Coordinates : 46°07′N 14°49′E / 46.117°N 14.817°E / 46.117; 14.817
Republic of Slovenia _Republika Slovenija_ (Slovene )
_ Flag Coat of arms
ANTHEM: Zdravljica _ _A Toast_
Location of Slovenia (dark green)
and largest city
OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Slovene
ETHNIC GROUPS (2002 )
* 12% others (including
GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic
• PRIME MINISTER
• UPPER HOUSE National Council
• LOWER HOUSE National Assembly
• State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs becomes independent 29 October 1918
• Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kingdom of Yugoslavia) 4 December 1918
• YUGOSLAVIA BECOMES A REPUBLIC 29 November 1945
• INDEPENDENCE FROM YUGOSLAVIA 25 June 1991
• JOINED THE EUROPEAN UNION 1 May 2004
• TOTAL 20,273 km2 (7,827 sq mi) (154th )
• WATER (%) 0.7
• 2017 ESTIMATE 2,065,895 (144th )
• 2002 CENSUS 1,964,036
• DENSITY 101.8 /km2 (263.7/sq mi) (106th )
GDP (PPP ) 2017 estimate
• TOTAL $69.358 billion (97th )
• PER CAPITA $33,579 (38th )
GDP (NOMINAL) 2017 estimate
• TOTAL $43.503 billion
• PER CAPITA $21,061
GINI (2014) 25.0 low · 3rd
HDI (2015) 0.890 very high · 25th
CURRENCY Euro (€ ) (EUR )
TIME ZONE CET (UTC +1)
• SUMMER (DST ) CEST (UTC +2)
DATE FORMAT dd/mm/yyyy (AD )
DRIVES ON THE right
CALLING CODE +386
ISO 3166 CODE SI
INTERNET TLD .si
* ^ Melody by
Stanko Premrl .
* ^ Hungarian and Italian are co-official in some municipalities.
Slovenian tolar prior to 2007.
* ^ Also
.eu , shared with other
SLOVENIA (/sloʊˈviːniə, slə-, -njə/ (_ listen )
sloh-VEE-nee-ə_ ; Slovene : _Slovenija_ ), officially the REPUBLIC
OF SLOVENIA (Slovene: _ Republika Slovenija_ (help ·info ), abbr. :
_RS_ ), is a nation state located in Central
The territory is mostly mountainous with a mainly continental climate , with the exception of the Slovene Littoral that has a sub- Mediterranean climate and the north-western area that has an Alpine climate . Additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia. The country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, and significant karst underground watercourses. Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The human settlement of Slovenia is dispersed and uneven.
Slovenia has historically been the crossroads of West Slavic , South Slavic , Germanic , Romance , and Hungarian languages and culture. Although the population is not homogeneous, the majority is Slovene . South Slavic language Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Slovenia is a largely secularized country, but its culture and identity have been significantly influenced by Catholicism as well as Lutheranism . The economy of Slovenia is small, open, and export-oriented and has been strongly influenced by international conditions. It has been severely hurt by the Eurozone crisis , started in the late 2000s. The main economic field is services , followed by industry and construction.
Historically, the current territory of
Slovenia was part of many
different state formations, including the
Roman Empire and the Holy
Roman Empire , followed by the
Habsburg Monarchy . In October 1918,
* 1 History
* 1.1 Prehistory to Slavic settlement
* 1.1.1 Prehistory * 1.1.2 Roman era * 1.1.3 Slavic settlement
* 1.5 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Geology * 2.2 Natural regions * 2.3 Climate * 2.4 Waters * 2.5 Biodiversity
* 3 Politics
* 3.1 Judiciary * 3.2 Military
* 4 Government
* 4.1 Administrative divisions and traditional regions
* 4.1.1 Municipalities * 4.1.2 Administrative districts * 4.1.3 Traditional regions and identities * 4.1.4 Statistical regions
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Economic growth * 5.2 National debt * 5.3 Services and industry * 5.4 Energy * 5.5 Tourism * 5.6 Transport
* 6 Demographics
* 6.1 Urbanisation * 6.2 Languages * 6.3 Immigration * 6.4 Emigration * 6.5 Religion
* 7 Education
* 8 Culture
* 8.1 Heritage * 8.2 Comedy * 8.3 Cuisine * 8.4 Dance * 8.5 Festivals, book fairs, and other events * 8.6 Film * 8.7 Literature * 8.8 Music * 8.9 Theatre * 8.10 Visual arts, architecture and design * 8.11 Sports
* 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links
Main article: History of Slovenia
PREHISTORY TO SLAVIC SETTLEMENT
A pierced cave bear bone , possibly flute , from Divje Babe
Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times, and there is evidence of human habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone , dating from 43100 ± 700 BP , found in 1995 in Divje Babe cave near Cerkno , is possibly the oldest musical instrument discovered in the world. In the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon such as pierced bones, bone points, and needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave .
In 2002, remains of pile dwellings over 4,500 years old were
discovered in the
The area that is present-day Slovenia was in Roman times shared between _Venetia et Histria_ (region X of Roman Italia in the classification of Augustus ) and the provinces Pannonia and Noricum . The Romans established posts at Emona (Ljubljana), Poetovio (Ptuj), and Celeia (Celje); and constructed trade and military roads that ran across Slovene territory from Italy to Pannonia. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the area was subject to invasions by the Huns and Germanic tribes during their incursions into Italy . A part of the inner state was protected with a defensive line of towers and walls called _ Claustra Alpium Iuliarum _. A crucial battle between Theodosius I and Eugenius took place in the Vipava Valley in 394.
The Slavic tribes migrated to the Alpine area after the westward
departure of the
Lombards (the last Germanic tribe) in 568, and under
pressure from Avars established a Slavic settlement in the Eastern
Alps . From 623 to 624 or possibly 626 onwards, King
Samo united the
Western Slavs against the Avars and Germanic peoples and
established what is referred to as Samo's Kingdom. After its
disintegration following Samo's death in 658 or 659, the ancestors of
THE MIDDLE AGES TO THE EARLY MODERN PERIOD
Carantanians , one of the ancestral groups of the modern
Slovenes, particularly the Carinthian
In the mid-8th century, Carantania became a vassal duchy under the rule of the Bavarians , who began spreading Christianity . Three decades later, the Carantanians were incorporated, together with the Bavarians, into the Carolingian Empire . During the same period Carniola , too, came under the Franks, and was Christianised from Aquileia . Following the anti-Frankish rebellion of Liudewit at the beginning of the 9th century, the Franks removed the Carantanian princes, replacing them with their own border dukes. Consequently, the Frankish feudal system reached the Slovene territory.
After the victory of Emperor Otto I over the Magyars in 955, Slovene territory was divided into a number of border regions of the Holy Roman Empire . Carantania, being the most important, was elevated into the Duchy of Carinthia in 976.
By the 11th century, the Germanization of what is now Lower Austria , effectively isolated the Slovene-inhabited territory from the other western Slavs , speeding up the development of the Slavs of Carantania and of Carniola into an independent Carantanian/Carniolans/Slovene ethnic group. By the late Middle Ages, the historic provinces of Carniola, Styria , Carinthia , Gorizia , Trieste , and Istria developed from the border regions and were incorporated into the medieval German state. The consolidation and formation of these historical lands took place in a long period between the 11th and 14th centuries, and were led by a number of important feudal families, such as the Dukes of Spannheim , the Counts of Gorizia , the Counts of Celje , and, finally, the House of Habsburg . In a parallel process, an intensive German colonisation significantly diminished the extent of Slovene-speaking areas. By the 15th century, the Slovene ethnic territory was reduced to its present size.
In the 14th century, most of the territory of present-day Slovenia
was taken over by the
Habsburgs , the Hungarian clan Záh
administering the territories connecting
At the end of the Middle Ages, the Slovene Lands suffered a serious economic and demographic setback because of the Turkish raids . In 1515, a peasant revolt spread across nearly the whole Slovene territory. In 1572 and 1573 the Croatian-Slovenian peasant revolt wrought havoc throughout the wider region. Such uprisings, which often met with bloody defeats, continued throughout the 17th century.
