athenian politics, particularly between the Pers ...

Pericles
, Latin ("be called"), and English . The modern Slovene state originates from the Slovene National Liberation Committee (SNOS) held on 19 February 1944. They officially named the state as ''Federal Slovenia'' (), a unit within the Yugoslav federation. On 20 February 1946, Federal Slovenia was renamed the ''People's Republic of Slovenia'' (''Ljudska republika Slovenija''). It retained this name until 9 April 1963, when its name was changed again, this time to ''Socialist Republic of Slovenia'' ( sl, Socialistična republika Slovenija). On 8 March 1990, SR Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the ''Republic of Slovenia''; it remained a part of the SFRY until 25 June 1991.


History


Prehistory to Slavic settlement


Prehistory

Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since
prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history between the use of the first stone tools by hominins 3.3 million years ago and the invention of writing systems. The use of symbols, marks, and images appears very e ...
times. There is evidence of human habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A
pierced cave bear bone
pierced cave bear bone
, dating from 43100 ± 700
BP BP plc (official styling ''BP p.l.c.'', formerly The British Petroleum Company plc and BP Amoco plc) is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England. It is one of the world's seven oil and gas "supermajors". It i ...
, found in 1995 in Divje Babe cave near
Cerkno Cerkno (; it, Circhina; ger, Kirchheim) is a small town in the Littoral region of Slovenia. It has around 2,000 inhabitants and is the administrative centre of the Cerkno Hills. It is the seat of the Municipality of Cerkno. Cerkno is a small but i ...
, is considered a kind of flute, and possibly the oldest musical instrument discovered in the world. In the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the
Cro-Magnon Early European modern humans (EEMH) or Cro-Magnons were the first early modern humans (''Homo sapiens'') to settle in Europe, continuously occupying the continent possibly from as early as 48,000 years ago. They interacted and interbred with the ...

Cro-Magnon
, such as pierced bones, bone points, and a needle were found by archaeologist
Srečko Brodar Entrance to Potok Cave, a cave in the Eastern Karawanks, where the remains of a human residence dated to the Aurignacian (40,000 to 30,000 Before Present, BP) were found by Srečko Brodar in the 1920s and 1930s. This marks the beginning of P ...
in Potok Cave. In 2002, remains of pile dwellings over 4,500 years old were discovered in the
Ljubljana Marshes The Ljubljana Marshes ( sl, Ljubljansko barje), located south of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, is the largest marsh in the country. It covers or 0.8% of the Slovene territory. It is administered by the municipalities of Borovnica, Brezovica, L ...
, now protected as a
UNESCO World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world. It shows that wooden wheels appeared almost simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe. In the transition period between the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron s ...
to the
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humanity. It was preceded by the Bronze Age and the Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Chalcolithic). The concept has been mostly app ...
, the
Urnfield The Urnfield culture ( 1300 BC – 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age culture of Central Europe, often divided into several local cultures within a broader Urnfield tradition. The name comes from the custom of cremating the dead and pla ...
culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the
Hallstatt period The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Late Bronze Age (Hallstatt A, Hallstatt B) from the 12th to 8th centuries BC and Early Iron Age Europe (Hallstatt C, Hallstatt D) from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, ...
have been found, particularly in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situlas in
Novo Mesto Novo Mesto (; sl, Novo mesto; also known by other alternative names) is a city on a bend of the Krka River in the City Municipality of Novo Mesto in southeastern Slovenia, close to the border with Croatia. The town is traditionally considered the ...
, the "Town of Situlas". In the
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humanity. It was preceded by the Bronze Age and the Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Chalcolithic). The concept has been mostly app ...
, present-day Slovenia was inhabited by Illyrian and
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts, an ethnolinguistic group of tribal societies in Iron Age and Medieval Europe *Celts (modern), a modern cultural creation based on the older Celtic peoples *Celtic lang ...

Celtic
tribes until the 1st century BC.


Roman era

The area that is present-day Slovenia was in Roman times shared between ''Venetia et Histria'' (region X of Roman Italia in the classification of
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate (the first phase of the Roman Empire) has consolidated ...

Augustus
) and the provinces
Pannonia Pannonia (, ) was a province of the Roman Empire bounded on the north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. Pannonia was located in the territory of present-day we ...
and
Noricum Noricum () is the Latin name for the Celtic kingdom or federation of tribes that included most of modern Austria and part of Slovenia. In the first century AD, it became a province of the Roman Empire. Its borders were the Danube to the north, ' ...
. The Romans established posts at
Emona Emona ( grc, Ἤμονα) or Aemona (short for ) was a Roman castrum, located in the area where the navigable Ljubljanica river came closest to Castle Hill,
(Ljubljana), Poetovio (Ptuj), and
Celeia ) , pushpin_map = Slovenia , pushpin_label_position = left , pushpin_map_caption = Location of the city of Celje in Slovenia , coordinates = , subdivision_type = Country , ...
(Celje); and constructed trade and military roads that ran across Slovene territory from Italy to Pannonia. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the area was subject to invasions by the
Huns The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area that was part o ...
and Germanic tribes during their incursions into Italy. A part of the inner state was protected with a defensive line of towers and walls called ''
Claustra Alpium Iuliarum (Latin for 'Barrier of the Julian Alps'; hereby, the term Julian Alps refers to the wider mountainous and hilly region from the Julian Alps to the Kvarner Gulf) was a defense system within the Roman Empire between Italia and Pannonia that protec ...

Claustra Alpium Iuliarum
''. A crucial battle between
Theodosius I Theodosius I ( grc-gre, Θεοδόσιος; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also called Theodosius the Great, was Roman emperor from 379 to 395. He is best known for making Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire and great ...
and
Eugenius Flavius Eugenius (died 6 September 394) was a usurper in the western Roman Empire (392–394) against Emperor Theodosius I. He was the last Emperor to support Roman polytheism. Life A former teacher of grammar and rhetoric, as well as ''magiste ...
took place in the
Vipava Valley The Vipava Valley (; sl, Vipavska dolina, german: Wippachtal, it, Valle del Vipacco) is a valley in the Slovenian Littoral, roughly between the village of Podnanos to the east and the border with Italy to the west. The main towns are Ajdovščina a ...
in 394.


Slavic settlement

The Slavic tribes migrated to the Alpine area after the westward departure of the
Lombards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774. The medieval Lombard historian Paul the Deacon wrote in the ''History of the Lombards'' (written between 787 and 79 ...
(the last Germanic tribe) in 568, and under pressure from Avars established a Slavic settlement in the Eastern Alps. From 623 to 624 or possibly 626 onwards, King Samo united the Alpine and Western Slavs against the Avars and Germanic peoples and established what is referred to as Samo's Kingdom. After its disintegration following Samo's death in 658 or 659, the ancestors of the
Slovenes The Slovenes, also known as Slovenians ( sl, Slovenci ), are a South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia, and also to Italy, Austria and Hungary in addition to having a diaspora throughout the world. Slovenes share a common ancestry, culture, ...
located in present-day
Carinthia Carinthia (german: Kärnten ; sl, Koroška ) is the southernmost Austrian state or ''Land''. Situated within the Eastern Alps, it is noted for its mountains and lakes. The main language is German. Its regional dialects belong to the Southern Ba ...
formed the independent duchy of Carantania, and
Carniola Carniola (Slovene and hr, Kranjska; german: Krain; it, Carniola; hu, Krajna) is a historical region that comprised parts of present-day Slovenia. Although as a whole it does not exist anymore, Slovenes living within the former borders of the regi ...
, later duchy Carniola. Other parts of present-day Slovenia were again ruled by Avars before
Charlemagne Charlemagne (; ) or Charles the Great or ''Carolus'', whence in English or in German (for this individual, specifically ''Karl der Große''). The French form and the Italian or () come from his nickname ("Charles the Great")., ''Karil' ...

Charlemagne
's victory over them in 803.


Middle Ages

The
Carantanians Carantanians ( la, Quarantani, sl, Karantanci) were a Slavic people of the Early Middle Ages (Latin: , or "Slavs called Caranthanians"), living in the principality of Carantania, later known as Carinthia, which covered present-day southern Austria a ...
, one of the ancestral groups of the modern Slovenes, particularly the
Carinthian Slovenes Carinthian Slovenes or Carinthian Slovenians ( sl, Koroški Slovenci; german: Kärntner Slowenen) are the indigenous minority of Slovene ethnicity, living within borders of the Austrian state of Carinthia, neighboring Slovenia. Their status of the m ...
, were the first Slavic people to accept Christianity. They were mostly Christianized by Irish missionaries, among them
ModestusModestus may refer to: * Sts. Vitus, Modestus, and Crescentia for Saint Modestus, legendary educator of St. Vitus, martyr under Diocletian (c. 304) * Modestus (Apostle of Carantania) (720s–8th-century), early Christian writer mentioned by Eusebius ...
, known as the "Apostle of Carantanians". This process, together with the Christianization of the
Bavarians Bavarians (Bavarian: ''Boarn'', Standard German: ''Bayern'') are an ethnographic group of Germans of the Bavaria region, a state within Germany. The group's dialect or speech is known as the Bavarian language, native to Altbayern ("Old Bavaria ...
, was later described in the memorandum known as the
Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum The ''Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum'' ("The Conversion of the Bavarians and the Carantanians") is a Latin history written in Salzburg in the 870s. It describes the life and career of Salzburg's founding saint Rupert (d. 710), notably his mis ...
, which is thought to have overemphasized the role of the Church of Salzburg in the Christianization process over similar efforts of the Patriarchate of
Aquileia Aquileia ( , , ; fur, Olee / / / / ;Bilingual name of ''Aquileja – Oglej'' in: vec, Aquiłeja / ) is an ancient Roman city in Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Nat ...
. In the mid-8th century, Carantania became a vassal duchy under the rule of the
Bavaria Bavaria (; German and Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat Bayern''; ), is a landlocked state (''Land'') in the south-east of Germany. With an area of , Bavaria is the largest German state ...
ns, who began spreading Christianity. Three decades later, the
Carantanians Carantanians ( la, Quarantani, sl, Karantanci) were a Slavic people of the Early Middle Ages (Latin: , or "Slavs called Caranthanians"), living in the principality of Carantania, later known as Carinthia, which covered present-day southern Austria a ...
were incorporated, together with the Bavarians, into the
Carolingian Empire The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large Frankish-dominated empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages. It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, which had ruled as kings of the Franks since 751 and as kings of the Lom ...
. During the same period
Carniola Carniola (Slovene and hr, Kranjska; german: Krain; it, Carniola; hu, Krajna) is a historical region that comprised parts of present-day Slovenia. Although as a whole it does not exist anymore, Slovenes living within the former borders of the regi ...
, too, came under the Franks, and was Christianised from
Aquileia Aquileia ( , , ; fur, Olee / / / / ;Bilingual name of ''Aquileja – Oglej'' in: vec, Aquiłeja / ) is an ancient Roman city in Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Nat ...
. Following the anti-Frankish rebellion of Liudewit at the beginning of the 9th century, the
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the Lower Rhine and the Ems River, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Later the term was a ...
removed the Carantanian princes, replacing them with their own border dukes. Consequently, the Frankish
feudal system Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was a combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society aroun ...
reached the Slovene territory. After the victory of Emperor
Otto I Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (german: Otto der Große, it, Ottone il Grande), was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973. He was the oldest son of Henry I the F ...
over the
Magyars Hungarians, also known as Magyars ( hu, magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary ( hu, Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common ancestry, culture, history and language. Hungarian belongs to the Uralic lan ...
in 955, Slovene territory was divided into a number of border regions of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 180 ...
. Carantania, being the most important, was elevated into the
Duchy of Carinthia The Duchy of Carinthia (german: Herzogtum Kärnten; sl, Vojvodina Koroška) was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. It was separated from the Duchy of Bavaria in 976, and was the first newly created Imperial State af ...

Duchy of Carinthia
in 976. By the 11th century, the Germanization of what is now
Lower Austria Lower Austria (german: Niederösterreich; Austro-Bavarian: ''Niedaöstareich'', ''Niedaestareich'') is one of the nine states of Austria, located in the northeastern corner of the country. Since 1986, the capital of Lower Austria has been Sankt Pö ...
, effectively isolated the Slovene-inhabited territory from the other
western Slavs The West Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the West Slavic languages. They separated from the common Slavic group around the 7th century, and established independent polities in Central Europe by the 8th to 9th centuries. The West ...
, speeding up the development of the Slavs of Carantania and of
Carniola Carniola (Slovene and hr, Kranjska; german: Krain; it, Carniola; hu, Krajna) is a historical region that comprised parts of present-day Slovenia. Although as a whole it does not exist anymore, Slovenes living within the former borders of the regi ...
into an independent Carantanian/Carniolans/Slovene ethnic group. By the late Middle Ages, the historic provinces of Carniola,
Styria Styria (german: Steiermark ; Croatian and sl, ; hu, Stájerország, Austro-Bavarian: ''Steiamoak'') is a state (''Bundesland'') in the southeast of Austria. With an area of , Styria is geographically the second largest state of Austria, after ...
,
Carinthia Carinthia (german: Kärnten ; sl, Koroška ) is the southernmost Austrian state or ''Land''. Situated within the Eastern Alps, it is noted for its mountains and lakes. The main language is German. Its regional dialects belong to the Southern Ba ...
,
Gorizia Gorizia (; sl, Gorica , colloquially 'old Gorizia' to distinguish it from Nova Gorica; german: Görz, ; fur, label=Standard Friulian, Gurize, fur, label=Southeastern Friulian, Guriza; vec, label=Bisiacco, Gorisia, English (obsolete) "Goritz"), is a ...
,
Trieste Trieste ( , ; sl, Trst ; german: Triest, ) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy. It is towards the end of a narrow strip of Italian territory lying between the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia, approximately south and east of the city. Croatia ...
, and
Istria Istria ( ; Croatian, Slovene: ''Istra''; Istriot: ''Eîstria''; ruo, Istrie, it, Istria; german: Istrien, ), formerly ''Histria'' (Latin), ''Ίστρια'' (Ancient Greek), is the largest peninsula within the Adriatic Sea. The peninsula is locat ...

