SLOVENES (Slovene : Slovenci ), or SLOVENIANS, are a South Slavic
ethnic group native to
Slovenia and the historical
Slovene lands ,
surrounded by fellow South Slavic
Croats to the south and southeast,
Austrians to the north,
Italians to the west and
Hungarians to the
northeast. They speak the Slovene , a South Slavic language with
significant similarities to
West Slavic languages . The majority of
Slovenes live in
Slovenia , and they are a recognized minority
Croatia , and
Italy , where they are
indigenous. Expatriates live mainly in other European countries, and
Canada and the
United States .
* 1 Population
* 1.1 Population in
* 1.2 Population abroad
* 2 Genetics
* 3 History
* 3.1 Early Alpine
* 3.2 Alpine
Slavs during the Frankish Empire
* 3.3 16th century: Slovene
Protestant reformation and the
consolidation of the
* 3.4 18th century:
Slovenes under Maria Theresa and Joseph II
Slovenes under Napoleon 1809–1813
* 3.6 1840s: the first Slovene national political programme
* 3.7 Emigration
World War I
World War I
Fascist Italianization of Littoral
* 3.10 World War II and aftermath
Slovenes in Socialist Yugoslavia
* 4.1 The Stalinist period
* 4.2 The 1948
Tito-Stalin split and aftermath
* 4.3 1950s: heavy industrialization
* 4.4 1960s: "Self-management"
* 4.5 1970s: "Years of Lead"
* 4.6 1980s: Towards independence
Slovenes in independent
* 5.1 1990s: Slovenian Spring, democracy and independence
* 5.2 2010s: Slovenian disillusionment with socio-economic elites
* 6 Identity
* 6.1 Religion
* 7 See also
* 8 References
POPULATION IN SLOVENIA
Slovenes today live within the borders of the independent
Slovenia (2,007,711 est. 2008). In the Slovenian national census of
2002, 1,631,363 people ethnically declared themselves as Slovenes,
while 1,723,434 people claimed Slovene as their native language.
The autochthonous Slovene minority in
Italy is estimated at 83,000 to
100,000, the Slovene minority in southern
Austria at 24,855, in
Croatia at 13,200, and in
Hungary at 3,180. Significant Slovene
expatriate communities live in the
United States and
Canada , in other
European countries, in
Argentina , and in
Australia . The largest
Slovenes outside of
Slovenia is in
Cleveland, Ohio .
In total 39-36% of 399-458 sampled Slovenian males belong to Y-DNA
Haplogroup R1a , more frequent than in South Slavic peoples,
constituting 41% in the capital region and greater in some regions.
Slovenian population displays close genetic affiliations with West
Slavic populations. The homogenous genetic strata of the West Slavic
populations and the Slovenian population suggest the existence of a
common ancestral Slavic population in central European region. The
M458 branch constitutes 4%, while the dominant clade is Z280,
specifically its R1a-CTS3402 clade, the same as that of their Slavic
and not Slavic neighbours. The Z92 branch of Z280 which is
significant among East
Slavs is recorded as completely absent among
Of 100 sampled Slovenians, 18% belong to R1b, of which 8% of R1b
belongs to the P312 branch, 6% to the eastern and 4% to U106. The
Dinaric-North (DYS448- 20) haplotypes of I2a1b are with overwhelming
higher frequency than Dinaric-South(DYS448- 19) even in regions with
EARLY ALPINE SLAVS
In the 6th century AD,
Slavic peoples settled the region between the
Alps and the
Adriatic Sea in two consecutive migration waves: the
first wave took place around 550 and came from the Moravian lands ,
while the second wave, coming from the southeast, took place after the
retreat of the
Italy in 568 (see Slavic settlement of
From 623 to 658,
Slavic peoples between the upper
Elbe River and the
Karavanke mountain range were united under the leadership of King Samo
(Kralj Samo) in what was to become known as "Samo's Tribal Union". The
tribal union collapsed after Samo's death, but a smaller Slavic tribal
Carantania (Slovene : Karantanija) remained, with its
centre in the present-day region of Carinthia.