BETWEEN THE 18TH CENTURY AND THE END OF WORLD WAR I
Republic of Venice was dissolved by
France and Venetian Slovenia
was passed to the
Austrian Empire in 1797. The
Slovene Lands were part
Illyrian provinces , the
Austrian Empire and Austria-
Due to limited opportunities, between 1880–1910 there was extensive
emigration, and around 300,000
The 19th century also saw a revival of culture in the Slovene
language , accompanied by a Romantic nationalist quest for cultural
and political autonomy. The idea of a
United Slovenia , first advanced
during the revolutions of 1848 , became the common platform of most
Slovenian parties and political movements in Austria-Hungary. During
the same period,
Yugoslavism , an ideology stressing the unity of all
Slavic peoples , spread as a reaction to Pan-German nationalism
WORLD WAR I
Italian Campaign (World War I)
World War I
KINGDOM OF SERBS, CROATS AND SLOVENES (LATER KINGDOM OF YUGOSLAVIA)
The Slovene People\'s Party launched a movement for
self-determination, demanding the creation of a semi-independent South
Slavic state under Habsburg rule. The proposal was picked up by most
Slovene parties, and a mass mobilization of Slovene civil society,
known as the Declaration Movement , followed. This demand was
rejected by the Austrian political elites; but following the
dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the aftermath of the
First World War , the National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
took power in
On 1 December 1918 the
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs merged
Following a plebiscite in October 1920, the Slovene-speaking southern
Carinthia was ceded to
Austria . With the
Treaty of Trianon
The Treaty of Rapallo of 1920 left approximately 327,000 out of the
total population of 1.3 million
SLOVENIA DURING AND AFTER WORLD WAR II
Slovenia was the only present-day European nation that was trisected
and completely annexed into both
Nazi Germany and Fascist
World War II. In addition, the
Prekmurje region in the east was
annexed to Hungary, and some villages in the
Lower Sava Valley were
incorporated in the newly created
Axis forces invaded
In south-central Slovenia, annexed by Fascist
Italy and renamed to
After the resistance started in summer 1941, Italian violence against
the Slovene civilian population escalated, as well. The Italian
authorities deported some 25,000 people to the concentration camps ,
which equaled 7.5% of the population of their occupation zone. The
most infamous ones were Rab and Gonars . To counter the Communist-led
insurgence, the Italians sponsored local anti-guerrilla units, formed
mostly by the local conservative
Catholic Slovene population that
resented the revolutionary violence of the partisans. After the
Italian armistice of September 1943, the Germans took over both the
Approximately 8% of the entire Slovene population died during World
War II. The small Jewish community, mostly settled in the Prekmurje
region, perished in 1944 in the holocaust of Hungarian Jews . The
German speaking minority, amounting to 2.5% of the Slovenian
population prior to WWII, was either expelled or killed in the
aftermath of the war. Hundreds of
THE SOCIALIST PERIOD
Following the re-establishment of
After the failure of forced collectivisation that was attempted from
1949–53, a policy of gradual economic liberalisation, known as
workers self-management , was introduced under the advice and
supervision of the Slovene Marxist theoretician and Communist leader
Edvard Kardelj , the main ideologue of the
Titoist path to socialism.
Suspected opponents of this policy both from within and outside the
Communist party were persecuted and thousands were sent to the Goli
otok . President of
The late 1950s saw a policy of liberalisation in the cultural sphere,
as well, and limited border crossing into neighboring
Austria was allowed again. Until the 1980s, the
relatively broad autonomy within the federation. In 1956, Josip Broz
Tito , together with other leaders, founded the
Non-Aligned Movement .
Particularly in the 1950s, Slovenia's economy developed rapidly and
was strongly industrialised. With further economic decentralisation of
Opposition to the regime was mostly limited to intellectual and
literary circles, and became especially vocal after Tito's death in
1980, when the economic and political situation in
SLOVENIAN SPRING, DEMOCRACY AND INDEPENDENCE
In 1987 a group of intellectuals demanded Slovene independence in the 57th edition of the magazine _Nova revija _. Demands for democratisation and more Slovenian independence were sparked off. A mass democratic movement, coordinated by the Committee for the Defence of Human Rights , pushed the Communists in the direction of democratic reforms.
In September 1989, numerous constitutional amendments were passed to introduce parliamentary democracy to Slovenia. The same year Action North united both the opposition and democratized communist establishment in Slovenia as the first defense action against attacks by Slobodan Milošević 's supporters, leading to Slovenian independence. On 7 March 1990, the Slovenian Assembly changed the official name of the state to the "Republic of Slovenia". In April 1990, the first democratic election in Slovenia took place, and the united opposition movement DEMOS led by Jože Pučnik emerged victorious. Slovenian forces attacking a Yugoslav army tank during the Ten-Day War , 1991
The initial revolutionary events in
Slovenia pre-dated the
Revolutions of 1989 in Eastern
In December 1991, a new constitution was adopted, followed in 1992
by the laws on denationalisation and privatization . The members of
Slovenia joined the
The disillusionment with domestic socio-economic elites at municipal and national levels was expressed at the 2012–2013 Slovenian protests on a wider scale than in the smaller 15 October 2011 protests . In relation to the leading politicians' response to allegations made by the official Commission for the Prevention of Corruption of the Republic of Slovenia , legal experts expressed the need for changes in the system that would limit political arbitrariness .
Slovenia is situated in Central and Southeastern
Four major European geographic regions meet in Slovenia: the Alps , the Dinarides , the Pannonian Plain , and the Mediterranean . Although on the shore of the Adriatic Sea near the Mediterranean Sea , most of Slovenia is in the Black Sea drainage basin . The Alps—including the Julian Alps, the Kamnik-Savinja Alps and the Karavanke chain, as well as the Pohorje massif—dominate Northern Slovenia along its long border with Austria. Slovenia's Adriatic coastline stretches approximately 47 kilometres (29 mi) from Italy to Croatia.
The term "
Karst topography " refers to that of southwestern
Karst Plateau , a limestone region of underground rivers,
gorges, and caves, between
Over half of the country (10,124 km2 or 3,909 sq mi) is covered by forests. This makes Slovenia the third most forested country in Europe, after Finland and Sweden . The areas are covered mostly by beech , fir -beech and beech-oak forests and have a relatively high production capacity. Remnants of primeval forests are still to be found, the largest in the Kočevje area. Grassland covers 5,593 km2 (2,159 sq mi) and fields and gardens (954 km2 or 368 sq mi). There are 363 km2 (140 sq mi) of orchards and 216 km2 (83 sq mi) of vineyards.
Solution runnels (also known as rillenkarren) are a karst feature on the Karst Plateau, as in many other karst areas of the world.
Slovenia is in a rather active seismic zone because of its position on the small Adriatic Plate , which is squeezed between the Eurasian Plate to the north and the African Plate to the south and rotates counter-clockwise. Thus the country is at the junction of three important geotectonic units: the Alps to the north, the Dinaric Alps to the south and the Pannonian Basin to the east. Scientists have been able to identify 60 destructive earthquakes in the past. Additionally, a network of seismic stations is active throughout the country. Many parts of Slovenia have a carbonate ground, and an extensive subterranean system has developed.
The first regionalisations of Slovenia were made by geographers Anton Melik (1935–1936) and Svetozar Ilešič (1968). The newer regionalisation by Ivan Gams divided Slovenia in the following macroregions:
* the Alps (_Alpe_) * the subalpine landscapes (_predalpski svet_) * the Slovene Littoral or Submediterranean Slovenia (_Primorje_ or _submediteranska Slovenija_) * the Dinaric plateaus of the continental Slovenia (_dinarske planote celinske Slovenije_) * Subpannonian Slovenia (_subpanonska Slovenija_)
According to a newer natural geographic regionalisation, the country consists of four macroregions . These are the Alpine, the Mediterranean, the Dinaric, and the Pannonian landscapes. Macroregions are defined according to major relief units (the Alps, the Pannonian plain, the Dinaric mountains) and climate types (submediterranean, temperate continental, mountain climate). These are often quite interwoven.