Istria
developed from the border regions and were incorporated into the medieval German state. The consolidation and formation of these historical lands took place in a long period between the 11th and 14th centuries, and were led by a number of important feudal families, such as the Dukes of Spannheim, the
Counts of Gorizia The County of Gorizia ( it, Contea di Gorizia, german: Grafschaft Görz, sl, Goriška grofija, fur, Contee di Gurize), from 1365 Princely County of Gorizia, was a State of the Holy Roman Empire. Originally mediate ''Vogts'' of the Patriarchs of Aqui ...
, the
Counts of Celje The Counts of Celje ( sl, Celjski grofje) or the Counts of Cilli (german: Grafen von Cilli; hu, cillei grófok) were the most influential late medieval noble dynasty on the territory of present-day Slovenia. Risen as vassals of the Habsburg dukes of ...
, and, finally, the
House of Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Haus Habsburg, es, Casa de Habsburgo, hu, Habsburg-család), also House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich, es, link=no, Casa de Austria), was one of the most ...
. In a parallel process, an intensive German colonization significantly diminished the extent of Slovene-speaking areas. By the 15th century, the Slovene ethnic territory was reduced to its present size. In the 14th century, most of the territory of present-day Slovenia was taken over by the
Habsburgs The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Haus Habsburg, es, Casa de Habsburgo, hu, Habsburg-család), also House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich, es, link=no, Casa de Austria), was one of the most ...
. The
counts of Celje The Counts of Celje ( sl, Celjski grofje) or the Counts of Cilli (german: Grafen von Cilli; hu, cillei grófok) were the most influential late medieval noble dynasty on the territory of present-day Slovenia. Risen as vassals of the Habsburg dukes of ...
, a feudal family from this area who in 1436 acquired the title of state princes, were
Habsburgs The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Haus Habsburg, es, Casa de Habsburgo, hu, Habsburg-család), also House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich, es, link=no, Casa de Austria), was one of the most ...
' powerful competitors for some time. This large dynasty, important at a European political level, had its seat in Slovene territory but died out in 1456. Its numerous large estates subsequently became the property of the Habsburgs, who retained control of the area right up until the beginning of the 20th century.
Patria del Friuli The Patria del Friuli ( la, Patria Fori Iulii, fur, Patrie dal Friûl) was the territory under the temporal rule of the Patriarch of Aquileia and one of the ecclesiastical states of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1420, the Republic of Venice acquired it, ...
ruled present western Slovenia until Venetian takeover in 1420. At the end of the Middle Ages, the
Slovene Lands The Slovene lands or Slovenian lands ( sl, Slovenske dežele or in short ) is the historical denomination for the territories in Central and Southern Europe where people primarily spoke Slovene. The Slovene lands were part of the Illyrian provinces, ...
suffered a serious economic and demographic setback because of the Turkish raids. In 1515, a
peasant revolt This is a chronological list of conflicts in which peasants played a significant role. Background History of peasant wars spans over a period of over two thousand years. A variety of reasons fueled the emergence of the peasant revolt phenomenon, ...
spread across nearly the whole Slovene territory. In 1572 and 1573 the Croatian-Slovenian peasant revolt wrought havoc throughout the wider region. Such uprisings, which often met with bloody defeats, continued throughout the 17th century.


Early modern period

After the dissolution of the Republic of Venice in 1797, the Venetian Slovenia was passed to the Austrian Empire. The
Slovene Lands The Slovene lands or Slovenian lands ( sl, Slovenske dežele or in short ) is the historical denomination for the territories in Central and Southern Europe where people primarily spoke Slovene. The Slovene lands were part of the Illyrian provinces, ...
were part of the French-administered
Illyrian provinces The Illyrian Provinces sl, Ilirske province hr, Ilirske provincije it, Province illirichegerman: Illyrische Provinzen, group=note were an autonomous province of France during the First French Empire that existed under Napoleonic Rule from 1809 to 181 ...
established by Napoleon, the
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most ...
and
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy and great power in Central Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and was dis ...

Austria-Hungary
. Slovenes inhabited most of
Carniola Carniola (Slovene and hr, Kranjska; german: Krain; it, Carniola; hu, Krajna) is a historical region that comprised parts of present-day Slovenia. Although as a whole it does not exist anymore, Slovenes living within the former borders of the regi ...
, the southern part of the duchies of
Carinthia Carinthia (german: Kärnten ; sl, Koroška ) is the southernmost Austrian state or ''Land''. Situated within the Eastern Alps, it is noted for its mountains and lakes. The main language is German. Its regional dialects belong to the Southern Ba ...

Carinthia
and
Styria Styria (german: Steiermark ; Croatian and sl, ; hu, Stájerország, Austro-Bavarian: ''Steiamoak'') is a state (''Bundesland'') in the southeast of Austria. With an area of , Styria is geographically the second largest state of Austria, after ...
, the northern and eastern areas of the
Austrian Littoral The Austrian Littoral (german: Österreichisches Küstenland, it, Litorale Austriaco, hr, Austrijsko primorje, sl, Avstrijsko primorje, hu, Osztrák Partvidék) was a crown land (''Kronland'') of the Austrian Empire, established in 1849. It consis ...
, as well as
Prekmurje Prekmurje (; dialectically: ''Prèkmürsko'' or ''Prèkmüre''; hu, Muravidék) is a geographically, linguistically, culturally and ethnically defined region of Slovenia, settled by Slovenes and a Hungarian minority, lying between the Mur River in ...
in the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation of th ...
. Industrialization was accompanied by construction of railroads to link cities and markets, but the urbanization was limited. Due to limited opportunities, between 1880 and 1910 there was extensive emigration, and around 300,000 Slovenes (i.e. 1 in 6) emigrated to other countries, mostly to the
US The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, 326 India ...
, but also to
South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It can also be described as a southern subcontinent of the Americas. The ref ...
(the main part to
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by ...
), Germany,
Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean count ...
, and to larger cities in Austria-Hungary, especially
Vienna en, Viennese , iso_code = AT-9 , registration_plate = W , postal_code_type = Postal code , postal_code = , timezone = CET , utc_offset ...
and
Graz Graz ( , ; sl, Gradec) is the capital city of the Austrian state of Styria and second-largest city in Austria after Vienna. As of 1 January 2019, it had a population of 328,276 (292,269 of whom had principal-residence status). In 2015, the popula ...
. The area of the United States with the highest concentration of Slovenian immigrants is
Cleveland Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County. It is located along the southern shore of Lake Erie, across the U.S. maritime border with Canada and approximate ...

Cleveland
,
Ohio Ohio is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th-largest by area, and with a population of nearly 11.7 million, is the seventh-most populous and tenth-most densely populated. The state's capit ...
. The other locations in the United States where many Slovenians settled were areas with substantial industrial and mining activities:
Pittsburgh Pittsburgh ( ) is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States and the county seat of Allegheny County. An estimated population of about 300,286 residents live within the city limits as of 2019, making it the 66th-largest city in th ...
,
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive maps of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivisio ...

Chicago
,
Pueblo In the Southwestern United States, Pueblo (capitalized) refers to the Native tribes of Puebloans having fixed-location communities with permanent buildings. The Spanish explorers of northern New Spain used the term ''pueblo'' to refer to permanen ...
,
Butte __NOTOC__ In geomorphology, a butte () is an isolated hill with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top; buttes are smaller landforms than mesas, plateaus, and tablelands. The word ''butte'' comes from a French word meaning ...
, northern
Minnesota Minnesota () is a state in the north central region of the United States. It is known as the "Land of 10,000 Lakes". Its official motto is , French for "The Star of the North". Of the U.S. states, Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the ...
, and the
Salt Lake Valley 400px, Greatest vertical relief in the valley. Twin Peaks has a rise of 7099 ft or 2164 m from the valley floor. Salt Lake Valley is a valley in Salt Lake County in the north-central portion of the U.S. state of Utah. It contains Salt Lake City a ...
. The men were important as workers in the mining industry, because of some of the skills they brought from Slovenia. Despite this emigration, the population of Slovenia increased significantly. Literacy was exceptionally high, at 80–90%. The 19th century also saw a revival of culture in the
Slovene language Slovene ( or ), or alternatively Slovenian (; ''slovenski jezik'' or ''slovenščina''), is a South Slavic language spoken by the Slovenes. It is spoken by about 2.5 million speakers worldwide, the majority of whom live in Slovenia, where it is ...
, accompanied by a
Romantic nationalist upright=1.15, Brudeferden i Hardanger (Bridal procession in Hardanger), a monumental piece within Norwegian romantic nationalism. Painted by Hans Gude">Norwegian romantic nationalism">Hardanger (Bridal procession in Hardanger), a monumental pie ...
quest for cultural and political autonomy. The idea of a
United Slovenia United Slovenia ( sl, Zedinjena Slovenija or ) is the name of an unrealized political programme of the Slovene national movement, formulated during the Spring of Nations in 1848. The programme demanded (a) unification of all the Slovene-inhabited a ...
, first advanced during the
revolutions of 1848 The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history. ...
, became the common platform of most Slovenian parties and political movements in Austria-Hungary. During the same period,
Yugoslavism Yugoslavism ( sh, јugoslavizam, југославизам; sl, јugoslavizem) or Yugoslavdom ( sh, јugoslovenstvo, југословенство; sl, јugoslovanstvo) is the unionism, nationalism, or patriotism associated with South Slavs/Yugoslavs ...
, an ideology stressing the unity of all
South Slavic peoples The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages. They inhabit a contiguous region in the Balkan Peninsula and the eastern Alps, and in the modern era are geographically separated from the body of West Slavic a ...
, spread as a reaction to Pan-German nationalism and
Italian irredentism , Ticino and Dalmatia; in red: Malta; in violet: Corsica) Italian irredentism ( it, irredentismo italiano) was a Nationalism, nationalist movement during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Italy with irredentist goals which promoted ...
.


World War I

World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "the war to end all wars", i ...
brought heavy casualties to Slovenes, particularly the twelve
Battles of the Isonzo 220px, The plain at the confluence of the Vipava rivers around Gorizia">Vipava (river)">Vipava rivers around Gorizia is the main passage from Northern Italy to Central Europe. The Battles of the Isonzo (known as the Isonzo Front by historia ...
, which took place in present-day Slovenia's western border area with Italy. Hundreds of thousands of Slovene conscripts were drafted into the
Austro-Hungarian Army The Austro-Hungarian Army (german: Landstreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns; hu, Császári és Királyi Hadsereg) was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. It was composed of three parts: the joint army (', "Comm ...
, and over 30,000 of them died. Hundreds of thousands of Slovenes from
Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca The Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca (german: Gefürstete Grafschaft Görz und Gradisca; it, Principesca Contea di Gorizia e Gradisca; sl, Poknežena grofija Goriška in Gradiščanska), historically sometimes shortened to and spelled "Gori ...
were resettled in
refugee camp , Palestinian refugee camp in North Lebanon in 2005., development town, development camp for Jewish refugees, southern Israel, 1957 A refugee camp is a temporary Human settlement, settlement built to receive refugees and people in refugee-like situ ...

refugee camp
s in Italy and Austria. While the refugees in Austria received decent treatment, the Slovene refugees in Italian camps were treated as state enemies, and several thousand died of malnutrition and diseases between 1915 and 1918. Entire areas of the Slovene Littoral were destroyed. The
Treaty of RapalloFollowing World War I there were two Treaties of Rapallo, both named after Rapallo, a resort on the Ligurian coast of Italy: * Treaty of Rapallo, 1920, an agreement between Italy and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (the later Yugoslavi ...
of 1920 left approximately 327,000 out of the total population of 1.3 million Slovenes in Italy.Lipušček, U. (2012) ''Sacro egoismo: Slovenci v krempljih tajnega londonskega pakta 1915'', Cankarjeva založba, Ljubljana. Cresciani, Gianfranco (2004
Clash of civilisations
Italian Historical Society Journal, Vol. 12, No. 2, p. 4
After the in Italy, they were subjected to a policy of violent Fascist
Italianization Italianization ( it, Italianizzazione; hr, talijanizacija; french: italianisation; sl, poitaljančevanje; german: Italianisierung; el, Ιταλοποίηση) is the spread of Italian culture, language and identity by way of integration or assimila ...
. This caused the mass emigration of Slovenes, especially the middle class, from the
Slovene Littoral The Slovene Littoral ( sl, Primorska, ; it, Litorale; german: Küstenland) is one of the five traditional regions of Slovenia. Its name recalls the former Austrian Littoral (''Avstrijsko Primorje''), the Habsburg possessions on the upper Adriatic c ...
and
Trieste Trieste ( , ; sl, Trst ; german: Triest, ) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy. It is towards the end of a narrow strip of Italian territory lying between the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia, approximately south and east of the city. Croatia ...
to
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (; sh, Jugoslavija / ; sl, Jugoslavija ; mk, Југославија ;; rup, Iugoslavia; hu, Jugoszlávia; Pannonian Rusyn: , transcr. ; sk, Juhoslávia; ro, Iugoslavia; cs, Jugoslávie; it, Iugoslavia ; tr, Yugoslavya; bg, Юго ...
and South America. Those who remained organized several connected networks of both passive and armed resistance. The best known was the militant anti-fascist organization
TIGR Tigr may refer to: * TIGR, an anti-Fascist insurgent organization, active in the 1920–30s in the regions Italy was given by the Treaty of Rappallo after the First World War * GAZ Tigr, a Russian high-mobility multipurpose military vehicle * The I ...