ALPINE SLAVS DURING THE FRANKISH EMPIRE
Due to pressing danger of Avar tribes from the east, the Carantanians
accepted a union with Bavaria in 745 and later recognized Frankish
rule and accepted Christianity in the 8th century. The last Slavic
state formation in the region, the principality of Prince Kocelj, lost
its independence in 874. Slovene ethnic territory subsequently shrank
due to pressing of Germans from the west and the arrival of Hungarians
Pannonian plain , and stabilized in the present form in the
16TH CENTURY: SLOVENE PROTESTANT REFORMATION AND THE CONSOLIDATION OF
THE SLOVENE LANGUAGE
The first mentions of a common Slovene ethnic identity, transcending
regional boundaries, date from the 16th century, when the Protestant
Reformation spread throughout the Slovene Lands. During this period,
the first books in Slovene were written by the
Primož Trubar and his followers, establishing the base for the
development of standard Slovene. In the second half of the 16th
century, numerous books were printed in Slovene, including an integral
translation of the Bible by
Jurij Dalmatin .
At the beginning of the 17th century,
Protestantism was suppressed by
Counter Reformation , which introduced the new
18TH CENTURY: SLOVENES UNDER MARIA THERESA AND JOSEPH II
The Enlightenment in the Habsburg monarchy brought significant social
and cultural progress to the Slovene people. It hastened economic
development and facilitated the appearance of a middle class. Under
the reign of Maria Theresa and Emperor Joseph II (1765–1790) many
reforms were undertaken in the administration and society, including
land reforms, the modernization of the Church and compulsory primary
education in Slovene (1774). The start of cultural-linguistic
activities by Slovene intellectuals of the time brought about a
national revival and the birth of the Slovene nation in the modern
sense of the word. Before the
Napoleonic Wars , some secular
literature in Slovene emerged. During the same period, the first
history of the
Slovene Lands as an ethnic unity was written by Anton
Tomaž Linhart , while
Jernej Kopitar compiled the first comprehensive
grammar of Slovene.
SLOVENES UNDER NAPOLEON 1809–1813
Between 1809 and 1813,
Slovenia was part of the
Illyrian Provinces ,
an autonomous province of the Napoleonic French Empire , with
Ljubljana as the capital. Although the French rule was short-lived, it
significantly contributed to the rise of national consciousness and
political awareness of Slovenes. After the fall of Napoleon, all
Slovene Lands were once again included in the
Austrian Empire .
Gradually, a distinct Slovene national consciousness developed, and
the quest for a political unification of all
widespread. In the 1820s and 1840s, the interest in Slovene language
and folklore grew enormously, with numerous philologists advancing the
first steps towards a standardization of the language. Illyrian
Pan-Slavic and Austro-Slavic ideas gained importance.
However, the intellectual circle around the philologist Matija Čop
and the Romantic poet
France Prešeren was influential in affirming
the idea of Slovene linguistic and cultural individuality, refusing
the idea of merging
Slovenes into a wider Slavic nation.
1840S: THE FIRST SLOVENE NATIONAL POLITICAL PROGRAMME
Peter Kozler 's map of the
Slovene Lands , designed during the
Spring of Nations in 1848, became the symbol of the quest for a United
In the 1840s, the
Slovene national movement developed far beyond
literary expression. In 1848, the first Slovene national political
programme, called United
Slovenia (Zedinjena Slovenija), was written
in the context of the
Spring of Nations movement within the Austrian
Empire. It demanded a unification of all Slovene-speaking territories
in an autonomous kingdom, named Slovenija, within the empire and an
official status for the Slovene language. Although the project
failed, it served as an important platform of Slovene political
activity in the following decades, particularly in the 1860s and
1870s, when mass Slovene rallies, named tabori , were organised. The
conflict between Slovene and German nationalists deepened. In 1866,
Slovenes were left to Italy, and in 1867 some remained in the
Hungarian part of the Austria-
Hungary . This significantly affected
the nation and led to further radicalisation of the Slovene national
movement. In the 1890s, the first Slovene political parties were
established. All of them were loyal to Austria, but they were also
espousing a common South Slavic cause.
Between 1880 and
World War I
World War I , the largest numbers of Slovenes
emigrated to America. Most of these went between 1905 and 1913,
although the exact number is impossible to determine because Slovenes
were often classified as
Croats , or under
other, broader labels, such as Slavonic or Slavic . Those who settled
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania came to be called Windish, from the
Austrian German term Windisch 'Wend '.
The largest group of
Slovenes in the
United States eventually settled
Cleveland , Ohio, and the surrounding area. The second-largest
group settled in Chicago, principally on the Lower West Side . The
American Slovenian Catholic Union (Ameriško slovenska katoliška
enota) was founded as an organization to protect Slovene-American
Joliet, Illinois , 64 km (40 mi) southwest of
Chicago , and
in Cleveland. Today there are KSKJ branches all over the country
offering life insurance and other services to Slovene-Americans.