Protected areas of Slovenia include national parks, regional parks, and nature parks, the largest of which is Triglav National Park . There are 286 Natura 2000 designated protected areas, which comprise 36% of the country's land area, the largest percentage among European Union states. Additionally, according to Yale University 's Environmental Performance Index , Slovenia is considered a "strong performer" in environmental protection efforts.
Slovenian coast with cliffs *
Dinaric Slovenia: intermittent Lake Cerknica *
Slovenia is located in temperate latitudes. The climate is also influenced by the variety of relief, and the influence of the Alps and the Adriatic Sea . In the northeast, the continental climate type with greatest difference between winter and summer temperatures prevails. In the coastal region, there is sub- Mediterranean climate . The effect of the sea on the temperature rates is visible also up the Soča valley, while a severe Alpine climate is present in the high mountain regions. There is a strong interaction between these three climatic systems across most of the country.
Precipitation , often coming from Bay of Genoa , varies across the
country as well, with over 3,500 mm (138 in) in some western regions
and dropping down to 800 mm (31 in) in
Prekmurje . Snow is quite
frequent in winter and the record snow cover in
Compared to Western Europe, Slovenia is not very windy, because it lies in the slipstream of the Alps. The average wind speeds are lower than in the plains of the nearby countries. Due to the rugged terrain, local vertical winds with daily periods are present. Besides these, there are three winds of particular regional importance: the bora , the jugo , and the foehn . The jugo and the bora are characteristic of the Littoral. Whereas the jugo is humid and warm, the bora is usually cold and gusty. The foehn is typical of the Alpine regions in the north of Slovenia. Generally present in Slovenia are the northeast wind, the southeast wind and the north wind .
The territory of Slovenia mainly (16,423 square kilometers or 6,341 square miles, i.e. 81%) belongs to the Black Sea basin, and a smaller part (3,850 square kilometers or 1,490 square miles, i.e. 19%) belongs to the Adriatic Sea basin. These two parts are divided into smaller units in regard to their central rivers, the Mura River basin, the Drava River basin, the Sava River basin with Kolpa River basin, and the basin of the Adriatic rivers. In comparison with developed countries , water quality in Slovenia is considered to be among the highest in Europe. One of the reasons is undoubtedly that most of the rivers rise on the mountainous territory of Slovenia. But this does not mean that Slovenia has no problems with surface water and groundwater quality, especially in areas with intensive farming.
Slovenia signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 13 June 1992 and became a party to the convention on 9 July 1996. It subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan , which was received by the convention on 30 May 2002.
Slovenia is distinguished by an exceptionally wide variety of habitats, due to the contact of geological units and biogeographical regions, and due to human influences. Around 12.5% of the territory is protected with 35.5% in the Natura 2000 ecological network. Despite this, because of pollution and environmental degradation, diversity has been in decline. Animals
The biological diversity of the country is high, with 1% of the
world's organisms on 0.004% of the Earth's surface area. There are 75
mammal species, among them marmots ,
Alpine ibex , and chamois . There
are numerous deer , roe deer , boar , and hares . The edible dormouse
is often found in the Slovenian beech forests. Trapping these animals
is a long tradition and is a part of the Slovenian national identity.
Carniolan honey bee
Some important carnivores include the
Slovenia is home to an exceptionally diverse number of cave species, with a few tens of endemic species . Among the cave vertebrates, the only known one is the olm , living in Karst, Lower Carniola, and White Carniola.
The only regular species of cetaceans found in the northern Adriatic sea is the bottlenose dolphin (_Tursiops truncatus_).
There are a wide variety of birds, such as the tawny owl , the
long-eared owl , the eagle owl , hawks , and short-toed eagles . Other
birds of prey have been recorded, as well as a growing number of
ravens , crows and magpies migrating into
There are 13 domestic animals native to Slovenia, of eight species (hen, pig, dog, horse, sheep, goat, honey bee, and cattle). Among these are the Karst Shepherd , the Carniolan honeybee , and the Lipizzan horse. They have been preserved ex situ and in situ . The marble trout or marmorata (_Salmo marmoratus_) is an indigenous Slovenian fish. Extensive breeding programmes have been introduced to repopulate the marble trout into lakes and streams invaded by non-indigenous species of trout . Slovenia is also home to the wels catfish . Fungi
More than 2,400 fungal species have been recorded from Slovenia and, since that figure does not include lichen-forming fungi, the total number of Slovenian fungi already known is undoubtedly much higher. Many more remain to be discovered. Plants
Slovenia is the third most-forested country in Europe, with 58.5% of the territory covered by forests. The forests are an important natural resource, and logging is kept to a minimum — Slovenians value their forests for the preservation of natural diversity, for enriching the soil and cleansing the water and air, for the social and economic benefits of recreation and tourism, and for the natural beauty they give the landscape. In the interior of the country are typical Central European forests, predominantly oak and beech . In the mountains, spruce , fir , and pine are more common. Pine trees grow on the Karst Plateau , although only one-third of the region is covered by pine forest. The lime/linden tree, common in Slovenian forests, is a national symbol. The tree line is at 1,700 to 1,800 metres (5,600 to 5,900 feet).
In the Alps, flowers such as _ Daphne blagayana _, gentians (_Gentiana clusii _, _Gentiana froelichi _), _ Primula auricula _, edelweiss (the symbol of Slovene mountaineering), _ Cypripedium calceolus _, _ Fritillaria meleagris _ (snake's head fritillary), and _Pulsatilla grandis _ are found.
Slovenia harbors many plants of ethnobotanically useful groups. Of 59 known species of ethnobotanical importance, some species such as _ Aconitum napellus _, _ Cannabis sativa _ and _ Taxus baccata _ are restricted for use as per the Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia.
Politics of Slovenia
Slovenia is a parliamentary democracy republic with a multi-party system . The head of state is the president , who is elected by popular vote and has an important integrative role. He is elected for five years and at maximum for two consecutive terms. He has mainly a representative role and is the commander-in-chief of the Slovenian military forces .
The executive and administrative authority in Slovenia is held by the Government of Slovenia (_Vlada Republike Slovenije_), headed by the Prime Minister and the council of ministers or cabinet, who are elected by the National Assembly (_Državni zbor Republike Slovenije_). The legislative authority is held by the bicameral Parliament of Slovenia , characterised by an asymmetric duality. The bulk of power is concentrated in the National Assembly, which consists of ninety members. Of those, 88 are elected by all the citizens in a system of proportional representation , whereas two are elected by the registered members of the autochthonous Hungarian and Italian minorities . Election takes place every four years. The National Council (_Državni svet Republike Slovenije_), consisting of forty members, appointed to represent social, economic, professional and local interest groups, has a limited advisory and control power. The 1992–2004 period was marked by the rule of the Liberal Democracy of Slovenia , which was responsible for gradual transition from the Titoistic economy to the capitalist market economy. It later attracted much criticism by neo-liberal economists, who demanded a less gradual approach. The party's president Janez Drnovšek , who served as prime minister between 1992 and 2002, was one of the most influential Slovenian politicians of the 1990s, alongside President Milan Kučan (who served between 1990 and 2002).
The 2005–2008 period was characterized by over-enthusiasm after joining the EU. During the first term of Janez Janša 's government, for the first time after independence, the Slovenian banks saw their loan-deposit ratios veering out of control. There was over-borrowing from foreign banks and then over-crediting of customers, including local tycoons.
After the onset of the financial crisis of 2007–2010 and European sovereign-debt crisis , the left-wing coalition that replaced Janša's government in the 2008 elections, had to face the consequences of the 2005–2008 over-borrowing. Attempts to implement reforms that would help economic recovery were met by student protesters, led by a student who later became a member of Janez Janša 's SDS , and by the trade unions. The proposed reforms were postponed in a referendum. The left-wing government was ousted with a vote of no confidence. Janez Janša attributed the boom of spending and overborrowing to the period of left-wing government; he proposed harsh austerity reforms which he had previously helped postpone. Generally, some economists estimate that left and right parties attributed to over-loaning and managers' takovers; reason behind was that each block tried to establish economic elite which will support political forces.