TIGR
, formed in 1927 to fight Fascist oppression of the Slovene and Croat populations in the
Julian March Venezia Giulia, traditionally called Julian March (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: ''Julijska krajina'') or Julian Venetia ( it, Venezia Giulia; vec, Venesia Julia; fur, Vignesie Julie; german: Julisch Venetien) is an area of southeastern Europe which is ...
.Mira Cencič, ''TIGR'' (Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, 1997)Tatjana Rejec, ''Pričevanja o TIGR-u'' (Ljubljana: Slovene Society, 1995)


Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia)

The
Slovene People's Party The Slovenian People's Party ( sl, Slovenska ljudska stranka, , Slovene abbreviation SLS ) is a conservative, agrarian, Christian-democratic political party in Slovenia. Formed in 1988 under the name of Slovenian Peasant Union as the first democrati ...
launched a movement for self-determination, demanding the creation of a semi-independent South Slavic state under
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Haus Habsburg, es, Casa de Habsburgo, hu, Habsburg-család), also House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich, es, link=no, Casa de Austria), was one of the most ...
rule. The proposal was picked up by most Slovene parties, and a mass mobilization of Slovene civil society, known as the Declaration Movement, followed. This demand was rejected by the Austrian political elites; but following the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the aftermath of the
First World War World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "the war to end all wars", i ...
, the
National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs ( sh, Država Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba / ; sl, Država Slovencev, Hrvatov in Srbov) was a political entity that was constituted in October 1918, at the end of World War I, by Slovenes, Croats and Serbs resid ...
took power in
Zagreb Zagreb ( , , ; ) is the capital and largest city of Croatia. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately above sea level. The esti ...
on 6 October 1918. On 29 October, independence was declared by a national gathering in Ljubljana, and by the Croatian parliament, declaring the establishment of the new State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs. On 1 December 1918, the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs merged with Serbia, becoming part of the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes; in 1929 it was renamed the
Kingdom of Yugoslavia The Kingdom of Yugoslavia ( sh, Kraljevina Jugoslavija / Краљевина Југославија; sl, Kraljevina Jugoslavija) was a state in Southeast and Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1941. From 1918 to 1929, it was officially c ...
. The main territory of Slovenia, being the most industrialized and westernized compared to other less developed parts of Yugoslavia, became the main center of industrial production: Compared to Serbia, for example, Slovenian industrial production was four times greater; and it was 22 times greater than in North Macedonia. The interwar period brought further industrialization in Slovenia, with rapid economic growth in the 1920s, followed by a relatively successful economic adjustment to the 1929 economic crisis and Great Depression. Following a Carinthian Plebiscite, plebiscite in October 1920, the Slovene-speaking southern
Carinthia Carinthia (german: Kärnten ; sl, Koroška ) is the southernmost Austrian state or ''Land''. Situated within the Eastern Alps, it is noted for its mountains and lakes. The main language is German. Its regional dialects belong to the Southern Ba ...
was ceded to
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine federated states (''Bund ...
. With the Treaty of Trianon, on the other hand, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was awarded the Slovene-inhabited
Prekmurje Prekmurje (; dialectically: ''Prèkmürsko'' or ''Prèkmüre''; hu, Muravidék) is a geographically, linguistically, culturally and ethnically defined region of Slovenia, settled by Slovenes and a Hungarian minority, lying between the Mur River in ...
region, formerly part of Austro-Hungary. Slovenes living in territories that fell under the rule of the neighboring states—Italy, Austria, and Hungary—were subjected to Cultural assimilation, assimilation.


World War II

Slovenia was the only present-day European nation that was trisected and completely annexed into both Nazi Germany and Fascist
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a continental part, delimited by the Alps, a peninsula and several islands surrounding it. Italy is located in Southern Europ ...
during World War II.Gregor Joseph Kranjc (2013
To Walk with the Devil
University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, p. introduction 5
In addition, the
Prekmurje Prekmurje (; dialectically: ''Prèkmürsko'' or ''Prèkmüre''; hu, Muravidék) is a geographically, linguistically, culturally and ethnically defined region of Slovenia, settled by Slovenes and a Hungarian minority, lying between the Mur River in ...
region in the east was annexed to Hungary, and some villages in the Lower Sava Valley were incorporated in the newly created Nazi puppet Independent State of Croatia (NDH). Axis forces Invasion of Yugoslavia, invaded Yugoslavia in April 1941 and defeated the country in a few weeks. The southern part, including Ljubljana, was annexed to Italy, while the Nazis took over the northern and eastern parts of the country. The Nazis had a plan of ethnic cleansing of these areas,Haar, I., Fahlbusch, M. (2006)
German Scholars and Ethnic Cleansing, 1919–1945
Berghahn Books, , p. 115
and they resettled or expelled the local Slovene civilian population to the puppet states of Nedić's Serbia (7,500) and NDH (10,000). In addition, some 46,000 Slovenes were expelled to Germany, including children who were separated from their parents and allocated to German families.Lukšič-Hacin, M., Mlekuž J. (2009)
Go Girls!: When Slovenian Women Left Home
Založba ZRC SAZU, , p. 55
At the same time, the ethnic Germans in the Gottschee enclave in the Italian annexation zone were resettled to the Nazi-controlled areas cleansed of their Slovene population.Lumans, V.O. (1993
Himmler's Auxiliaries: The Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle and the German National Minorities of Europe, 1933–1945
Univ of North Carolina Press, , p. 175
Around 30,000 to 40,000 Slovene men were drafted to the Wehrmacht, German Army and sent to the Eastern front. The Slovene language was banned from education, and its use in public life was limited to the absolute minimum. In south-central Slovenia, annexed by Fascist Italy and renamed the Province of Ljubljana, the Liberation Front of the Slovene Nation, Slovenian National Liberation Front was organized in April 1941. Led by the Communist Party, it formed the Slovene Partisans, Slovene Partisan units as part of the Yugoslav Partisans led by the Communist leader Josip Broz Tito.Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones, Jeffreys-Jones, R. (2013)
In Spies We Trust: The Story of Western Intelligence
Oxford University Press,
Adams, Simon (2005)
The Balkans
Black Rabbit Books,
After the resistance started in summer 1941, Italian violence against the Slovene civilian population escalated, as well. The Italian authorities deported some 25,000 people to the Italian concentration camps, concentration camps, which equaled 7.5% of the population of their occupation zone. The most infamous ones were Rab concentration camp, Rab and Gonars concentration camp, Gonars. To counter the Communist-led insurgence, the Italians sponsored local anti-guerrilla units, formed mostly by the local conservative Catholic Slovene population that resented the revolutionary violence of the partisans. After the Italian armistice of September 1943, the Germans took over both the Province of Ljubljana and the Slovenian Littoral, incorporating them into what was known as the Operation Zone of Adriatic Coastal Region. They united the Slovene anti-Communist counter-insurgence into the Slovene Home Guard and appointed a puppet regime in the Province of Ljubljana. The anti-Nazi resistance however expanded, creating its own administrative structures as the basis for Slovene statehood within a new, federal and socialist Yugoslavia. In 1945,
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (; sh, Jugoslavija / ; sl, Jugoslavija ; mk, Југославија ;; rup, Iugoslavia; hu, Jugoszlávia; Pannonian Rusyn: , transcr. ; sk, Juhoslávia; ro, Iugoslavia; cs, Jugoslávie; it, Iugoslavia ; tr, Yugoslavya; bg, Юго ...
was liberated by the partisan resistance and soon became a socialist federation known as the People's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Slovenia joined the federation as a constituent republic, led by its own pro-Communist leadership. Approximately 8% of the entire Slovene population died during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—forming two opposing milit ...
. The small Jews, Jewish community, mostly settled in the
Prekmurje Prekmurje (; dialectically: ''Prèkmürsko'' or ''Prèkmüre''; hu, Muravidék) is a geographically, linguistically, culturally and ethnically defined region of Slovenia, settled by Slovenes and a Hungarian minority, lying between the Mur River in ...
region, perished in 1944 in the Holocaust in Hungary, holocaust of Hungarian Jews. The German speaking minority, amounting to 2.5% of the Slovenian population prior to World War II, WWII, was either expelled or killed in the aftermath of the war. Hundreds of Istrian Italians and Slovenes that opposed communism were killed in the Foibe killings, foibe massacres, and more than 25,000 fled or were expelled from Slovenian Istria in the aftermath of the war. Around 130 000 persons, mostly political and military opponents, were executed after the end of the Second World War in May and June 1945.


Socialist period

Following the re-establishment of Yugoslavia during World War II, Slovenia became part of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Yugoslavia. A socialist state was established, but because of the Tito–Stalin split in 1948, economic and personal freedoms were broader than in the
Eastern Bloc#REDIRECT Eastern Bloc#REDIRECT Eastern Bloc {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...

Eastern Bloc countries. In 1947, the
Slovene Littoral The Slovene Littoral ( sl, Primorska, ; it, Litorale; german: Küstenland) is one of the five traditional regions of Slovenia. Its name recalls the former Austrian Littoral (''Avstrijsko Primorje''), the Habsburg possessions on the upper Adriatic c ...
and the western half of Inner Carniola, which had been annexed by Italy after World War One, were annexed to Slovenia. After the failure of Collective farming, forced collectivisation that was attempted from 1949 to 1953, a policy of gradual economic liberalisation, known as Workers' self-management, workers self-management, was introduced under the advice and supervision of the Slovene Marxist theoretician and Communist leader Edvard Kardelj, the main ideologue of the Titoism, Titoist path to socialism. Suspected opponents of this policy both from within and outside the Communist party were persecuted and thousands were sent to Goli otok. The late 1950s saw a policy of liberalisation in the cultural sphere as well, and limited border crossing into neighboring Italy and Austria was allowed again. Until the 1980s, Socialist Republic of Slovenia, Slovenia enjoyed relatively broad autonomy within the federation. In 1956, Josip Broz Tito, together with other leaders, founded the
Non-Aligned Movement The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a forum of 120 developing world states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. After the United Nations, it is the largest grouping of states worldwide. Drawing on the principles agre ...
. Particularly in the 1950s, Slovenia's economy developed rapidly and was strongly industrialised. With further economic decentralisation of Yugoslavia in 1965–66, Slovenia's Gross domestic product, domestic product was 2.5 times the average of Yugoslav republics. Opposition to the regime was mostly limited to intellectual and literary circles, and became especially vocal after Tito's death in 1980, when the economic and political situation in Yugoslavia became very strained. Political disputes around economic measures were echoed in the public sentiment, as many Slovenians felt they were being economically exploited, having to sustain an expensive and inefficient federal administration.


Slovenian Spring, democracy and independence

In 1987 a group of intellectuals demanded Slovene independence in the Contributions for the Slovenian National Program, 57th edition of the magazine ''Nova revija (magazine), Nova revija''. Demands for democratisation and more Slovenian independence were sparked off. A mass democratic movement, coordinated by the Committee for the Defence of Human Rights, pushed the Communists in the direction of democratic reforms. In September 1989, numerous constitutional amendments were passed to introduce parliamentary democracy to Slovenia. On 7 March 1990, the Slovenian Assembly changed the official name of the state to the "Republic of Slovenia". In April 1990, the first democratic election in Slovenia took place, and the united opposition movement Democratic Opposition of Slovenia, DEMOS led by Jože Pučnik emerged victorious. The initial revolutionary events in Slovenia pre-dated the Revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe by almost a year, but went largely unnoticed by international observers. On 23 December 1990, more than 88% of the electorate voted for a sovereign and independent Slovenia. On 25 June 1991, Slovenia became independent through the passage of appropriate legal documents. On 27 June in the early morning, the Yugoslav People's Army dispatched its forces to prevent further measures for the establishment of a new country, which led to the Ten-Day War. On 7 July, the Brijuni Agreement was signed, implementing a truce and a three-month halt of the enforcement of Slovenia's independence. At the end of the month, the last soldiers of the Yugoslav Army left Slovenia. In December 1991, a new Constitution of Slovenia, constitution was adopted, followed in 1992 by the laws on privatization, denationalisation and privatization. The members of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million. The EU has developed an internal s ...
recognised Slovenia as an independent state on 15 January 1992, and the United Nations accepted it as a member on 22 May 1992. Slovenia joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. Slovenia has one Commissioner in the European Commission, and seven Slovene parliamentarians were elected to the European Parliament at elections on 13 June 2004. In 2004 Slovenia also joined
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 European and North American countries. The ...
. Slovenia subsequently succeeded in meeting the Maastricht criteria and joined the
Eurozone The eurozone, officially called the euro area, is a monetary union of 19 member states of the European Union (EU) that have adopted the euro (€) as their primary currency and sole legal tender. The monetary authority of the eurozone is the Eur ...