Freethinkers were centered around 18th and Racine Ave. in Chicago,
where they founded the
Slovene National Benefit Society ; other
Slovene immigrants went to southwestern Pennsylvania, southeastern
Ohio and the state of
West Virginia to work in the coal mines and
lumber industry. Some
Slovenes also went to the
Youngstown, Ohio , areas, to work in the steel mills, as well as
Iron Range , to work in the iron mines. Many also went
west to Rock Springs in
Wyoming to work in the coal mines that
supported the Union Pacific Railway.
WORLD WAR I
Battles of the Isonzo
Battles of the Isonzo
There were more than 30,000 casualties among ethnic
World War I
World War I because they were and still are inhabiting the territory
Isonzo Front was fought. While the majority of them were
drafted in the
Austro-Hungarian Army , also Slovene civil inhabitants
Gorizia and Gradisca region suffered in hundreds of thousands
because they were resettled in refugee camps where, however, Slovene
refugees were treated as state enemies by
Italians and several
thousands died of malnutrition in Italian refugee camps.
FASCIST ITALIANIZATION OF LITTORAL SLOVENES
Italy Kingdom of
The annexed western quarter of Slovene speaking territory , and
approximately 327,000 out of the total population of 1.3 million
Slovenes, were subjected to forced
Fascist Italianization . On the
map of present-day
Slovenia with its traditional regions' boundaries.
After the First World War (1914–1918), the majority of Slovenes
joined other South
Slavs in the State of Slovenes,
followed by the Kingdom of Serbs,
Slovenes , and finally
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia . In the new system of banovinas (since
Slovenes formed a majority in the
Drava Banovina .
In the ex-
Austrian Empire area given to
Italy in exchange for joining
Great Britain in
World War I
World War I , the forced
Fascist Italianization of
Slovene minority in
Italy (1920-1947) was under no international
restraint especially after
Benito Mussolini came to power in 1922.
Already during the period of Italian occupation, between the years
1918 and 1920, all Slovene cultural associations (
Sokol , "reading
rooms" etc.) had been forbidden Fascist
Italy brought Italian
teachers from South
Italy to Italianize ethnic Slovene and Croatian
children, while the Slovene and Croatian teachers, poets, writers,
artists and clergy were exiled to
Sardinia and elsewhere to South
Italy . In 1926, claiming that it was restoring surnames to their
original Italian form, the Italian government announced the
Italianization of names and surnames not only of citizens of the
Slovene minority, but also of Croatian and German . Some Slovenes
willingly accepted Italianization in order to lose the status of being
second-class citizens with no upward social mobility. By the
mid-1930s, around 70,000
Slovenes had fled the region, mostly to
South America .
In the bilingual regions people of Carinthia decided in a 1920
referendum that most of Carinthia should remain in
Slovene volunteers also participated in the
Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War and the
Second Italo-Abyssinian War
Second Italo-Abyssinian War .
WORLD WAR II AND AFTERMATH
Hungary occupied northern areas
(brown and dark green areas, respectively), while Fascist Italy
occupied the vertically hashed black area, including
(Solid black western part being annexed by
Italy already with the
Treaty of Rapallo ). After 1943,
Germany took over the Italian
occupational area, as well.
During World War II,
Slovenes were in a unique situation. While
Greece shared its experience of being trisected,
Slovenia was the only
country that experienced a further step—absorption and annexation
Nazi Germany, Fascist
Italy , and Hungary. After
Yugoslavia was invaded by
Axis Powers on 6 April 1941,
Hungary occupied northern Slovenia. Some villages in Lower Carniola
were annexed by the Independent State of
The Nazis started a policy of violent
Germanisation . During the war,
tens of thousands of
Slovenes were resettled or chased away,
imprisoned, or transported to labor , internment and extermination
camps . Many were sent into exile to Nedić\'s
The numbers of
Slovenes drafted to the German military and
paramilitary formations has been estimated at 150,000 men and women,
almost a quarter of them lost their lives on various European
battlefields, mostly on the Eastern Front .
Compared to the German policies in the northern Nazi-occupied area of
Slovenia and the forced
Fascist italianization in the former Austrian
Littoral that was annexed after the First World War, the initial
Italian policy in the central
Slovenia was not as violent. Tens of
Slovenes from German-occupied
Lower Styria and Upper
Carniola escaped to the
Province of Ljubljana until June 1941.