Main article: Judiciary of Slovenia
Judicial powers in Slovenia are executed by judges , who are elected by the National Assembly. Judicial power in Slovenia is implemented by courts with general responsibilities and specialised courts that deal with matters relating to specific legal areas. The State Prosecutor is an independent state authority responsible for prosecuting cases brought against those suspected of committing criminal offences. The Constitutional Court , composed of nine judges elected for nine-year terms, decides on the conformity of laws with the Constitution; all laws and regulations must also conform with the general principles of international law and with ratified international agreements.
The Slovenian Armed Forces provide military defence independently or within an alliance, in accordance with international agreements. Since conscription was abolished in 2003, it is organized as a fully professional standing army . The Commander-in-Chief is the President of the Republic of Slovenia , while operational command is in the domain of the Chief of the General Staff of the Slovenian Armed Forces. In 2016, military spending was an estimated 0.91% of the country's GDP. Since joining NATO , the Slovenian Armed Forces have taken a more active part in supporting international peace. They have participated in peace support operations and humanitarian activities. Among others, Slovenian soldiers are a part of international forces serving in Bosnia and Herzegovina , Kosovo , and Afghanistan .
ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS AND TRADITIONAL REGIONS
Traditional regions of Slovenia
Officially, Slovenia is subdivided into 211 municipalities (eleven of which have the status of urban municipalities). The municipalities are the only bodies of local autonomy in Slovenia. Each municipality is headed by a mayor (_župan_), elected every four years by popular vote, and a municipal council (_občinski svet_). In the majority of municipalities, the municipal council is elected through the system of proportional representation ; only a few smaller municipalities use the plurality voting system . In the urban municipalities, the municipal councils are called town (or city) councils. Every municipality also has a Head of the Municipal Administration (_načelnik občinske uprave_), appointed by the mayor, who is responsible for the functioning of the local administration.
There is no official intermediate unit between the municipalities and the Republic of Slovenia. The 62 administrative districts, officially called "Administrative Units" (_upravne enote_), are only subdivisions of the national government administration and are named after their respective bases of government offices. They are headed by a Manager of the Unit (_načelnik upravne enote_), appointed by the Minister of Public Administration.
Traditional Regions And Identities
Traditional regions were based on the former Habsburg crown lands
Carniola , Carinthia , Styria , and the Littoral .
Stronger than with either the
Carniola as a whole, or with
The capital city
The 12 _statistical regions_ have no administrative function and are
subdivided into two macroregions for the purpose of the Regional
policy of the
* East Slovenia (_Vzhodna Slovenija_ – SI01), which groups the Mura, Drava, Carinthia, Savinja, Central Sava, Lower Sava, Southeast Slovenia, and Inner Carniola– Karst statistical regions. * West Slovenia (_Zahodna Slovenija_ – SI02), which groups the Central Slovenia, Upper Carniola, Gorizia, and Coastal–Karst statistical regions.
Slovenia has a developed economy and is per capita the richest of the
Slavic countries by nominal GDP, and the second richest by GDP (PPP)
Czech Republic .
Slovenia was in the beginning of 2007 the
first new member to introduce the euro as its currency, replacing the
tolar . Since 2010, it has been member of the Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development . There is a big difference in
prosperity between the various regions. The economically most
prosperous regions are the Central
Slovenia region which includes the
In 2004–2006, the economy grew on average by nearly 5% a year in
Slovenia; in 2007, it expanded by almost 7%. The growth surge was
fuelled by debt, particularly among firms, and especially in
construction. The financial crisis of 2007–2010 and European
sovereign-debt crisis had a significant impact on the domestic
economy. The construction industry was severely hit in 2010 and 2011.
In 2009, Slovenian
GDP per capita shrank by 8%, the biggest decline
In August 2012, the year-on-year contraction was 0.8%, however, 0.2% growth was recorded in the first quarter (in relation to the quarter before, after data was adjusted according to season and working days). Year-on-year contraction has been attributed to the fall in domestic consumption, and the slowdown in export growth. The decrease in domestic consumption has been attributed to the fiscal austerity , to the freeze on budget expenditure in the final months of 2011, to the failure of the efforts to implement economic reforms , to inappropriate financing, and to the decrease in exports.
Due to the effects of the crisis it was expected that several banks had to be bailed out by EU funds in 2013, however needed capital was able to be covered by the country's own funds. Fiscal actions and legislations aiming on the reduction of spendings as well as several privatisations supported an economic recovery as from 2014. The real economic growth rate was at 2.5% in 2016 and is expected to reach 3.5% in 2017. The construction sector has seen a recent increase, and the tourism industry is expected to have continuous rising numbers.
Slovenia's total national debt at the end of September 2011 amounted
to 15,884 million euros or 44.4% of GDP. In August 2012, the three
main ratings agencies have all downgraded Slovenian sovereign debt. An
increase in 2013 estimates about
Slovenia allegedly being in need of a
bailout was attributed by Finland’s
SERVICES AND INDUSTRY
A graphical depiction of Slovenia's product exports in 28 color-coded categories.
Almost two-thirds of people are employed in services, and over one-third in industry and construction. Slovenia benefits from a well-educated workforce, well-developed infrastructure, and its location at the crossroads of major trade routes.
The level of foreign direct investment (FDI) per capita in Slovenia is one of the lowest in the EU, and the labor productivity and the competitiveness of the Slovenian economy is still significantly below the EU average. Taxes are relatively high, the labor market is seen by business interests as being inflexible, and industries are losing sales to China, India, and elsewhere.
High level of openness makes Slovenia extremely sensitive to economic conditions in its main trading partners and changes in its international price competitiveness. The main industries are motor vehicles, electric and electronic equipment, machinery, pharmaceuticals , and fuels. Examples of major Slovenian companies operating in Slovenia include the home appliance manufacturer Gorenje , the pharmaceutical company Krka , the oil distributing company Petrol Group and Revoz a manufacturing subsidiary of Renault .
Further information: Energy in Slovenia
In 2011 electricity production was 14,144 GWh, electricity consumption was 12,602 GWh. Electricity production by source: hydro 3,361 GWh, thermal 4,883 GWh, nuclear 5,899 GWh.
Current investments: new 600 MW block of Šoštanj thermal power plant is in construction and will be finished by 2014. New 39.5 MW HE Krško hydro power plant was finished in 2013. By 2018, 41.5 MW HE Brežice and 30.5 MW HE Mokrice hydro power plants will be built on the Sava River. Construction of ten hydropower plants on the Sava River with a cumulative capacity of 338 MW is planned to be finished by 2030. A large pumped-storage hydro power plant Kozjak on the Drava River is in the planning stage.
Renewable energy in Slovenia: at the end of 2011 at least 87 MWp of photovoltaic modules were installed and 22 MW of biogas powerplants. There is a plan and obligation that at least 500 MW of wind power will be installed by 2020. Solar hot water heating is gaining popularity in Slovenia.
Slovenia offers tourists a wide variety of natural and cultural amenities. Different forms of tourism have developed. The tourist gravitational area is considerably large, however the tourist market is small. There has been no large-scale tourism and no acute environmental pressures.
The nation's capital, Ljubljana, has many important Baroque and Vienna Secession buildings, with several important works of the native born architect Jože Plečnik and also his pupil, architect Edo Ravnikar.
At the northwestern corner of the country lie the Julian Alps with the picturesque Lake Bled and the Soča Valley, as well as the nation's highest peak, Mount Triglav in the middle of Triglav National Park . Other mountain ranges include Kamnik–Savinja Alps , Karavanke and Pohorje , popular with skiers and hikers.
The Karst Plateau in the Slovene Littoral gave its name to karst , a landscape shaped by water dissolving the carbonate bedrock, forming caves. The best-known caves are Postojna Cave and the UNESCO -listed Škocjan Caves . The region of Slovenian Istria meets the Adriatic Sea , where the most important historical monument is the Venetian Gothic Mediterranean town of Piran while the settlement of Portorož attracts crowds in summer.
The hills around Slovenia's second-largest town,
Important parts of tourism in Slovenia include congress and gambling tourism . Slovenia is the country with the highest percentage of casinos per 1,000 inhabitants in the European Union. Perla in Nova Gorica is the largest casino in the region.