Eurozone
(the first transition country to do so) on 1 January 2007. It was the first post-Communist country to hold the Presidency of the Council of the European Union, for the first six months of 2008. On 21 July 2010, it became a member of the OECD. The disillusionment with domestic socio-economic elites at municipal and national levels was expressed at the 2012–2013 Slovenian protests on a wider scale than in the smaller 15 October 2011 global protests#Slovenia, 15 October 2011 protests. In relation to the leading politicians' response to allegations made by the official Commission for the Prevention of Corruption of the Republic of Slovenia, legal experts expressed the need for changes in the system that would limit political arbitrariness.


Geography

Slovenia is situated in Central Europe, Central and Southeast Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean Sea. It lies between latitudes 45th parallel north, 45° and 47th parallel north, 47° N, and longitudes 13th meridian east, 13° and 17th meridian east, 17° E. The 15th meridian east almost corresponds to the middle line of the country in the direction west–east. The Geometric Centre of the Republic of Slovenia, Geometric Center of the Republic of Slovenia is located at Geographic coordinate system, coordinates 46°07'11.8" N and 14°48'55.2" E. It lies in Slivna in the Municipality of Litija. Slovenia's highest peak is Triglav (); the country's average height Above mean sea level, above sea level is . Four major European geographic regions meet in Slovenia: the Alps, the Dinaric Alps, Dinarides, the Pannonian Plain, and the Mediterranean Sea. Although on the shore of the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest a ...
near the Mediterranean Sea, most of Slovenia is in the Black Sea drainage basin. The Alps—including the
Julian Alps The Julian Alps ( sl, Julijske Alpe, it, Alpi Giulie, , ) are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps that stretch from northeastern Italy to Slovenia, where they rise to 2,864 m at Mount Triglav, the highest peak in Slovenia and of the forme ...
, the Kamnik-Savinja Alps and the Karawanks, Karawank chain, as well as the Pohorje massif—dominate Northern Slovenia along its long border with
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine federated states (''Bund ...
. Slovenia's Adriatic coastline stretches approximately from Italy to Croatia. The term "Karst topography" refers to that of southwestern Slovenia's Karst Plateau, a limestone region of underground rivers, gorges, and caves, between Ljubljana and the Mediterranean Sea. On the Pannonian plain to the East and Northeast, toward the Croatian and Hungarian borders, the landscape is essentially flat. However, most of Slovenia is hilly or mountainous, with around 90% of its land surface or more Above mean sea level, above sea level. More than half of Slovenia, which is , is forested; ranking it third in Europe, European countries by forest area, by percentage of area forested, after Finland and Sweden. The areas are covered mostly by beech, fir-beech and beech-oak forests and have a relatively high production capacity. Remnants of primeval forests are still to be found, the largest in the Kočevje area. Grassland covers and fields and gardens (). There are of orchards and of vineyards.


Geology

Slovenia is in a rather active seismic zone because of its position on the small Adriatic Plate, which is squeezed between the Eurasian Plate to the north and the African Plate to the south and rotates counter-clockwise. Thus the country is at the junction of three important Tectonics, geotectonic units: the Alps to the north, the Dinaric Alps to the south and the Pannonian Basin to the east. Scientists have been able to identify 60 destructive earthquakes in the past. Additionally, a network of seismic stations is active throughout the country. Many parts of Slovenia have a carbonate ground, and an extensive subterranean system has developed.


Natural regions

The first regionalisations of Slovenia were made by geographers Anton Melik (1935–1936) and Svetozar Ilešič (1968). The newer regionalisation by Ivan Gams divided Slovenia in the following macroregions: * the Alps (''Alpe'') * the Slovene Prealps, subalpine landscapes (''predalpski svet'') * the
Slovene Littoral The Slovene Littoral ( sl, Primorska, ; it, Litorale; german: Küstenland) is one of the five traditional regions of Slovenia. Its name recalls the former Austrian Littoral (''Avstrijsko Primorje''), the Habsburg possessions on the upper Adriatic c ...
or Submediterranean Slovenia (''Primorje'' or ''submediteranska Slovenija'') * the Dinaric Alps, Dinaric plateaus of the continental Slovenia (''dinarske planote celinske Slovenije'') * Pannonian Plain, Subpannonian Slovenia (''subpanonska Slovenija'') According to a newer natural geographic regionalisation, the country consists of four macroregions. These are the Alpine, the Mediterranean, the Dinaric, and the
Pannonia Pannonia (, ) was a province of the Roman Empire bounded on the north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. Pannonia was located in the territory of present-day we ...
n landscapes. Macroregions are defined according to major relief units (the Alps, the Pannonian plain, the Dinaric mountains) and climate types (submediterranean, temperate continental, mountain climate). These are often quite interwoven. Protected areas of Slovenia include national parks, regional parks, and nature parks, the largest of which is Triglav National Park. There are 286 Natura 2000 designated protected areas, which include 36% of the country's land area, the largest percentage among European Union states. Additionally, according to Yale University's Environmental Performance Index, Slovenia is considered a "strong performer" in environmental protection efforts.


Climate

Slovenia is located in temperate latitudes. The climate is also influenced by the variety of relief, and the influence of the Alps and the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest a ...
. In the northeast, the
continental climate Continental may refer to: Places * Continent * Continental, Arizona, a small community in Pima County, Arizona, US * Continental, Ohio, a small town in Putnam County, US Arts and entertainment * ''Continental'' (album), an album by Saint Etienne * ...
type with greatest difference between winter and summer temperatures prevails. In the coastal region, there is sub-
Mediterranean climate The coastal Mediterranean region of Costa Brava, Catalonia, Spain">Catalonia.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Costa Brava, Catalonia">Costa Brava, Catalonia, Spain A Mediterranean climate or dry summer c ...
. The effect of the sea on the temperature rates is also visible up the Soča Valley, while a severe
Alpine climate Alpine may refer to: Places * Alps, a European mountain range * Alpine states, associated with the mountain range, or relating to any lofty mountain areas * Mountainous or alpine; the mountains. Australia * Alpine, New South Wales, a Northern Vill ...
is present in the high mountain regions. There is a strong interaction between these three climatic systems across most of the country. Precipitation (meteorology), Precipitation, often coming from Gulf of Genoa, varies across the country as well, with over in some western regions and dropping down to in
Prekmurje Prekmurje (; dialectically: ''Prèkmürsko'' or ''Prèkmüre''; hu, Muravidék) is a geographically, linguistically, culturally and ethnically defined region of Slovenia, settled by Slovenes and a Hungarian minority, lying between the Mur River in ...
. Snow is quite frequent in winter and the record snow cover in Ljubljana was recorded in 1952 at . Compared to Western Europe, Slovenia is not very windy, because it lies in the slipstream of the Alps. The average wind speeds are lower than in the plains of the nearby countries. Due to the rugged terrain, local vertical winds with daily periods are present. Besides these, there are three winds of particular regional importance: the bora (wind), bora, the jugo, and the foehn wind, foehn. The jugo and the bora are characteristic of the Littoral. Whereas the jugo is humid and warm, the bora is usually cold and gusty. The foehn is typical of the Alpine regions in the north of Slovenia. Generally present in Slovenia are the northeast wind, the southeast wind and the north wind.


Waters

The territory of Slovenia mainly (, i.e. 81%) belongs to the Black Sea basin, and a smaller part (, i.e. 19%) belongs to the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest a ...
basin. These two parts are divided into smaller units in regard to their central rivers, the Mur (river), Mura River basin, the Drava River basin, the Sava River basin with Kupa, Kolpa River basin, and the basin of the Adriatic rivers. In comparison with other developed countries, water quality in Slovenia is considered to be among the highest in Europe. One of the reasons is undoubtedly that most of the rivers rise on the mountainous territory of Slovenia. But this does not mean that Slovenia has no problems with surface water and groundwater quality, especially in areas with intensive farming.


Biodiversity

Slovenia signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 13 June 1992 and became a party to the convention on 9 July 1996. It subsequently produced a Biodiversity action plan, National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which was received by the convention on 30 May 2002. Slovenia is distinguished by an exceptionally wide variety of habitats, due to the contact of geological units and biogeographical regions, and due to human influences. The country is home to four terrestrial ecoregions: Dinaric Mountains mixed forests, Pannonian mixed forests, Alps conifer and mixed forests, and Illyrian deciduous forests. Around 12.5% of the territory is protected with 35.5% in the Natura 2000 ecological network. Despite this, because of pollution and environmental degradation, diversity has been in decline. Slovenia had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 3.78/10, ranking it 140th globally out of 172 countries.


Animals

The biodiversity, biological diversity of the country is high, with 1% of the world's organisms on 0.004% of the Earth's surface area. There are 75 mammal species, among them marmots, Alpine ibex, and chamois. There are numerous deer, roe deer, boar, and hares. The edible dormouse is often found in the Slovenian beech forests. Trapping these animals is a long tradition and is a part of the Slovenian national identity. Some important carnivores include the Eurasian lynx, European wild cats, foxes (especially the red fox), and European jackal. There are hedgehogs, martens, and snakes such as Viperinae, vipers and grass snakes. According to recent estimates, Slovenia has c. 40–60 Gray wolf, wolves and about 450 brown bears. Slovenia is home to an exceptionally diverse number of cave species, with a few tens of Endemism, endemic species. Among the cave vertebrates, the only known one is the olm, living in Karst, Lower Carniola, and White Carniola. The only regular species of cetaceans found in the northern Adriatic sea is the bottlenose dolphin (''Tursiops truncatus''). There are a wide variety of birds, such as the tawny owl, the long-eared owl, the eagle owl, hawks, and short-toed eagles. Other birds of prey have been recorded, as well as a growing number of ravens, crows and magpies migrating into Ljubljana and Maribor where they thrive. Other birds include Black woodpecker, black and European green woodpecker, green woodpeckers and the white stork, which nests mainly in
Prekmurje Prekmurje (; dialectically: ''Prèkmürsko'' or ''Prèkmüre''; hu, Muravidék) is a geographically, linguistically, culturally and ethnically defined region of Slovenia, settled by Slovenes and a Hungarian minority, lying between the Mur River in ...
. There are 13 domestic animals native to Slovenia, of eight species (hen, pig, dog, horse, sheep, goat, honey bee, and cattle). Among these are the Karst Shepherd, the Carniolan honeybee, and the Lipizzan horse. They have been preserved ex situ and in situ. The marble trout or marmorata (''Salmo marmoratus'') is an indigenous Slovenian fish. Extensive breeding programmes have been introduced to repopulate the marble trout into lakes and streams invaded by non-indigenous species of trout. Slovenia is also home to the wels catfish.


Fungi

More than 2,400 fungal species have been recorded from Slovenia and, since that figure does not include lichen-forming fungi, the total number of Slovenian fungi already known is undoubtedly much higher. Many more remain to be discovered.


Plants

Slovenia is the third most-forested country in Europe, with 58.3% of the territory covered by forests. The forests are an important natural resource, and logging is kept to a minimum. In the interior of the country are typical Central European forests, predominantly oak and beech. In the mountains, spruce, fir, and pine are more common. Pine trees grow on the Karst Plateau, although only one-third of the region is covered by pine forest. The tilia, lime/linden tree, common in Slovenian forests, is a national symbol. The tree line is at . In the Alps, flowers such as ''Daphne blagayana'', gentians (''Gentiana clusii'', ''Gentiana froelichi''), ''Primula auricula'', Leontopodium alpinum, edelweiss (the symbol of Slovene mountaineering), ''Cypripedium calceolus'', ''Fritillaria meleagris'' (snake's head fritillary), and ''Pulsatilla grandis'' are found. Slovenia harbors many plants of Ethnobotany, ethnobotanically useful groups. Of 59 known species of ethnobotanical importance, some species such as ''Aconitum napellus'', ''Cannabis sativa'' and ''Taxus baccata'' are restricted for use as per the Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia.


Politics

Slovenia is a Parliamentary system, parliamentary democracy republic with a multi-party system. The head of state is the President of Slovenia, president, who is elected by popular vote and has an important integrative role. The president is elected for five years and at maximum for two consecutive terms. He or she mainly has a representative role and is the commander-in-chief of the Military of Slovenia, Slovenian armed forces. The executive and administration (business), administrative authority in Slovenia is held by the Government of Slovenia ('), headed by the Prime Minister of Slovenia, Prime Minister and the council of ministers or cabinet, who are elected by the National Assembly (Slovenia), National Assembly (). The legislative authority is held by the bicameral Parliament of Slovenia, characterised by an asymmetric duality. The bulk of power is concentrated in the National Assembly, which consists of ninety members. Of those, 88 are elected by all the citizens in a system of proportional representation, whereas two are elected by the registered members of the indigenism, autochthonous Hungarian and Italian Ethnic Minorities, minorities. Election takes place every four years. The National Council (Slovenia), National Council ('), consisting of forty members, appointed to represent social, economic, professional and local interest groups, has a limited advisory and control power. The 1992–2004 period was marked by the rule of the Liberal Democracy of Slovenia, which was responsible for gradual transition from the Titoism, Titoist economy to the capitalist market economy. It later attracted much criticism by neo-liberal economists, who demanded a less gradual approach. The party's president Janez Drnovšek, who served as prime minister between 1992 and 2002, was one of the most influential Slovenian politicians of the 1990s, alongside President Milan Kučan (who served between 1990 and 2002). The 2005–2008 period was characterized by over-enthusiasm after joining the EU. During the first term of Janez Janša's government, for the first time after independence, the Slovenian banks saw their loan-deposit ratios veering out of control. There was over-borrowing from foreign banks and then over-crediting of customers, including local business magnates. After the onset of the financial crisis of 2007–2010 and European sovereign-debt crisis, the left-wing coalition that replaced Janša's government in the 2008 elections, had to face the consequences of the 2005–2008 over-borrowing. Attempts to implement reforms that would help economic recovery were met by student protesters, led by a student who later became a member of Janez Janša's Slovenska demokratska stranka, SDS, and by the trade unions. The proposed reforms were postponed in a referendum. The left-wing government was ousted with a vote of no confidence. Janez Janša attributed the boom of spending and overborrowing to the period of left-wing government; he proposed harsh austerity reforms which he had previously helped postpone. Generally, some economists estimate that both left and right parties contributed to over-loaning and managers' takeovers; the reason behind this was that each bloc tried to establish an economic elite which would support its political forces.