However, after resistance started in
Province of Ljubljana , Italian
violence against the Slovene civil population easily matched that of
the Germans. The province saw the deportation of 25,000 people —
which equated to 7.5% of the total population of the province — in
one of the most drastic operations in the Europe that filled up many
Italian concentration camps , such as
Rab concentration camp , in
Gonars concentration camp , Monigo (Treviso), Renicci d'Anghiari,
Chiesanuova and elsewhere. To suppress the mounting resistance by the
Slovene Partisans ,
Mario Roatta adopted draconian measures of summary
executions, hostage-taking, reprisals, internments, and the burning of
houses and whole villages. The "3C" pamphlet, tantamount to a
declaration of war on civilians, involved him in
Italian war crimes .
In the summer of 1941, a resistance movement led by the Liberation
Front of the Slovene Nation , emerged in both the Italian and in the
German occupation zones. The resistance, pluralistic at the
beginning, was gradually taken over by the Communist Party , as in the
rest of occupied Yugoslavia. Contrary to elsewhere in Yugoslavia,
where on the freed territories the political life was organized by the
military itself, the
Slovene Partisans were subordinated to the civil
political authority of the Front.
In the summer of 1942, a civil war between
Slovenes broke out. The
two fighting factions were the
Slovenian Partisans and the
Italian-sponsored anti-communist militia , later re-organized under
Nazi command as the
Slovene Home Guard . Small units of Slovenian
Chetniks also existed in
Lower Carniola and
Styria . The Partisans
were under the command of the Liberation Front (OF) and Tito 's
Yugoslav resistance, while the
Slovenian Covenant served as the
political arm of the anti-Communist militia. The civil war was mostly
restricted to the
Province of Ljubljana , where more than 80% of the
Slovene anti-partisan units were active. Between 1943–1945, smaller
anti-Communist militia existed in parts of the
Slovenian Littoral and
Upper Carniola , while they were virtually non-existent in the rest
of the country. By 1945, the total number of Slovene anti-Communist
militamen reached 17,500.
Immediately after the war, some 12,000 members of the Slovene Home
Guard were killed in the
Kočevski Rog massacres , while thousands of
anti-communist civilians were killed in the first year after the war.
In addition, hundreds of ethnic
Italians from the
Julian March were
killed by the Yugoslav Army and partisan forces in the Foibe massacres
; some 27,000 Istrian
Slovenian Istria from Communist
persecution in the so-called
Istrian exodus . Members of the ethnic
German minority either fled or were expelled from Slovenia.
The overall number of World War II casualties in
estimated at 97,000. The number includes about 14,000 people, who were
killed or died for other war-related reasons immediately after the end
of the war, and the tiny Jewish community, which was nearly
annihilated in the
Holocaust . In addition, tens of thousands of
Slovenes left their homeland soon after the end of the war. Most of
them settled in
Argentina , Canada, Australia, and the United States.
Most of Carinthia remained part of
Austria and around 42,000 Slovenes
(per 1951 population census) were recognized as a minority and have
enjoyed special rights following the Austrian State Treaty
(Staatsvertrag) of 1955.
Slovenes in the Austrian state of Styria
(4,250) are not recognized as a minority and do not enjoy special
rights, although the State Treaty of 27 July 1955 states otherwise.
Many Carinthians remain uneasy about Slovene territorial claims,
pointing to the fact that Yugoslav troops entered the state after each
of the two World Wars. The former governor ,
Jörg Haider , regularly
played the Slovene card when his popularity started to dwindle, and
indeed relied on the strong anti-Slovene attitudes in many parts of
the province for his power base.
Yugoslavia acquired some territory from
Italy after WWII but some
Slovenes remained behind the Italian border, notably around
SLOVENES IN SOCIALIST YUGOSLAVIA
Titoism and Economy of the Socialist Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia Socialist Republic of
Slovenia within the Socialist
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Coat of arms of the Socialist
Following the re-establishment of Yugoslavia at the end of World War
Slovenia became part of the Socialist Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia , declared on 29 November 1943. A socialist state was
established, but because of the
Tito-Stalin split , economic and
personal freedoms were broader than in the
Eastern Bloc . In 1947,
Italy ceded most of the
Julian March to Yugoslavia, and
Slovene Littoral .
The dispute over the port of
Trieste however remained opened until
1954, until the short-lived Free Territory of
Trieste was divided
Italy and Yugoslavia, thus giving
Slovenia access to the sea.
This division was ratified only in 1975 with the
Treaty of Osimo ,
which gave a final legal sanction to Slovenia's long disputed western
border. From the 1950s, the Socialist Republic of
Slovenia enjoyed a
relatively wide autonomy.
THE STALINIST PERIOD
Between 1945 and 1948, a wave of political repressions took place in
Slovenia and in Yugoslavia. Thousands of people were imprisoned for
their political beliefs. Several tens of thousands of
Slovenia immediately after the war in fear of Communist persecution.