Most of foreign tourists to
Slovenia come from the key European
Austria , Germany,
The location at the junction of major geographic units and the area
being traversed by major rivers have been the reasons for the
intersection of the main transport routes in Slovenia. Their course
was established already in the Antiquity. A particular geographic
advantage in recent times has been the location of the intersection of
the Pan-European transport corridors V (the fastest link between the
North Adriatic, and Central and Eastern Europe) and X (linking Central
The road freight and passenger transport constitutes the largest part
of transport in
Slovenia at 80%. Personal cars are much more popular
than public road passenger transport, which has significantly
Slovenia has a very high highway and motorway density
compared to the
The existing Slovenian railways are out-of-date and can't compete
with the motorway network. The maintenance and modernisation of the
Slovenian railway network has been neglected due to the lack of
financial assets. Due to the out-of-date infrastructure, the share of
the railway freight transport has been in decline in Slovenia. The
railway passenger transport has been recovering after a large drop in
the 1990s. The Pan-European railway corridors V and X, and several
other major European rail lines intersect in Slovenia. All
international transit trains in
Slovenia drive through the Ljubljana
Railway Hub . The
The major Slovenian port is the Port of Koper . It is the largest Northern Adriatic port in terms of container transport, with almost 590,000 TEUs annually and lines to all major world ports. It is much closer to destinations east of the Suez than the ports of Northern Europe. In addition, the maritime passenger traffic mostly takes place in Koper. Two smaller ports used for the international passenger transport as well as cargo transport are located in Izola and Piran . Passenger transport mainly takes place with Italy and Croatia. Splošna plovba , the only Slovenian shipping company, transports freight and is active only in foreign ports.
Air transport in
Slovenia is quite low, but has significantly grown
since 1991. Of the three international airports in Slovenia,
YEAR POP. ±%
1921 1,054,919 —
1931 1,144,298 +8.5%
1948 1,391,873 +21.6%
1953 1,466,425 +5.4%
1961 1,591,523 +8.5%
1971 1,727,137 +8.5%
1981 1,891,864 +9.5%
1991 1,913,355 +1.1%
2002 1,964,036 +2.6%
2011 2,050,189 +4.4%
2015 2,062,874 +0.6%
2016 2,064,188 +0.1%
2017 2,065,895 +0.1%
As of 1 January
With 101 inhabitants per square kilometer (262/sq mi), Slovenia ranks low among the European countries in population density (compared to 402/km2 (1042/sq mi) for the Netherlands or 195/km2 (505/sq mi) for Italy ). The Inner Carniola– Karst Statistical Region has the lowest population density while the Central Slovenia Statistical Region has the highest.
Slovenia is among the European countries with the most pronounced ageing of population, ascribable to a low birth rate and increasing life expectancy. Almost all Slovenian inhabitants older than 64 are retired, with no significant difference between the genders. The working-age group is diminishing in spite of immigration. The proposal to raise the retirement age from the current 57 for women and 58 for men was rejected in a referendum in 2011 . In addition, the difference among the genders regarding life expectancy is still significant. The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2014 was estimated at 1.33 children born/woman, which is lower than the replacement rate of 2.1. The majority of children are born to unmarried women (in 2016, 58.6% of all births were outside of marriage). In 2016, life expectancy was 78.2 years (74.6 years male, and 82 years female).
In 2009, the suicide rate in Slovenia was 22 per 100,000 persons per year, which places Slovenia among the highest ranked European countries in this regard. Nonetheless, from 2000 until 2010, the rate has decreased by about 30%. The differences between regions and the genders are pronounced.
Main article: List of cities and towns in Slovenia
Depending on definition, between 65% and 79% of people live in wider urban areas. According to OECD definition of rural areas none of the Slovene statistical regions is mostly urbanised, meaning that 15% or less of the population lives in rural communities. According to this definition statistical regions are classified:
* mostly rural regions: Mura , Drava , Carinthia , Savinja , Lower Sava , Littoral–Inner Carniola , Gorizia , Southeast Slovenia * moderately rural regions: Central Sava , Upper Carniola , Coastal– Karst , Central Slovenia .
The only large town is the capital, Ljubljana. Other, medium-sized towns include Maribor, Celje, and Kranj. Overall, there are eleven urban municipalities in Slovenia.
* view * talk * edit
* view * talk * edit
Largest towns of Slovenia Statistical Office : Largest settlements by population (1 January 2014)
RANK TOWN NAME STATISTICAL REGION POP.
1 LJUBLJANA Central Slovenia 277,554
2 MARIBOR Drava 95,586
3 CELJE Savinja 37,628
4 KRANJ Upper Carniola 37,223
5 KOPER/CAPODISTRIA Coastal– Karst 25,775
6 VELENJE Savinja 25,329
7 NOVO MESTO Southeast Slovenia 23,275
8 PTUJ Drava 17,870
9 TRBOVLJE Central Sava 14,302
10 KAMNIK Central Slovenia 13,685
The official language in Slovenia is Slovene , which is a member of the South Slavic language group . In 2002, Slovene was the native language of around 88% of Slovenia's population according to the census, with more than 92% of the Slovenian population speaking it in their home environment. This statistic ranks Slovenia among the most homogeneous countries in the EU in terms of the share of speakers of the predominant mother tongue.
Slovene is a highly diverse Slavic language in terms of dialects , with different degrees of mutual intelligibility. Accounts of the number of dialects range from as few as seven dialects, often considered dialect groups or dialect bases that are further subdivided into as many as 50 dialects. Other sources characterize the number of dialects as nine or as eight. Bilingual Slovene-Italian edition of the Slovenian passport
Hungarian and Italian , spoken by the respective minorities, enjoy the status of official languages in the ethnically mixed regions along the Hungarian and Italian borders, to the extent that even the passports issued in those areas are bilingual. In 2002 around 0.2% of the Slovenian population spoke Italian and around 0.4% spoke Hungarian as their native language. Hungarian is co-official with Slovene in 30 settlements in 5 municipalities (whereof 3 are officially bilingual). Italian is co-official with Slovene in 25 settlements in 4 municipalities (all of them officially bilingual).
Romani , spoken in 2002 as the native language by 0.2% of people, is a legally protected language in Slovenia. Romani-speakers mainly belong to the geographically dispersed and marginalized Roma community.
German, which used to be the largest minority language in Slovenia
World War II (around 4% of the population in 1921), is now
the native language of only around 0.08% of the population, the
majority of whom are more than 60 years old.
_Granish_, the traditional German dialect of
A significant number of people in Slovenia speak a variant of Serbo-Croatian (Serbian , Croatian , Bosnian , or Montenegrin ) as their native language. These are mostly immigrants who moved to Slovenia from other former Yugoslav republics from the 1960s to the late 1980s, and their descendants. In 2002, 0.4% of the Slovenian population declared themselves to be native speakers of Albanian and 0.2% native speakers of Macedonian . Czech , the fourth-largest minority language in Slovenia prior to World War II (after German, Hungarian, and Serbo-Croatian), is now the native language of a few hundred residents of Slovenia.
Regarding the knowledge of foreign languages,
Slovenia ranks among
the top European countries. The most taught foreign languages are
English, German, Italian, French and Spanish. As of 2007 , 92% of the
population between the age of 25 and 64 spoke at least one foreign
language and around 71.8% of them spoke at least two foreign
languages, which was the highest percentage in the European Union.
According to the
Eurobarometer survey, as of 2005 the majority of
A reported 42% of
In 2015 about 12% (237,616 people) of the population in
born abroad. About 86% of the foreign-born population originated from
countries of the former
By the beginning of 2017 there were about 114,438 people with a
foreign citizenship residing in the country making up 5.5% of the
total population. Of these foreigners 76% had citizenships of
countries from the former
Ethnic composition of Slovenia (according to the 2002 census)
other minorities 4.85%
undeclared or unknown 8.9%
According to the 2002 census, Slovenia's main ethnic group are
The number of people immigrating into Slovenia rose steadily from 1995 and has been increasing even more rapidly in recent years. After Slovenia joined the EU in 2004, the annual number of immigrants doubled by 2006 and increased by half yet again by 2009. In 2007, Slovenia had one of the fastest growing net migration rates in the European Union.