Judiciary

Judicial powers in Slovenia are executed by judges, who are elected by the National Assembly. Judicial power in Slovenia is implemented by courts with general responsibilities and specialised courts that deal with matters relating to specific legal areas. The State's Attorney, State Prosecutor is an independent state authority responsible for prosecuting cases brought against those suspected of committing criminal offences. The Constitutional Court of Slovenia, Constitutional Court, composed of nine judges elected for nine-year terms, decides on the conformity of laws with the Constitution; all laws and regulations must also conform with the general principles of international law and with ratified international agreements.


Military

The Slovenian Armed Forces provide military defence independently or within an alliance, in accordance with international agreements. Since conscription was abolished in 2003, it is organized as a fully professional standing army. The Commander-in-Chief is the President of Slovenia, President of the Republic of Slovenia, while operational command is in the domain of the Chief of the General Staff (Slovenia), Chief of the General Staff of the Slovenian Armed Forces. In 2016, military spending was an estimated 0.91% of the country's GDP. Since joining
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 European and North American countries. The ...
, the Slovenian Armed Forces have taken a more active part in supporting international peace. They have participated in peace support operations and humanitarian activities. Among others, Slovenian soldiers are a part of international forces serving in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, and Afghanistan.


Administrative divisions and traditional regions


Municipalities

Officially, Slovenia is subdivided into 212 municipalities (eleven of which have the status of urban municipalities). The municipalities are the only bodies of local autonomy in Slovenia. Each municipality is headed by a mayor (''župan''), elected every four years by popular vote, and a municipal council (''občinski svet''). In the majority of municipalities, the municipal council is elected through the system of proportional representation; only a few smaller municipalities use the plurality voting system. In the urban municipalities, the municipal councils are called town (or city) councils. Every municipality also has a Head of the Municipal Administration (''načelnik občinske uprave''), appointed by the mayor, who is responsible for the functioning of the local administration.


Administrative districts

There is no official intermediate unit between the municipalities and the Republic of Slovenia. The 62 administrative districts, officially called "Administrative Units" (''upravne enote''), are only subdivisions of the national government administration and are named after their respective bases of government offices. They are headed by a Manager of the Unit (''načelnik upravne enote''), appointed by the Minister of Public Administration.


Traditional regions and identities

Traditional regions were based on the former House of Habsburg, Habsburg crown lands that included
Carniola Carniola (Slovene and hr, Kranjska; german: Krain; it, Carniola; hu, Krajna) is a historical region that comprised parts of present-day Slovenia. Although as a whole it does not exist anymore, Slovenes living within the former borders of the regi ...
,
Carinthia Carinthia (german: Kärnten ; sl, Koroška ) is the southernmost Austrian state or ''Land''. Situated within the Eastern Alps, it is noted for its mountains and lakes. The main language is German. Its regional dialects belong to the Southern Ba ...

Carinthia
,
Styria Styria (german: Steiermark ; Croatian and sl, ; hu, Stájerország, Austro-Bavarian: ''Steiamoak'') is a state (''Bundesland'') in the southeast of Austria. With an area of , Styria is geographically the second largest state of Austria, after ...
, and the Slovene Littoral, Littoral. Stronger than with either the Carniola as a whole, or with Slovenia as the state, Slovenes historically tend to identify themselves with the traditional regions of
Slovene Littoral The Slovene Littoral ( sl, Primorska, ; it, Litorale; german: Küstenland) is one of the five traditional regions of Slovenia. Its name recalls the former Austrian Littoral (''Avstrijsko Primorje''), the Habsburg possessions on the upper Adriatic c ...
,
Prekmurje Prekmurje (; dialectically: ''Prèkmürsko'' or ''Prèkmüre''; hu, Muravidék) is a geographically, linguistically, culturally and ethnically defined region of Slovenia, settled by Slovenes and a Hungarian minority, lying between the Mur River in ...
, and even traditional (sub)regions, such as Upper, Lower and, to a lesser extent, Inner Carniola.Repe, Božo (2003
Od deželana do državljana: Regionalni razvoj Slovencev v letih 1918–1991
, Zgodovinski časopis, 3–4, Ljubljana.
The capital city Ljubljana was historically the administrative center of Carniola and belonged to Inner Carniola, except for the Šentvid district, which was in Upper Carniola and also where the border between German-annexed territory and the Italian Province of Ljubljana was during the Second World War.


Statistical regions

The 12 ''statistical regions'' have no administrative function and are subdivided into two macroregions for the purpose of the Regional policy of the European Union. These two macroregions are: *Eastern Slovenia (''Vzhodna Slovenija'' – SI01), which groups the Mura, Drava, Carinthia, Savinja, Central Sava, Lower Sava, Southeast Slovenia, and Inner Carniola–Karst statistical regions. *Western Slovenia (''Zahodna Slovenija'' – SI02), which groups the Central Slovenia, Upper Carniola, Gorizia, and Coastal–Karst statistical regions.


Economy

Slovenia has a developed country, developed economy and is the richest Slavic country by nominal GDP, and the second richest by GDP (PPP) behind the Czech Republic."GDP per capita in PPS, Eurostat"
Retrieved 1. June 2015.
Slovenia is also among the top global economies in terms of human capital.The World Bank: the human capital index (HCI), 2018
Retrieved 8. October 2019.
Slovenia was in the beginning of 2007 the first new member to introduce the euro as its currency, replacing the Slovenian tolar, tolar. Since 2010, it has been member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. There is a big difference in prosperity between the various regions. The economically wealthiest regions are the Central Slovenia statistical region, Central Slovenia region which includes the capital Ljubljana and the Slovene Littoral, western Slovenian regions, as Goriška Statistical Region, Goriška and Coastal–Karst Statistical Region, Coastal–Karst, while the least wealthy regions are the Mura statistical region, Mura, the Central Sava statistical region, Central Sava and the Littoral–Inner Carniola Statistical Region, Littoral–Inner Carniola."Regional Disparities in Slovenia 2/12"
retrieved 8 April 2015.


Economic growth

In 2004–06, the economy grew on average by nearly 5% a year in Slovenia; in 2007, it expanded by almost 7%. The growth surge was fuelled by debt, particularly among firms, and especially in construction. The financial crisis of 2007–2010 and European sovereign-debt crisis had a significant impact on the domestic economy. The construction industry was severely hit in 2010 and 2011. In 2009, Slovenian GDP per capita shrank by 8%, the biggest decline in the European Union after the Baltic countries and Finland. An increasing burden for the Slovenian economy has been its rapidly aging population. In August 2012, the year-on-year contraction was 0.8%; however, 0.2% growth was recorded in the first quarter (in relation to the quarter before, after data was adjusted according to season and working days). Year-on-year contraction has been attributed to the fall in domestic consumption and the slowdown in export growth. The decrease in domestic consumption has been attributed to the fiscal austerity, to the freeze on budget expenditure in the final months of 2011, to the failure of the efforts to implement microeconomic reform, economic reforms, to inappropriate financing, and to the decrease in exports. Due to the effects of the crisis, it was expected that several banks had to be bailed out by EU funds in 2013; however, needed capital was able to be covered by the country's own funds. Fiscal actions and legislations aiming on the reduction of spendings as well as several privatisations supported an economic recovery as from 2014. The real economic growth rate was at 2.5% in 2016 and accelerated to 5% in 2017. The construction sector has seen a recent increase, and the tourism industry is expected to have continuous rising numbers.


National debt

Slovenia's total government debt, national debt rose substantially during the Great Recession and was decreasing ; at the end of 2018 amounted to 32,223 million euros, 70% of the GDP.


Services and industry

Almost two-thirds of people are employed in services, and over one-third in industry and construction. Slovenia benefits from a well-educated workforce, well-developed infrastructure, and its location at the crossroads of major trade routes. The level of foreign direct investment (FDI) per capita in Slovenia is one of the lowest in the EU, and the labor productivity and the competitiveness of the Slovenian economy is still significantly below the EU average. Taxes are relatively high, the labor market is seen by business interests as being inflexible, and industries are losing sales to China, India, and elsewhere. High level of openness makes Slovenia extremely sensitive to economic conditions in its main trading partners and changes in its international price competitiveness. The main industries are motor vehicles, electric and electronic equipment, machinery, pharmaceuticals, and fuels. Examples of major Slovenian companies operating in Slovenia include the home appliance manufacturer Gorenje, the pharmaceutical companies Krka (company), Krka and Lek (Novartis' subsidiary), the oil distributing company Petrol Group, energy distribution company GEN-I and Revoz, a manufacturing subsidiary of Renault.


Energy

In 2018, the net energy production was 12,262 GWh and consumption was 14,501 GWh. Hydroelectric plants produced 4,421 GWh, thermal plants produced 4,049 GWh, and the Krško Nuclear Power Plant produced 2,742 GWh (50% share that goes to Slovenia; other 50% goes to Croatia due to joint ownership). Domestic electricity consumption was covered 84.6% by domestic production; percentage is decreasing from year to year meaning Slovenia is more and more depending on electricity import. A new 600 MW block of Šoštanj#Power plant, Šoštanj thermal power plant finished construction and went online in the autumn of 2014. The new 39.5 MW HE Krško hydro power plant was finished in 2013, and has since been the largest sole energy producer, accounting for of the gross energy production in 2018. The 41.5 MW HE Brežice and 30.5 MW HE Mokrice hydro power plants were built on the Sava River in 2018 and the construction of ten more hydropower plants with a cumulative capacity of 338 MW is planned to be finished by 2030. A large Pumped-storage hydroelectricity, pumped-storage hydro power plant Kozjak on the Drava River is in the planning stage. At the end of 2018, at least 295 MWp of Photovoltaics, photovoltaic modules and 31,4 MW of Biogas power plant, biogas powerplants were installed. Compared to 2017, renewable energy sources contributed 5,6 percentage points more into whole energy consumption. There is interest to add more production in the area of solar and wind energy sources (subsidising schemes are increasing economic feasibility), but microlocation settlement procedures take enormous toll on the efficiency of this intitiatve (nature preservation vs. energy production facilities dilemma).


Tourism

Slovenia offers tourists a wide variety of natural and cultural amenities. Different forms of tourism have developed. The tourist gravitational area is considerably large, however the tourist market is small. There has been no large-scale tourism and no acute environmental pressures; in 2017, National Geographic Traveller's Magazine declared Slovenia as the country with the world's most sustainable tourism.The nation's capital, Ljubljana, has many important Baroque and Vienna Secession buildings, with several important works of the native born architect Jože Plečnik and also his pupil, architect Edo Ravnikar. At the northwestern corner of the country lie the
Julian Alps The Julian Alps ( sl, Julijske Alpe, it, Alpi Giulie, , ) are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps that stretch from northeastern Italy to Slovenia, where they rise to 2,864 m at Mount Triglav, the highest peak in Slovenia and of the forme ...
with Lake Bled and the Soča Valley, as well as the nation's highest peak, Mount Triglav in the middle of Triglav National Park. Other mountain ranges include Kamnik–Savinja Alps, the Karawanks, and Pohorje, popular with skiers and hikers. The Karst Plateau in the
Slovene Littoral The Slovene Littoral ( sl, Primorska, ; it, Litorale; german: Küstenland) is one of the five traditional regions of Slovenia. Its name recalls the former Austrian Littoral (''Avstrijsko Primorje''), the Habsburg possessions on the upper Adriatic c ...
gave its name to karst, a landscape shaped by water dissolving the carbonate bedrock, forming caves. The best-known caves are Postojna Cave and the UNESCO World Heritage Site, UNESCO-listed Škocjan Caves. The region of Slovenian Istria meets the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest a ...
, where the most important historical monument is the Venetian Gothic architecture, Venetian Gothic Mediterranean town of Piran while the settlement of Portorož attracts crowds in summer. The hills around Slovenia's second-largest town, Maribor, are renowned for their wine-making. The northeastern part of the country is rich with spas, with Rogaška Slatina, Radenci, Čatež ob Savi, Dobrna, and Moravske Toplice growing in importance in the last two decades. Other popular tourist destinations include the historic cities of Ptuj and Škofja Loka, and several castles, such as Predjama Castle. Important parts of tourism in Slovenia include congress and gambling tourism. Slovenia is the country with the highest percentage of casinos per 1,000 inhabitants in the European Union. Perla hotel and casino, Perla in Nova Gorica is the largest casino in the region. Most of foreign tourists to Slovenia come from the key European markets: Italy,
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine federated states (''Bund ...
, Germany,
Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* it, Repubblica di Croazia :* rue, Републіка Хорватія :* sr, Република Хрватска :* sk, Chorvátska republika :* sl, Republika Hrvaška ...