As to emigration, between 1880 and 1918 (World War I) many men left Slovenia to work in mining areas in other nations. The United States in particular has been a common choice for emigration, with the 1910 US Census showing that there were already "183,431 persons in the USA of Slovenian mother tongue". But there may have been many more, because a good number avoided anti-Slavic prejudice and "identified themselves as Austrians." Favorite localities before 1900 were Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, as well as Omaha, Nebraska , Joliet, Illinois , Cleveland, Ohio , and rural areas of Iowa. After 1910, they settled in Utah (Bingham Copper Mine), Colorado (especially Pueblo), and Butte, Montana. These areas attracted first many single men (who often boarded with Slovenian families). Then after locating work and having sufficient money, the men sent back for their wives and families to join them.
Main article: Religion in Slovenia
Religion in Slovenia (2002 census ) Roman Catholicism (57.8%) Undeclared (15.7%) Non-religious (10.2%) Unknown (7.1%) Believer, no religion (3.5%) Islam (2.4%) Eastern Orthodoxy (2.3%) Lutheranism (0.8%) Other religion (0.2%) Basilica of the Virgin Mary in Brezje , also known as the Slovenian National Shrine, is the most visited Catholic pilgrimage site in Slovenia Lutheran church in Bodonci in the Prekmurje region
Before World War II, 97% of the population declared itself Catholic ( Roman Rite ), around 2.5% as Lutheran, and around 0.5% of residents identified themselves as members of other denominations.
Catholicism was an important feature of both social and political life in pre-Communist Slovenia. After 1945, the country underwent a process of gradual but steady secularization . After a decade of persecution of religions, the Communist regime adopted a policy of relative tolerance towards churches. After 1990, the Catholic Church regained some of its former influence, but Slovenia remains a largely secularized society. According to the 2002 census, 57.8% of the population is Catholic. In 1991, 71.6% were self-declared Catholics which means a drop of more than 1% annually. The vast majority of Slovenian Catholics belong to the Latin Rite . A small number of Greek Catholics live in the White Carniola region.
Despite a relatively small number of Protestants (less than 1% in 2002), the Protestant legacy is historically significant given that the Slovene standard language and Slovene literature were established by the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. Protestantism was extinguished in the Counter-Reformation implemented by the Habsburgs , only surviving in the easternmost regions due to protection of Hungarian nobles, who often happened to be Calvinist . Today, a significant Lutheran minority lives in the easternmost region of Prekmurje , where they represent around a fifth of the population and are headed by a bishop with the seat in Murska Sobota .
Besides these two Christian denominations, a small Jewish community has also been historically present. Despite the losses suffered during the Holocaust , Judaism still numbers a few hundred adherents, mostly living in Ljubljana, site of the sole remaining active synagogue in the country.
According to the 2002 census, Islam is the second largest religious denomination with around 2.4% of the population. Most Slovenian Muslims came from Bosnia . The third largest denomination, with around 2.2% of the population, is Orthodox Christianity , with most adherents belonging to the Serbian Orthodox Church while a minority belongs to the Macedonian and other Orthodox churches.
In the 2002, around 10% of
Slovenia's education ranks as the 12th best in the world and 4th best
Responsibility for education oversight at primary and secondary level in Slovenia lies with the Ministry of Education and Sports. After non-compulsory pre-school education, children enter the nine-year primary school at the age of six. Primary school is divided into three periods, each of three years. In the academic year 2006–2007 there were 166,000 pupils enrolled in elementary education and more than 13,225 teachers, giving a ratio of one teacher per 12 pupils and 20 pupils per class. Secondary
After completing elementary school, nearly all children (more than 98%) go on to secondary education, either vocational, technical or general secondary programmes (gimnazija ). The latter concludes with matura , the final exam that allows the graduates to enter a university. 84% of secondary school graduates go on to tertiary education. Tertiary
Among several universities in Slovenia, the best ranked is the
Culture of Slovenia _
The Sower _ (1907), produced
by the impressionist painter
Ivan Grohar , became a metaphor for
Slovenia has widespread built heritage, including 2,500 churches, 1,000 castles, ruins, and manor houses, farmhouses, and special structures to dry hay, called hayracks (_kozolci_).
Three historic sites in
Slovenia are on the UNESCO World Heritage
Škocjan Caves and its karst landscape are a protected
site. The Idrija Mercury mining site is of world importance, as are
the prehistoric pile dwellings in the
The most picturesque church is the medieval and
Baroque building on
Bled Island . The castle above the lake is a museum and restaurant
with a view. Near
Postojna there is an interesting fortress called the
Predjama Castle , half hidden in a cave. Museums in
Comedians historically included the pioneer of Slovene comedy plays Anton Tomaž Linhart and much later singer-songwriter Frane Milčinski (1914–1988), the socialist period comedian and journalist Tone Fornezzi , the Italian-style comedians Nataša Tič Raljan with her Mona Liza character, Gojmir Lešnjak , and Boris Kobal with the characters from the legendary TV Poper Show , and the leading Slovene impersonator Sašo Hribar with his Radio Ga-Ga Show .
The new generation of comedians include stand up comedians , such as Tin Vodopivec , who co-founded the Punch Festival , the radio host and impersonator Denis Avdić , and The Elephant and a Fruit group.
Slovenian cuisine is a mixture of the Central European cuisine (especially Austrian and Hungarian ), the Mediterranean cuisine and the Balkan cuisine . Historically, Slovenian cuisine was divided into town, farmhouse, cottage, castle, parsonage and monastic cuisine. Due to the variety of Slovenian cultural and natural landscapes, there are more than 40 distinct regional cuisines.
Ethnologically most characteristic Slovene dishes were one-pot dishes, such as _ričet _, Istrian stew (_jota_), minestrone (_mineštra_), and _žganci _ buckwheat spoonbread; in the Prekmurje region there is also _bujta repa _, and _prekmurska gibanica _ pastry. Pršut prosciutto is known (_pršut_) in the Slovene Littoral . The nut roll (_potica_) has become a trademark and symbol of Slovenia especially among Slovene diaspora in America . Soups were added to the traditional one-pot meals and various kinds of porridge and stew only in relatively recent history.
Each year since 2000, the Festival of Roasted Potatoes is organized by the _Society for the Recognition of Roasted Potatoes as a Distinct Dish_, attracting thousands of visitors. The roasted potatoes, which have been traditionally served in most Slovenian families only on Sundays—preceded by a meat-based soup, such as beef or chicken soup—have been depicted on a special edition of post marks by the Post of Slovenia on 23 November 2012. The best known sausage is _kranjska klobasa _.
Pino Mlakar and Pia Mlakar were the most notable ballet dancers and
members of the
Numerous folk dances along with colorful costumes distinguishing between single and married women are found throughout Slovenia. Pueblo, Colorado, home to numerous Slovenian families who emigrated around 1900, has an annual Slovenian Folklore festival.
FESTIVALS, BOOK FAIRS, AND OTHER EVENTS
A number of music, theater, film, book, and children's festivals take place in Slovenia each year, including the music festivals Ljubljana Summer Festival and Lent Festival , the stand up comedy Punch Festival , the children's Pippi Longstocking Festival , and the book festivals Slovene book fair and Frankfurt after the Frankfurt .
The most notable music festival of Slovene music was historically the
Slovenska popevka festival. Between 1981 and 2000 the Novi Rock
festival was notable for bringing rock music across
Iron curtain from
the West to the Slovenian and then Yugoslav audience. In Titoist
Yugoslavia, Jazz festival
Slovene film actors and actresses historically include Ida Kravanja , who played her roles as _Ita Rina_ in the early European films, and Metka Bučar . After the WW II, one of the most notable film actors was Polde Bibič , who played a number of roles in many films that were well received in Slovenia, including _Don\'t Cry, Peter _ (1964), _On Wings of Paper _ (1968), _Kekec\'s Tricks _ (1968), _Flowers in Autumn _ (1973), _ The Widowhood of Karolina Žašler _ (1976), _Heritage _ (1986), _ Primož Trubar _ (1985), and _My Dad, The Socialist Kulak _ (1987). Many of these were directed by Matjaž Klopčič . He also performed in television and radio drama. Altogether, Bibič played over 150 theatre and over 30 film roles. Film directors
Feature film and short film production in Slovenia historically includes Karol Grossmann , František Čap , France Štiglic , Igor Pretnar , Jože Pogačnik , Peter Zobec , Matjaž Klopčič , Boštjan Hladnik , Dušan Jovanović , Vitan Mal , Franci Slak , and Karpo Godina as its most established filmmakers. Contemporary film directors Filip Robar - Dorin , Jan Cvitkovič , Damjan Kozole , Janez Lapajne , Marko Okorn , and Marko Naberšnik are among the representatives of the so-called " Renaissance of Slovenian cinema". Slovene screenwriters, who are not film directors, include Saša Vuga and Miha Mazzini . Women film directors include Polona Sepe , Hanna A. W. Slak , and Maja Weiss . Documentaries
Most notable documentaries made by Slovenian directors include the humanitarian films by Tomo Križnar on the Nuba people. Film criticism
Slovene film critics include Silvan Furlan , the founder of the _Slovenian Cinematheque _, Zdenko Vrdlovec , Marcel Štefančič Jr. , and Simon Popek .
Today, notable authors include Boris Pahor , a German Nazi concentration camp survivor, who opposed Italian Fascism and Titoist Communism. Literary history _ France Prešeren , best-known Slovenian poet " Zdravljica " (A Toast_; part) with rejection mark from Austrian censorship (due to potential revolutionary content; the music of Zdravljica is now the Slovenian national anthem .
History of Slovene literature began in the 16th century with Primož Trubar and other Protestant Reformers . Poetry in the Slovene language achieved its highest level with the Romantic poet France Prešeren (1800–1849). In the 20th century, the Slovene literary fiction went through several periods: the beginning of the century was marked by the authors of the Slovene Modernism , with the most influential Slovene writer and playwright, Ivan Cankar ; it was then followed by expressionism ( Srečko Kosovel ), avantgardism ( Anton Podbevšek , Ferdo Delak ) and social realism ( Ciril Kosmač , Prežihov Voranc ) before World War II, the poetry of resistance and revolution (Karel Destovnik Kajuh , Matej Bor ) during the war, and intimism (Poems of the Four , 1953), post-war modernism ( Edvard Kocbek ), and existentialism ( Dane Zajc ) after the war.
Postmodernist authors include Boris A. Novak , Marko Kravos , Drago Jančar , Evald Flisar , Tomaž Šalamun , and Brina Svit . Among the post-1990 authors best known are Aleš Debeljak , Miha Mazzini , and Alojz Ihan . There are several literary magazines that publish Slovene prose, poetry, essays, and local literary criticism. Book reviews
In the Bukla Magazine , issued free of charge, both fiction and non-fiction Slovene books published in the previous month are reviewed since 2005.
Main article: Music of Slovenia
The Slovenian Philharmonics , established in 1701 as part of Academia operosorum Labacensis , is among the oldest such institutions in Europe. Music of Slovenia historically includes numerous musicians and composers, such as the Renaissance composer Jacobus Gallus (1550–1591), who greatly influenced Central European classical music, the Baroque composer Janez Krstnik Dolar (ca. 1620–1673), and the violin virtuoso Giuseppe Tartini .
During the medieval era, secular music was as popular as church music, including wandering minnesingers . By the time of Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, music was used to proselytize. The first Slovenian hymnal, _Eni Psalmi _, was published in 1567. This period saw the rise of musicians like Jacobus Gallus and Jurij Slatkonja .
In 1701, Johann Berthold von Höffer (1667–1718), a nobleman and amateur composer from Ljubljana, founded the Academia Philharmonicorum Labacensis , as one of the oldest such institutions in Europe, based on Italian models.
Composers of Slovenian Lieder and art songs include Emil Adamič (1877–1936), Fran Gerbič (1840–1917), Alojz Geržinič (1915–2008), Benjamin Ipavec (1829–1908), Davorin Jenko (1835–1914), Anton Lajovic (1878–1960), Kamilo Mašek (1831–1859), Josip Pavčič (1870–1949), Zorko Prelovec (1887–1939), and Lucijan Marija Škerjanc (1900–1973).
In the early 20th century, impressionism was spreading across Slovenia, which soon produced composers Marij Kogoj and Slavko Osterc . Avant-garde classical music arose in Slovenia in the 1960s, largely due to the work of Uroš Krek , Dane Škerl , Primož Ramovš and Ivo Petrić , who also conducted the Slavko Osterc Ensemble . Jakob Jež , Darijan Božič , Lojze Lebič and Vinko Globokar have since composed enduring works, especially Globokar's _L\'Armonia _, an opera.
Modern composers include Uroš Rojko , Tomaž Svete , Brina Jež-Brezavšček , Božidar Kantušer and Aldo Kumar . Kumar's _Sonata z igro 12_ (_A sonata with a play 12_), a set of variations on a rising chromatic scale , is particularly notable.
The Slovene National Opera and Ballet Theatre serves as the national opera and ballet house.
The composer of film scores for 170 films was Bojan Adamič (1912–1995). Traditional folk music
Harmony singing is a deep rooted tradition in Slovenia, and is at least three-part singing (four voices), while in some regions even up to eight-part singing (nine voices). Slovenian folk songs, thus, usually resounds soft and harmonious, and are very seldom in minor. Traditional Slovenian folk music is performed on Styrian harmonica (the oldest type of accordion), fiddle, clarinet, zithers , flute, and by brass bands of alpine type. In eastern Slovenia , fiddle and cimbalon bands are called velike goslarije . Modern folk (Slovenian country) music Folk musician Lojze Slak
From 1952 on, the Slavko Avsenik 's band began to appear in broadcasts, movies, and concerts all over the West Germany , inventing the original "Oberkrainer " country sound that has become the primary vehicle of ethnic musical expression not only in Slovenia, but also in Germany, Austria , Switzerland , and in the Benelux , spawning hundreds of Alpine orchestras in the process. The band produced nearly 1000 original compositions, an integral part of the Slovenian-style polka legacy. Many musicians followed Avsenik's steps, including Lojze Slak . Slovenska popevka
A similarly high standing in Slovene culture, like the Sanremo Music Festival has had in Italian culture, was attributed to the Slovenska popevka , a specific genre of popular Slovene music. Popular music
Among pop, rock, industrial, and indie musicians the most popular in Slovenia include Laibach , an early 1980s industrial music group. The industrial group Laibach
With more than 15 million views for the official a cappella "Africa "
performance video since its publishing on
YouTube in May 2009 until
September 2013 that earned them kudos from the song's co-writer,
David Paich ,
Perpetuum Jazzile is the group from
Slovenia that is
internationally most listened online. Other Slovenian bands include a
historically progressive rock ones that were also popular in Titoism
Yugoslavia, such as
Lačni Franz , which inspired later
comedy rock bands including
Slon in Sadež and Mi2 . With
Terrafolk that made appearances worldwide, other bands,
Zaklonišče Prepeva ,
Šank Rock ,
Big Foot Mama ,
Dan D ,
Zablujena generacija , are mostly unknown outside the country.
Slovenian metal bands include Negligence (thrash metal ), Naio Ssaion
Gothic metal ), and Devil Doll (experimental rock ). The folk
Vlado Kreslin during a concert at the Lent
Slovenian post-WWII singer-songwriters include Frane Milčinski
Tomaž Pengov whose 1973 album _Odpotovanja_ is
considered to be the first singer-songwriter album in former
The 1970s Bratko Bibič 's band Begnagrad is considered one of the direct influences on modern world music . Bibič's unique accordion style, often solo, with no accompaniment, has also made him a solo star. Punk rock
Slovenia was the center for punk rock in the Titoist Yugoslavia. Representatives of this genre include Pankrti , Niet , Lublanski Psi , Čao Pičke , Via Ofenziva , Tožibabe , and Otroci Socializma . Techno and tech-house
Slovenia has also produced several DJs, including DJ Umek and Valentino Kanzyani . Specialising in party techno and tech-house, the pair co-founded the label Recycled Loops as well as having releases on labels such as Novamute, Primate, Intec and Bassethound Records.