Croatia
, Benelux, Serbia, Russia and Ukraine, followed by UK and Ireland. European tourists create more than 90% of Slovenia's tourist income. In 2016, Slovenia was declared the world's first green country by the Netherlands-based organization Green Destinations. On being declared the most sustainable country in 2016, Slovenia had a big part to play at the ITB Berlin to promote sustainable tourism.


Transport

Since Antiquity, geography has dictated transport routes in Slovenia. Significant mountain ranges, major rivers and proximity to the Danube played roles in the development of the area's transportation corridors. One recent particular advantage are the Pan-European transport corridors Pan-European transport corridor V, V (the fastest link between the North Adriatic, and Central and Eastern Europe) and Pan-European Corridor X, X (linking Central Europe with the Balkans). This gives it a special position in the European social, economic and cultural integration and restructuring.


Roads

The road freight and passenger transport constitutes the largest part of transport in Slovenia at 80%. Personal cars are much more popular than public road passenger transport, which has significantly declined. Slovenia has a very high highways in Slovenia, highway and motorway density compared to the European Union average. The highway system, the construction of which was accelerated after 1994, has slowly but steadily transformed Slovenia into a large conurbation. Other state roads have been rapidly deteriorating because of neglect and the overall increase in traffic.


Railways

The existing Slovenian railways are out-of-date and have difficulty competing with the motorway network; partially also as a result of dispersed population settlement. Due to this fact and the projected increase in traffic through the port of Koper, which is primarily by train, a second rail on the Koper-Divača route is in early stages of starting construction. With a lack of financial assets, maintenance and modernisation of the Slovenian railway network have been neglected. Due to the out-of-date infrastructure, the share of the railway freight transport has been in decline in Slovenia. The railway passenger transport has been recovering after a large drop in the 1990s. The Pan-European railway corridors V and X, and several other major European rail lines intersect in Slovenia. All international transit trains in Slovenia serve the Ljubljana Railway Hub.


Ports

The major Slovenian port is the Port of Koper. It is the largest Northern Adriatic port in terms of container transport, with almost 590,000 twenty-foot equivalent unit, TEUs annually and lines to all major world ports. It is much closer to destinations east of the Suez Canal, Suez than the ports of Northern Europe. In addition, the maritime passenger traffic mostly takes place in Koper. Two smaller ports used for the international passenger transport as well as cargo transport are located in Izola and Piran. Passenger transport mainly takes place with Italy and Croatia. Splošna plovba, the only Slovenian shipping company, transports freight and is active only in foreign ports.


Air

Air transport in Slovenia is quite low, but has significantly grown since 1991. Of the three international airports in Slovenia, Ljubljana Jože Pučnik Airport in central Slovenia is the busiest, with connections to many major European destinations. The Maribor Edvard Rusjan Airport is located in the eastern part of the country and the Portorož Airport in the western part. The state-owned Adria Airways is the largest Slovenian airline; however in 2019 it declared bankruptcy and ceased operations. Since 2003, several new carriers have entered the market, mainly low-cost airlines. The only Slovenian military airbase, military airport is the Cerklje ob Krki Air Base in the southwestern part of the country. There are also 12 public airports in Slovenia.


Demographics

With 101 inhabitants per square kilometer (262/sq mi), Slovenia ranks low among the European countries in population density (compared to 402/km2 (1042/sq mi) for the Netherlands or 195/km2 (505/sq mi) for Italy). The Inner Carniola–Karst Statistical Region has the lowest population density while the Central Slovenia Statistical Region has the highest. Slovenia is among the European countries with the most pronounced ageing of its population, ascribable to a low birth rate and increasing life expectancy. Almost all Slovenian inhabitants older than 64 are retired, with no significant difference between the genders. The working-age group is diminishing in spite of immigration. The proposal to raise the retirement age from the current 57 for women and 58 for men was rejected in a June 2011 Slovenian referendum, referendum in 2011. In addition, the difference among the genders regarding life expectancy is still significant. The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2014 was estimated at 1.33 children born/woman, which is lower than the replacement rate of 2.1. The majority of children are born to unmarried women (in 2016, 58.6% of all births were outside of marriage). In 2018, life expectancy at birth was 81.1 years (78.2 years male, and 84 years female). In 2009, the List of countries by suicide rate, suicide rate in Slovenia was 22 per 100,000 persons per year, which places Slovenia among the highest ranked European countries in this regard. Nonetheless, from 2000 until 2010, the rate has decreased by about 30%. The differences between regions and the genders are pronounced.


Urbanisation

Depending on definition, between 65% and 79% of people live in wider urban areas. According to OECD definition of rural areas none of the Statistical regions of Slovenia, Slovene statistical regions is mostly urbanised, meaning that 15% or less of the population lives in rural communities. According to this definition statistical regions are classified: * mostly rural regions: Mura Statistical Region, Mura, Drava Statistical Region, Drava, Carinthia Statistical Region, Carinthia, Savinja Statistical Region, Savinja, Lower Sava Statistical Region, Lower Sava, Littoral–Inner Carniola Statistical Region, Littoral–Inner Carniola, Gorizia Statistical Region, Gorizia, Southeast Slovenia Statistical Region, Southeast Slovenia * moderately rural regions: Central Sava Statistical Region, Central Sava, Upper Carniola Statistical Region, Upper Carniola, Coastal–Karst Statistical Region, Coastal–Karst, Central Slovenia Statistical Region, Central Slovenia. The only large town is the capital, Ljubljana. Other (medium-sized) towns include Maribor, Celje, and Kranj. Overall, there are eleven urban municipalities in Slovenia.


Municipalities by population

212 municipalities in total. Municipality of Hodoš, Hodoš, the smallest, has 354 inhabitants.


Municipalities by area

Odranci, the smallest, measures 6.9 km2.


Languages

The official language in Slovenia is Slovene, which is a member of the South Slavic languages, South Slavic language group. In 2002, Slovene was the native language of around 88% of Slovenia's population according to the census, with more than 92% of the Slovenian population speaking it in their home environment. This statistic ranks Slovenia among the most homogeneous countries in the EU in terms of the share of speakers of the predominant mother tongue. Slovene is a highly diverse Slavic language in terms of Slovene dialects, dialects, with different degrees of mutual intelligibility. Accounts of the number of dialects range from as few as seven dialects, often considered dialect groups or dialect bases that are further subdivided into as many as 50 dialects. Other sources characterize the number of dialects as nine or as eight. Hungarian language, Hungarian and Italian language in Slovenia, Italian, spoken by the respective minorities, enjoy the status of official languages in the ethnically mixed regions along the Hungarian and Italian borders, to the extent that even the passports issued in those areas are bilingual. In 2002 around 0.2% of the Slovenian population spoke Italian and around 0.4% spoke Hungarian as their native language. Hungarian is co-official with Slovene in 30 settlements in 5 municipalities (whereof 3 are officially bilingual). Italian is co-official with Slovene in 25 settlements in 4 municipalities (all of them officially bilingual). Romani language, Romani, spoken in 2002 as the native language by 0.2% of people, is a legally protected language in Slovenia. Romani-speakers mainly belong to the geographically dispersed and marginalized Roma community. German, which used to be the largest minority language in Slovenia prior to World War II (around 4% of the population in 1921), is now the native language of only around 0.08% of the population, the majority of whom are more than 60 years old. Gottscheerish or ''Granish'', the traditional German dialect of Gottschee County, faces extinction. A significant number of people in Slovenia speak a variant of Serbo-Croatian (Serbian language, Serbian, Croatian language, Croatian, Bosnian language, Bosnian, or Montenegrin language, Montenegrin) as their native language. These are mostly immigrants who moved to Slovenia from other former Yugoslav republics from the 1960s to the late 1980s, and their descendants. In 2002, 0.4% of the Slovenian population declared themselves to be native speakers of Albanian language, Albanian and 0.2% native speakers of Macedonian language, Macedonian. Czech language, Czech, the fourth-largest minority language in Slovenia prior to World War II (after German, Hungarian, and Serbo-Croatian), is now the native language of a few hundred residents of Slovenia. Regarding the knowledge of foreign languages, Slovenia ranks among the top European countries. The most taught foreign languages are English, German, Italian, French and Spanish. , 92% of the population between the age of 25 and 64 spoke at least one foreign language and around 71.8% of them spoke at least two foreign languages, which was the highest percentage in the European Union. According to the Eurobarometer survey, the majority of Slovenes could speak Croatian language, Croatian (61%) and English (56%). A reported 42% of Slovenes could speak German, which was one of the highest percentages outside German-speaking countries. Italian is widely spoken on the Slovenian Istria, Slovenian Coast and in some other areas of the
Slovene Littoral The Slovene Littoral ( sl, Primorska, ; it, Litorale; german: Küstenland) is one of the five traditional regions of Slovenia. Its name recalls the former Austrian Littoral (''Avstrijsko Primorje''), the Habsburg possessions on the upper Adriatic c ...
. Around 15% of Slovenians can speak Italian, which is (according to the Eurobarometer pool) the third-highest percentage in the European Union, after Italy and Malta.


Immigration

In 2015 about 12% (237,616 people) of the population in Slovenia was born abroad. About 86% of the foreign-born population originated from other countries of the former Yugoslavia state as (in descending order) Bosnia-Herzegovina, followed by immigrants from
Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* it, Repubblica di Croazia :* rue, Републіка Хорватія :* sr, Република Хрватска :* sk, Chorvátska republika :* sl, Republika Hrvaška ...

Croatia
, Serbia, North Macedonia and Kosovo. By the beginning of 2017 there were about 114,438 people with a foreign citizenship residing in the country making up 5.5% of the total population. Of these foreigners 76% had citizenships of the other countries from the former Yugoslavia state (excluding Croatia). Additionally 16.4% had EU-citizenships and 7.6% had citizenships of other countries. According to the 2002 census, Slovenia's main ethnic group are
Slovenes The Slovenes, also known as Slovenians ( sl, Slovenci ), are a South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia, and also to Italy, Austria and Hungary in addition to having a diaspora throughout the world. Slovenes share a common ancestry, culture, ...
(83%), however their share in the total population is continuously decreasing due to their relatively low fertility rate. At least 13% (2002) of the population were immigrants from other parts of Former Yugoslavia and their descendants. They have settled mainly in cities and suburbanised areas. Relatively small but protected by the Constitution of Slovenia are the Hungarians in Slovenia, Hungarian and the Italians in Slovenia, Italian ethnic minority. A special position is held by the autochthonous and geographically dispersed Roma in Slovenia, Roma ethnic community. The number of people immigrating into Slovenia rose steadily from 1995 and has been increasing even more rapidly in recent years. After Slovenia joined the EU in 2004, the annual number of immigrants doubled by 2006 and increased by half yet again by 2009. In 2007, Slovenia had one of the fastest growing net migration rates in the European Union.


Emigration

As to emigration, between 1880 and 1918 (World War I) many men left Slovenia to work in mining areas in other nations. The United States in particular has been a common choice for emigration, with the 1910 US Census showing that there were already "183,431 persons in the USA of Slovenian mother tongue". But there may have been many more, because a good number avoided anti-Slavic prejudice and "identified themselves as Austrians." Favorite localities before 1900 were Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, as well as Omaha, Nebraska, Joliet, Illinois,
Cleveland Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County. It is located along the southern shore of Lake Erie, across the U.S. maritime border with Canada and approximate ...

Cleveland
, Ohio, and rural areas of Iowa. After 1910, they settled in Utah (Bingham Copper Mine), Colorado (especially Pueblo), and Butte, Montana. These areas attracted first many single men (who often boarded with Slovenian families). After locating work and having sufficient money, the men sent back for their wives and families to join them.


Religion

Before World War II, 97% of the population declared itself Roman Catholicism in Slovenia, Catholic (Roman Rite), around 2.5% as Lutheran, and around 0.5% of residents identified themselves as members of other denominations. Catholicism was an important feature of both social and political life in pre-Communist Slovenia. After 1945, the country underwent a process of gradual but steady secularization. After a decade of persecution of religions, the Communist regime adopted a policy of relative tolerance towards churches. After 1990, the Catholic Church regained some of its former influence, but Slovenia remains a largely secularized society. According to the 2002 census, 57.8% of the population is Catholic. In 1991, 71.6% were self-declared Catholics which means a drop of more than 1% annually. The vast majority of Slovenian Catholics belong to the Latin Rite. A small number of Eastern Catholic Churches, Greek Catholics live in the White Carniola region. Newest 2018 data shows a resurgence in people identifying as Catholics, membership in the Church has returned to pre 1990 levels. With 73.4% now again identifying as Catholic. Despite a relatively small number of Protestants (less than 1% in 2002), the Protestant legacy is historically significant given that the Slovene standard language and Slovene literature were established by the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. Primoz Trubar, a theologian in the Lutheran tradition, was one of the most influential Protestant Reformers in Slovenia. Protestantism was extinguished in the Counter-Reformation implemented by the Habsburg dynasty, which controlled the region. It only survived in the easternmost regions due to protection of Hungarian nobles, who often happened to be Calvinist themselves. Today, a significant Lutheranism, Lutheran minority lives in the easternmost region of
Prekmurje Prekmurje (; dialectically: ''Prèkmürsko'' or ''Prèkmüre''; hu, Muravidék) is a geographically, linguistically, culturally and ethnically defined region of Slovenia, settled by Slovenes and a Hungarian minority, lying between the Mur River in ...
, where they represent around a fifth of the population and are headed by a bishop with the seat in Murska Sobota. The third largest denomination, with around 2.2% of the population, is the Eastern Orthodox Church, with most adherents belonging to the Serbian Orthodox Church while a minority belongs to the Macedonian Orthodox Church, Macedonian and other Eastern Orthodox churches. According to the 2002 census, Islam is the second largest religious denomination in the country, with around 2.4% of the population. Most Slovenian Muslims came from Bosnia. Slovenia has long been home to a History of the Jews in Slovenia, Jewish community. Despite the losses suffered during the Holocaust, Judaism still numbers a few hundred adherents, mostly living in Ljubljana, site of the sole remaining active synagogue in the country. In the 2002, around 10% of Slovenes declared themselves as atheists, another 10% professed no specific denomination, and around 16% decided not to answer the question about their religious affiliation. According to the Eurobarometer Poll 2010, 32% of Slovenian citizens responded that "they believe there is a god", whereas 36% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 26% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".


Education

Slovenia's education ranks as the 12th best in the world and 4th best in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million. The EU has developed an internal s ...
, being significantly higher than the OECD average, according to the Programme for International Student Assessment. Among people age 25 to 64, 12% have attended higher education, while on average Slovenes have 9.6 years of formal education. According to an OECD report, 83% of adults ages 25–64 have earned the equivalent of a high school degree, well above the OECD average of 74%; among 25- to 34-year-olds, the rate is 93%. According to the 1991 census there is 99.6% literacy in Slovenia. Lifelong learning is also increasing.


Primary

Responsibility for education oversight at primary and secondary level in Slovenia lies with the Ministry of Education and Sports. After non-compulsory pre-school education, children enter the nine-year primary school at the age of six. Primary school is divided into three periods, each of three years. In the academic year 2006–2007 there were 166,000 pupils enrolled in elementary education and more than 13,225 teachers, giving a ratio of one teacher per 12 pupils and 20 pupils per class.


Secondary

After completing elementary school, nearly all children (more than 98%) go on to secondary education, either vocational, technical or general secondary programmes (Gymnasium (school), gimnazija). The latter concludes with Matura#Matura in Slovenia, matura, the final exam that allows the graduates to enter a university. 84% of secondary school graduates go on to tertiary education.


Tertiary

Among several universities in Slovenia, the best ranked is the University of Ljubljana, ranking among the first 500 or the first 3% of the world's best universities according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities, ARWU. Two other public universities include the University of Maribor in Styria (Slovenia), Styria region and the University of Primorska in
Slovene Littoral The Slovene Littoral ( sl, Primorska, ; it, Litorale; german: Küstenland) is one of the five traditional regions of Slovenia. Its name recalls the former Austrian Littoral (''Avstrijsko Primorje''), the Habsburg possessions on the upper Adriatic c ...
. In addition, there is a private University of Nova Gorica and an international EMUNI University.


Culture


Heritage

Slovenia's architectural heritage includes 2,500 churches, 1,000 castles, ruins, and manor houses, farmhouses, and special structures for drying hay, called hayracks (). Four natural and cultural sites in Slovenia are on the
UNESCO World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
list. Škocjan Caves and its karst landscape are a protected site as the old forests in the area of Goteniški Snežnik and Kočevski Rog in the SE Slovenia. The Heritage of Mercury. Almadén and Idrija, Idrija Mercury mining site is of world importance, as are the Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, prehistoric pile dwellings in the
Ljubljana Marshes The Ljubljana Marshes ( sl, Ljubljansko barje), located south of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, is the largest marsh in the country. It covers or 0.8% of the Slovene territory. It is administered by the municipalities of Borovnica, Brezovica, L ...
. The most picturesque church for photographers is the medieval and Baroque building on Lake Bled#Bled Island, Bled Island. The castle above the lake is a museum and restaurant with a view. Near Postojna there is a fortress called Predjama Castle, half hidden in a cave. Museums in Ljubljana and elsewhere feature unique items such as the Divje Babe Flute and the Ljubljana Marshes Wheel, oldest wheel in the world. Ljubljana has medieval, Baroque, Art Nouveau, and modern architecture. The architect Plečnik's architecture and his innovative paths and bridges along the Ljubljanica are notable and on UNESCO tentative list.


Cuisine

Slovenian cuisine is a mixture of Central European cuisine (especially Austrian cuisine, Austrian and Hungarian cuisine, Hungarian), Mediterranean cuisine and Balkan cuisine. Historically, Slovenian cuisine was divided into town, farmhouse, cottage, castle, parsonage and monastic cuisines. Due to the variety of Slovenian cultural and natural landscapes, there are more than 40 distinct regional cuisines. Ethnology, Ethnologically, the most characteristic Slovene dishes were one-pot dishes, such as ''ričet'', Istrian stew (), minestrone (), and ''žganci ''buckwheat spoonbread; in the
Prekmurje Prekmurje (; dialectically: ''Prèkmürsko'' or ''Prèkmüre''; hu, Muravidék) is a geographically, linguistically, culturally and ethnically defined region of Slovenia, settled by Slovenes and a Hungarian minority, lying between the Mur River in ...
region there is also ''bujta repa'', and ''prekmurska gibanica'' pastry. Pršut prosciutto is known as () in the
Slovene Littoral The Slovene Littoral ( sl, Primorska, ; it, Litorale; german: Küstenland) is one of the five traditional regions of Slovenia. Its name recalls the former Austrian Littoral (''Avstrijsko Primorje''), the Habsburg possessions on the upper Adriatic c ...
. The nut roll () has become a symbol of Slovenia, especially among the American Slovenes, Slovene diaspora in the United States. Soups were added to the traditional one-pot meals and various kinds of porridge and stew only in relatively recent history. Each year since 2000, the Festival of Roasted Potatoes has been organized by the ''Society for the Recognition of Roasted Potatoes as a Distinct Dish'', attracting thousands of visitors. Roasted potatoes, which have been traditionally served in most Slovenian families only on Sundays—preceded by a meat-based soup, such as beef or chicken soup—have been depicted on a special edition of post marks by the Post of Slovenia on 23 November 2012. The best known sausage is ''kranjska klobasa''.


Dance


Ballet

Historically the most notable Slovenian ballet dancers and choreographers were Pino Mlakar (1907‒2006), who in 1927 graduated from the Rudolf von Laban, Rudolf Laban Choreographic Institute, and there met his future wife, balerina Pia Mlakar, Maria Luiza Pia Beatrice Scholz (1908‒2000). Together they worked as a leading dancer and a choreographer in Dessau (1930–1932), Zürich (1934–1938), and State opera in München (1939‒1944).Pia and Pino Mlakar
, The Slovenian National Theatre Opera and Ballet Ljubljana website
Their plan to build a Slovenian dance center at Rožnik Hill after the World War II was supported by then minister of culture, Ferdo Kozak, but was cancelled by his successor. Pino Mlakar was also a full professor at the Academy for Theatre, Radio, Film and Television (AGRFT) of the University of Ljubljana. Between 1952 in 1954 they again led State opera ballet in Munich.


Modern dance

A Mary Wigman modern dance school was founded in the 1930s by her student, Meta Vidmar, in Ljubljana.


Festivals, book fairs, and other events

A number of music, theater, film, book, and children's festivals take place in Slovenia each year, including the music festivals Ljubljana Summer Festival and Lent Festival, the stand-up comedy Punch Festival, the children's Pippi Longstocking Festival, and the book festivals Slovene book fair and Frankfurt after the Frankfurt. The most notable music festival of Slovene music was historically the Slovenska popevka festival. Between 1981 and 2000 the Novi Rock festival was notable for bringing rock music across Iron curtain from the West to the Slovenian and then Yugoslav audience. The long tradition of jazz festivals in Titoism, Titoist Yugoslavia began with the Ljubljana Jazz Festival which has been held annually in Slovenia since 1960.


Film


Film actors

Slovene film actors and actresses historically include Ida Kravanja, who played her roles as ''Ita Rina'' in the early European films, and Metka Bučar. After the WW II, one of the most notable film actors was Polde Bibič, who played a number of roles in many films that were well received in Slovenia, including ''Don't Cry, Peter'' (1964), ''On Wings of Paper'' (1968), ''Kekec's Tricks'' (1968), ''Flowers in Autumn'' (1973), ''The Widowhood of Karolina Žašler'' (1976), ''Dediščina, Heritage'' (1986), ''Primož Trubar (film), Primož Trubar'' (1985), and ''My Dad, The Socialist Kulak'' (1987). Many of these were directed by Matjaž Klopčič. He also performed in television and radio drama. Altogether, Bibič played over 150 theatre and over 30 film roles.


Film directors

Feature film and short film production in Slovenia historically includes Karol Grossmann, František Čap, France Štiglic, Igor Pretnar, Jože Pogačnik, Peter Zobec, Matjaž Klopčič, Boštjan Hladnik, Dušan Jovanović (theatre director), Dušan Jovanović, Vitan Mal, Franci Slak, and Karpo Godina as its most established filmmakers. Contemporary film directors Filip Robar - Dorin, Jan Cvitkovič, Damjan Kozole, Janez Lapajne, Mitja Okorn, and Marko Naberšnik are among the representatives of the so-called "Renaissance of Slovenian cinema". Slovene screenwriters, who are not film directors, include Saša Vuga and Miha Mazzini. Women film directors include Polona Sepe, Hanna A. W. Slak, and Maja Weiss.


Literature


Authors

Today, notable authors include Slavoj Žižek, Mladen Dolar, Alenka Zupančič as well as Boris Pahor, a German Nazi concentration camp survivor, who opposed Italian Fascism and Titoism, Titoist Communism.


Literary history

History of Slovene literature began in the 16th century with Primož Trubar and Protestant Reformation in the Slovene Lands, other Protestant Reformers. Poetry in the
Slovene language Slovene ( or ), or alternatively Slovenian (; ''slovenski jezik'' or ''slovenščina''), is a South Slavic language spoken by the Slovenes. It is spoken by about 2.5 million speakers worldwide, the majority of whom live in Slovenia, where it is ...
achieved its highest level with the Romantic poetry, Romantic poet France Prešeren (1800–1849). In the 20th century, the Slovene literary fiction went through several periods: the beginning of the century was marked by the authors of the Slovene Modernism, with the most influential Slovene writer and playwright, Ivan Cankar; it was then followed by expressionism (Srečko Kosovel), avantgardism (Anton Podbevšek, Ferdo Delak) and social realism (Ciril Kosmač, Prežihov Voranc) before World War II, the poetry of resistance and revolution (Karel Destovnik Kajuh, Matej Bor) during the war, and intimism (Slovene poetry), intimism (Poems of the Four, 1953), Slovenian post-war modernism, post-war modernism (Edvard Kocbek), and existentialism (Dane Zajc) after the war. Postmodernism, Postmodernist authors include Boris A. Novak, Marko Kravos, Drago Jančar, Evald Flisar, Tomaž Šalamun, and Brina Svit. Among the post-1990 authors best known are Aleš Debeljak, Miha Mazzini, and Alojz Ihan. There are several literary magazines that publish Slovene prose, poetry, essays, and local literary criticism.


Music

The Slovenian Philharmonics, established in 1701 as part of Academia operosorum Labacensis, is among the oldest such institutions in Europe. Music of Slovenia historically includes numerous musicians and composers, such as the Renaissance composer Jacobus Gallus (1550–1591), who greatly influenced Central European classical music, the Baroque composer Janez Krstnik Dolar (ca. 1620–1673), and the violin virtuoso Giuseppe Tartini. During the medieval era, secular music was as popular as church music, including wandering minnesingers. By the time of Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, music was used to proselytize. The first Slovenian hymnal, ''Eni Psalmi'', was published in 1567. This period saw the rise of musicians like Jacobus Gallus and Jurij Slatkonja. In 1701, Johann Berthold von Höffer (1667–1718), a nobleman and amateur composer from Ljubljana, founded the Slovenian Philharmonics, Academia Philharmonicorum Labacensis, as one of the oldest such institutions in Europe, based on Italian models. Composers of Slovenian Lieder and art songs include Emil Adamič (1877–1936), Fran Gerbič (1840–1917), Alojz Geržinič (1915–2008), Benjamin Ipavec (1829–1908), Davorin Jenko (1835–1914), Anton Lajovic (1878–1960), Kamilo Mašek (1831–1859), Josip Pavčič (1870–1949), Zorko Prelovec (1887–1939), and Lucijan Marija Škerjanc (1900–1973). In the early 20th century, impressionism was spreading across Slovenia, which soon produced composers Marij Kogoj and Slavko Osterc. Avant-garde european classical music, classical music arose in Slovenia in the 1960s, largely due to the work of Uroš Krek, Dane Skerl, Dane Škerl, Primoz Ramovs, Primož Ramovš and Ivo Petric, Ivo Petrić, who also conducted the Slavko Osterc Ensemble. Jakob Jez, Jakob Jež, Darijan Božič, Lojze Lebic, Lojze Lebič and Vinko Globokar have since composed enduring works, especially Globokar's ''L'Armonia (opera), L'Armonia'', an opera. Modern composers include Uros Rojko, Uroš Rojko, Tomaz Svete, Tomaž Svete, Brina Jez-Brezavscek, Brina Jež-Brezavšček, Božidar Kantušer and Aldo Kumar. Kumar's ''Sonata z igro 12'' (''A sonata with a play 12''), a set of variations on a rising chromatic scale, is particularly notable. The Slovene National Opera and Ballet Theatre serves as the national opera and ballet house.