The National Theatre in
In addition to the main houses, which include Slovene National
VISUAL ARTS, ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN
Slovenia's visual arts , architecture, and design are shaped by a number of architects, designers, painters, sculptors, photographers, graphics artists, as well as comics, illustration and conceptual artists. The most prestigious institutions exhibiting works of Slovene visual artists are the National Gallery of Slovenia and the Museum of Modern Art . Architecture
Modern architecture in Slovenia was introduced by Max Fabiani , and in the mid-war period, Jože Plečnik and Ivan Vurnik . In the second half of the 20th century, the national and universal style were merged by the architects Edvard Ravnikar and first generation of his students: Milan Mihelič, Stanko Kristl, Savin Sever. Next generation is mainly still active Marko Mušič , Vojteh Ravnikar , Jurij Kobe and groups of younger architects. Comics and animation
Milko Bambič is known for the first Slovene comic strip _Little Negro Bu-ci-bu _, an allegory of Mussolini 's career, and as the creator of the _Three Hearts_ (_Tri srca_) brand, still used today by Radenska . After the WW II, both the comics and animated advertisements drawn by Miki Muster gained popularity in Slovenia.
The first Slovenian animated feature film was the 1998 _Socialization of a Bull _, made by Zvonko Čoh and Milan Erič who together drew fifty thousand frames during the ten years of its making. The first entirely computer made animations are the 2003 _Perkmandeljc _ and the 2008 _Čikorja an\' kafe _, both made by Dušan Kastelic . Conceptual art
A number of conceptual visual art groups formed, including OHO , Group 69 , and IRWIN . Nowadays, the Slovene visual arts are diverse, based on tradition, reflect the influence of neighboring nations and are intertwinned with modern European movements. Design
Internationally most notable Slovenian design items include the 1952 Rex chair, a Scandinavian design -inspired wooden chair, by interior designer Niko Kralj that was given in 2012 a permanent place in Designmuseum , Denmark , the largest museum of design in Scandinavia, and is included in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art MOMA in New York , as well.
An industrial design item that has changed the international ski industry is Elan SCX by Elan company. Even before the Elan SCX, Elan skis were depicted in two films, the 1985 James Bond film series part A View to a Kill with Roger Moore, and Working Girl where _Katharine Parker_ ( Sigourney Weaver ) was depicted as skiing on the _RC ELAN_ model skis and poles. Sculpture The sculpture of the poet Valentin Vodnik (1758–1819) was created by Alojz Gangl in 1889 as part of Vodnik Monument , the first Slovene national monument.
The renewal of Slovene sculpture begun with Alojz Gangl (1859–1935) who created sculptures for the public monuments of the Carniolan polymath Johann Weikhard von Valvasor and Valentin Vodnik , the first Slovene poet and journalist, as well as _The Genius of the Theatre_ and other statues for the Slovenian National Opera and Ballet Theatre building. The development of sculpture after World War II was led by a number of artists, including brothers Boris and Zdenko Kalin , Jakob Savinšek stayed with figural art. Younger sculptors, for example Janez Boljka , Drago Tršar and particularly Slavko Tihec , moved towards abstract forms. Jakov Brdar and Mirsad Begić returned to human figures. Graphics
During World War II, numerous graphics were created by Božidar Jakac , who helped establish the post-war Academy of Visual Arts in Ljubljana. _ Smrekar 's illustration of Martin Krpan _
In 1917 Hinko Smrekar illustrated Fran Levstik 's book about the well-known Slovene folk hero Martin Krpan . The children\'s books illustrators include a number of women illustrators, such as Marlenka Stupica , Marija Lucija Stupica , Ančka Gošnik Godec , Marjanca Jemec Božič , and Jelka Reichman .
Many generations of children have been educated by the technical and science illustrations created by Božo Kos and published in Slovenian children's magazines, such as Ciciban .
Historically, painting and sculpture in Slovenia was in the late 18th and the 19th century marked by Neoclassicism (Matevž Langus ), Biedermeier ( Giuseppe Tominz ) and Romanticism ( Mihael Stroj ). The first art exhibition in Slovenia was organized in the late 19th century by Ivana Kobilica , a woman-painter who worked in realistic tradition. Impressionist artists include Matej Sternen , Matija Jama , Rihard Jakopič , Ivan Grohar whose _The Sower_ (Slovene: Sejalec) was depicted on the €0.05 Slovenian euro coins , and Franc Berneker , who introduced the impressionism to Slovenia. Espressionist painters include Veno Pilon and Tone Kralj whose picture book, reprinted thirteen times, is now the most recognisable image of the folk hero Martin Krpan . Some of the best known painters in the second half of the 20th century were Zoran Mušič , Gabrijel Stupica and Marij Pregelj . Photography
In 1841, Janez Puhar (1814–1864) invented a process for photography on glass, recognized on 17 June 1852 in Paris by the Académie Nationale Agricole, Manufacturière et Commerciale. Gojmir Anton Kos was a notable realist painter and photographer between First World War and WW II.
The first photographer from Slovenia whose work was published by National Geographic magazine is Arne Hodalič .
Slovenia is a natural sports venue, with many Slovenians actively practicing sports. A variety of sports are played in Slovenia on a professional level, with top international successes in handball , basketball , volleyball , association football , ice hockey , rowing , swimming , tennis , boxing and athletics . Prior to World War II, gymnastics and fencing used to be the most popular sports in Slovenia, with champions like Leon Štukelj and Miroslav Cerar gaining Olympic medals for Slovenia. Association football gained popularity in the interwar period. After 1945, basketball, handball and volleyball have become popular among Slovenians, and from the mid-1970s onward, winter sports have, as well. Since 1992, Slovenian sportspeople have won 22 Olympic medals , including three gold medals, and 19 Paralympic medals , also with three golds.
Individual sports are also very popular in Slovenia, including tennis and mountaineering , which are two of the most widespread sporting activities in Slovenia. Several Slovenian extreme and endurance sportsmen have gained an international reputation, including the mountaineer Tomaž Humar , the mountain skier Davo Karničar , the ultramaraton swimmer Martin Strel and the ultracyclist Jure Robič . Past and current winter sports Slovenian champions include Alpine skiers , such as Mateja Svet , Bojan Križaj , and 2014 Olympic Alpine Downhill gold medalist Tina Maze , the cross-country skier Petra Majdič , and ski jumpers , such as Primož Peterka and Peter Prevc . Boxing has gained popularity since Dejan Zavec won the IBF Welterweight World Champion title in 2009.
The most successful football club in
Slovenia is NK
Slovenia was the host of European basketball championship in 2013 , having previously hosted the final round of 1970 FIBA World Championship . The national ice hockey team has qualified for nine Ice Hockey World Championships . The team also qualified for the 2014 and 2018 Winter Olympics. Anže Kopitar is the most notable Slovene ice hockey player, having helped the Los Angeles Kings to the Stanley Cup Championship in 2012 and 2014. Slovenian national handball team has qualified for eight IHF World Men\'s Handball Championships , including their third-place finish in the 2017 edition, and for eleven European Men\'s Handball Championships . They were the hosts of European Championship in 2004, where they finished as runners-up. Slovenia's most prominent handball team, RK Celje , won the EHF Champions League in the 2003–04 season.
* ^ As defined by the Act Regulating the Coat-of-Arms, Flag and
Anthem of the Republic of
Slovenia and the Flag of the Slovene Nation
("Zakon o grbu, zastavi in himni Republike Slovenije ter o slovenski
narodni zastavi") from 1994 and published on the web page of the
National Assembly of
Slovenia . The question whether the entire
_Zdravljica_ or only its seventh stanza constitutes the Slovenian
national anthem remains unresolved. Whereas the Constitution of
Slovenia determines the title of the poem, the act about the anthem
specifically determines its seventh stanza. It has been argued that
the act contradicts the constitution and that the question should be
resolved by the Slovenian Constitutional Court .
* ^ Slovenia's placement within the regional classification schemes
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