Traditional folk music

Harmony singing is a deep rooted tradition in Slovenia, and is at least three-part singing (four voices), while in some regions even up to eight-part singing (nine voices). Slovenian folk songs, thus, usually resounds soft and harmonious, and are very seldom in minor. Traditional Slovenian folk music is performed on Styrian harmonica (the oldest type of accordion), fiddle, clarinet, zithers, flute, and by brass bands of alpine type. In Prekmurje, eastern Slovenia, fiddle and cimbalon bands are called velike goslarije.


Modern folk (Slovenian country) music

From 1952 on, the Slavko Avsenik's band began to appear in broadcasts, movies, and concerts all over the West Germany, inventing the original "Gorenjska, Oberkrainer" country sound that has become the primary vehicle of ethnic musical expression not only in Slovenia, but also in Germany,
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine federated states (''Bund ...
, Switzerland, and in the Benelux, spawning hundreds of Alps, Alpine orchestras in the process. The band produced nearly 1000 original compositions, an integral part of the Slovenian-style polka legacy. Many musicians followed Avsenik's steps, including Lojze Slak.


Slovenska popevka

A similarly high standing in Slovene culture, like the Sanremo Music Festival has had in Italian culture, was attributed to the Slovenska popevka, a specific genre of popular Slovene music.


Popular music

Among pop, rock, industrial, and indie musicians the most popular in Slovenia include Laibach (band), Laibach, an early 1980s industrial music group as well as Siddharta (band), Siddharta, an alternative rock band formed in 1995. With more than 15 million views for the official a cappella "Africa (Toto song), Africa" performance video since its publishing on YouTube in May 2009 until September 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2013. that earned them kudos from the song's co-writer, David Paich, Perpetuum Jazzile is the group from Slovenia that is internationally most listened online. Other Slovenian bands include a historically progressive rock ones that were also popular in Titoism, Titoist Yugoslavia, such as Buldožer and Lačni Franz, which inspired later comedy rock bands including Zmelkoow, Slon in Sadež and Mi2 (rock band), Mi2. With exception of Terrafolk that made appearances worldwide, other bands, such as Avtomobili, Zaklonišče Prepeva, Šank Rock, Big Foot Mama, Dan D, and Zablujena generacija, are mostly unknown outside the country. Slovenian metal bands include Noctiferia (death metal), Negligence (band), Negligence (thrash metal), Naio Ssaion (gothic metal), and Within Destruction (deathcore).


Singer-songwriters

Slovenian post-WWII singer-songwriters include Frane Milčinski (1914–1988), Tomaž Pengov whose 1973 album ''Odpotovanja'' is considered to be the first singer-songwriter album in former Yugoslavia, Tomaž Domicelj, Marko Brecelj, Andrej Šifrer, Eva Sršen, Neca Falk, and Jani Kovačič. After 1990, Adi Smolar, Iztok Mlakar, Vita Mavrič, Vlado Kreslin, Zoran Predin, Peter Lovšin, and Magnifico (musician), Magnifico have been popular in Slovenia, as well. In the 21st century, there have been many successful artsists from Slovenia. They include country musician ManuElla, Manu, Eurovision Song Contest, Eurovision finalists zalagasper, Nika Zorjan, Omar Naber and Raiven.


Theatre

In addition to the main houses, which include Slovene National Theatre, Ljubljana and Maribor National Drama Theatre, a number of small producers are active in Slovenia, including physical theatre (e.g. Betontanc), street theatre (e.g. Ana Monró Theatre), theatresports championship Impro League, and improvisational theatre (e.g. IGLU Theatre). A popular form is puppetry, mainly performed in the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre. Theater has a rich tradition in Slovenia, starting with the 1867 first ever Slovene-language drama performance.


Visual arts, architecture and design

Slovenia's visual arts, architecture, and design are shaped by a number of architects, designers, painters, sculptors, photographers, graphics artists, as well as comics, illustration and conceptual artists. The most prestigious institutions exhibiting works of Slovene visual artists are the National Gallery of Slovenia and the Museum of Modern Art, Ljubljana, Museum of Modern Art. ;Architecture Modern architecture in Slovenia was introduced by Max Fabiani, and in the mid-war period, Jože Plečnik and Ivan Vurnik. In the second half of the 20th century, the national and universal style were merged by the architects Edvard Ravnikar and first generation of his students: Milan Mihelič, Stanko Kristl, Savin Sever. Next generation is mainly still active Marko Mušič, Vojteh Ravnikar, Jurij Kobe and groups of younger architects. ;Conceptual art A number of conceptual art, conceptual visual art groups formed, including OHO (art group), OHO, Group 69, and IRWIN. Nowadays, the Slovene visual arts are diverse, based on tradition, reflect the influence of neighboring nations and are intertwined with modern European movements. ;Design Internationally most notable Slovenian design items include the 1952 Rex (chair), Rex chair, a Scandinavian design-inspired wooden chair, by interior designer Niko Kralj that was given in 2012 a permanent place in Designmuseum, Denmark, the largest museum of design in Scandinavia, and is included in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art, New York, Museum of Modern Art MOMA in New York City, as well. An industrial design item that has changed the international ski industry is Elan SCX by Elan (company), Elan company. Even before the Elan SCX, Elan skis were depicted in two films, the 1985 James Bond film series part A View to a Kill with Roger Moore, and Working Girl where ''Katharine Parker'' (Sigourney Weaver) was depicted as skiing on the ''RC ELAN'' model skis and poles. ;Sculpture The renewal of Slovene sculpture begun with Alojz Gangl (1859–1935) who created sculptures for the public monuments of the
Carniola Carniola (Slovene and hr, Kranjska; german: Krain; it, Carniola; hu, Krajna) is a historical region that comprised parts of present-day Slovenia. Although as a whole it does not exist anymore, Slovenes living within the former borders of the regi ...
n polymath Johann Weikhard von Valvasor and Valentin Vodnik, the first Slovene poet and journalist, as well as ''The Genius of the Theatre'' and other statues for the Slovenian National Opera and Ballet Theatre building. The development of sculpture after World War II was led by a number of artists, including brothers Boris Kalin, Boris and Zdenko Kalin, Jakob Savinšek stayed with figural art. Younger sculptors, for example Janez Boljka, Drago Tršar and particularly Slavko Tihec, moved towards abstract sculpture, abstract forms. Jakov Brdar and Mirsad Begić returned to human figures. ;Graphics During World War II, numerous graphics were created by Božidar Jakac, who helped establish the post-war Academy of Visual Arts and Design, Ljubljana, Academy of Visual Arts in Ljubljana. In 1917 Hinko Smrekar illustrated Fran Levstik's book about the well-known Slovene folk hero Martin Krpan. The children's books illustrators include a number of women illustrators, such as Marlenka Stupica, Marija Lucija Stupica, Ančka Gošnik Godec, Marjanca Jemec Božič, and Jelka Reichman. ;Painting Historically, painting and sculpture in Slovenia was in the late 18th and the 19th century marked by Neoclassicism (Matevž Langus), Biedermeier#Visual arts, Biedermeier (Giuseppe Tominz) and Romantic visual arts, Romanticism (Mihael Stroj). The first art exhibition in Slovenia was organized in the late 19th century by Ivana Kobilica, a woman-painter who worked in Naturalism (visual art), realistic tradition. impressionism (arts), Impressionist artists include Matej Sternen, Matija Jama, Rihard Jakopič, Ivan Grohar whose ''The Sower'' (Slovene: Sejalec) was depicted on the €0.05 Slovenian euro coins, and Franc Berneker, who introduced the impressionism to Slovenia. Expressionism, Espressionist painters include Veno Pilon and Tone Kralj whose picture book, reprinted thirteen times, is now the most recognisable image of the folk hero Martin Krpan. Some of the best known painters in the second half of the 20th century were Zoran Mušič, Gabrijel Stupica and Marij Pregelj. ;Photography In 1841, Janez Puhar (1814–1864) invented a process for photography on glass, recognized on 17 June 1852 in Paris by the Académie Nationale Agricole, Manufacturière et Commerciale. Gojmir Anton Kos was a notable Realism (arts), realist painter and photographer between First World War and WW II. The first photographer from Slovenia whose work was published by National Geographic (magazine), National Geographic magazine is Arne Hodalič.


Sports

Slovenia is a natural sports venue, with many Slovenians actively practicing sports. A variety of sports are played in Slovenia on a professional level, with top international successes in team handball, handball, basketball, volleyball, association football, ice hockey, rowing (sport), rowing, swimming, tennis, boxing, climbing, road cycling and athletics (sport), athletics. Prior to World War II, gymnastics and fencing used to be the most popular sports in Slovenia, with athletes like Leon Štukelj and Miroslav Cerar gaining gold Olympic medals. Association football gained popularity in the interwar period. After 1945, basketball, handball and volleyball have become popular among Slovenians, and from the mid-1970s onward, winter sports have, as well. Since 1992, Slovenian sportspeople have won Slovenia at the Olympics, 40 Olympic medals, including seven gold medals, and Slovenia at the Paralympics, 22 Paralympic medals with four golds. Individual sports are also very popular in Slovenia, including tennis and mountaineering, which are two of the most widespread sporting activities in Slovenia. Several Slovenian extreme sport, extreme and endurance sportsmen have gained an international reputation, including the mountaineer Tomaž Humar, the mountain skier Davo Karničar, the ultramarathon swimmer Martin Strel and the ultracyclist Jure Robič. Past and current winter sports athletes include Alpine skiing, alpine skiers, such as Mateja Svet, Bojan Križaj, Ilka Štuhec and double Olympic gold medalist Tina Maze, the cross-country skiing, cross-country skier Petra Majdič, and Ski jumping, ski jumpers, such as Primož Peterka and Peter Prevc. Boxing has gained popularity since Jan Zaveck won the International Boxing Federation, IBF List of welterweight boxing champions, Welterweight World Champion title in 2009. In cycling, Primož Roglič became the first Slovenian to win a Grand Tour (cycling), Grand Tour when he won the 2019 Vuelta a España. In 2020, Tadej Pogačar won the Tour de France, the world's most competitive cycling race, while Primož Roglič finished second. Prominent team sports in Slovenia include football, basketball, handball, volleyball, and ice hockey. The Slovenia national football team, men's national football team has qualified for one UEFA European Football Championship, European Championship (2000) and two FIFA World Cup, World Cups (2002 and 2010). Of Slovenian clubs, NK Maribor played three times in the group stages of the UEFA Champions League. The Slovenian national basketball team, men's national basketball team has participated at 13 EuroBaskets, winning the gold medal in the 2017 edition, and at three FIBA World Championships. Slovenia also hosted the EuroBasket 2013. The Slovenia men's national handball team, men's national handball team has qualified for three Olympics, nine IHF IHF World Men's Handball Championship, World Championships, including their third-place finish in 2017, and twelve European Men's Handball Championship, European Championships. Slovenia was the hosts of the 2004 European Men's Handball Championship, 2004 European Championship, where the national team won the silver medal. Slovenia's most prominent handball team, RK Celje, won the EHF Champions League in the 2003–04 season. In women's handball, RK Krim won the Women's EHF Champions League, Champions League in 2001 and 2003. The Slovenia men's national volleyball team, national volleyball team has won the silver medal in the 2015 and 2019 editions of the Men's European Volleyball Championship, European Volleyball Championship. The Slovenia men's national ice hockey team, national ice hockey team has played at 27 Ice Hockey World Championships (with 9 appearances in top division), and has participated in the 2014 and 2018 Winter Olympic Games.


See also

* Outline of Slovenia * Slovenia (European Parliament constituency)


References


Further reading

* Perko, Drago, Ciglic, Rok, Zorn, Matija (eds.), ''The Geography of Slovenia: Small But Diverse'' (Cham, Springer, 2020). * Stanić, Stane, ''Slovenia'' (London, Flint River Press, 1994). * Oto Luthar (ed.), ''The Land Between: A History of Slovenia. With contributions by Oto Luthar, Igor Grdina, Marjeta Šašel Kos, Petra Svoljšak, Peter Kos, Dušan Kos, Peter Štih, Alja Brglez and Martin Pogačar'' (Frankfurt am Main etc., Peter Lang, 2008). * ''The World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places, O–S Oman to Syria'' (Chicago, World Book, 2011).


External links


Slovenia
from ''UCB Libraries GovPubs'' * *
"Facts About Slovenia"
publication from the Slovenian Government Communication Office. pdf. In English, Spanish, French, German and Russian.
Slovenia – Landmarks
Virtual reality panoramas of various spots in the country.
Slovenia: a geographical overview
Association of the Geographical Societies of Slovenia. ;Government
Slovenia.si
The main national access point to information about Slovenia.
The Republic of Slovenia
Official institutions.
Statistical Office of the Republic of SloveniaNational Meteorological Service of Slovenia
;Travel
The Slovenian Tourist portal
Slovenian Tourist Board. * {{Authority control Slovenia, Balkan countries Central European countries Member states of NATO Member states of the Council of Europe Member states of the European Union Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean Member states of the United Nations Republics Southeastern European countries Southern European countries States and territories established in 1991 1991 establishments in Europe Countries in Europe