Many of them settled in
Argentina , which became the core of Slovenian
anti-Communist emigration. More than 50,000 more followed in the next
decade, frequently for economic reasons, as well as political ones.
These later waves of Slovene immigrants mostly settled in
in Australia, but also in other western countries.
THE 1948 TITO-STALIN SPLIT AND AFTERMATH
In 1948, the
Tito-Stalin split took place. In the first years
following the split, the political repression worsened, as it extended
to Communists accused of
Stalinism . Hundreds of
imprisoned in the concentration camp of
Goli Otok , together with
thousands of people of other nationalities. Among the show trials that
took place in
Slovenia between 1945 and 1950, the most important were
the Nagode trial against democratic intellectuals and left liberal
activists (1946) and the Dachau trials (1947–1949), where former
Nazi concentration camps were accused of collaboration with
the Nazis. Many members of the
Roman Catholic clergy suffered
persecution. The case of bishop of Ljubljana
Anton Vovk , who was
doused with gasoline and set on fire by Communist activists during a
pastoral visit to
Novo Mesto in January 1952, echoed in the western
Between 1949 and 1953, a forced collectivization was attempted. After
its failure, a policy of gradual liberalization was followed.
1950S: HEAVY INDUSTRIALIZATION
In the late 1950s,
Slovenia was the first of the Yugoslav republics
to begin a process of relative pluralization. A decade of
industrialisation was accompanied also by a fervent cultural and
literary production with many tensions between the regime and the
dissident intellectuals. From the late 1950s onward, dissident circles
started to be formed, mostly around short-lived independent journals,
such as Revija 57 (1957–1958), which was the first independent
intellectual journal in Yugoslavia and one of the first of this kind
in the Communist bloc, and Perspektive (1960–1964). Among the most
important critical public intellectuals in this period were the
Jože Pučnik , the poet
Edvard Kocbek , and the literary
Dušan Pirjevec .
By the late 1960s, the reformist faction gained control of the
Slovenian Communist Party , launching a series of reforms, aiming at
the modernization of Slovenian society and economy. A new economic
policy, known as workers self-management started to be implemented
under the advice and supervision of the main theorist of the Yugoslav
Communist Party, the Slovene
Edvard Kardelj .
1970S: "YEARS OF LEAD"
In 1973, this trend was stopped by the conservative faction of the
Slovenian Communist Party, backed by the Yugoslav Federal government.
A period known as the "Years of Lead" (Slovene: svinčena leta)
1980S: TOWARDS INDEPENDENCE
In the 1980s,
Slovenia experienced a rise of cultural pluralism.
Numerous grass-roots political, artistic and intellectual movements
emerged, including the
Neue Slowenische Kunst , the Ljubljana school
of psychoanalysis , and the Nova revija intellectual circle. By the
mid-1980s, a reformist fraction, led by
Milan Kučan , took control of
the Slovenian Communist Party, starting a gradual reform towards a
market socialism and controlled political pluralism .
SLOVENES IN INDEPENDENT SLOVENIA
1990S: SLOVENIAN SPRING, DEMOCRACY AND INDEPENDENCE
The first clear demand for Slovene independence was made in 1987 by a
group of intellectuals in the 57th edition of the magazine Nova revija
. Demands for democratisation and increase of Slovenian independence
were sparked off. A mass democratic movement, coordinated by the
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights , pushed the Communists in
the direction of democratic reforms. In 1991,
Slovenia became an
independent nation state after a brief ten-day war . In December 1991,
a new constitution was adopted, followed in 1992 by the laws on
denationalisation and privatization . The members of the European
Slovenia as an independent state on 15 January 1992,
United Nations accepted it as a member on 22 May 1992.
2010S: SLOVENIAN DISILLUSIONMENT WITH SOCIO-ECONOMIC ELITES
The disillusionment with domestic socio-economic elites at municipal
and the State's level was expressed at the 2012–2013 Slovenian
protests on a wider scale than in the smaller 15 October 2011 protests
– Slovenian disillusionment with the elites and financial
institutions at the European and global level. In relation to the
leading politicians' response to allegations made by official
Commission for the Prevention of Corruption of the Republic of
Slovenia , law experts expressed the need for changes in the system
that would limit political arbitrariness .
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (May
Further information: National symbols of
The first researchers of the origin of
Slovenes believed, on the
basis of the German name for Slovenes, Wenden or Winden, that Slovenes
were descendants of the Germanic tribe of the
Vandals . Even today,
some German speakers refer to the Slovenian minority in Carinthian
Austria as Windische, an ethnicity distinct from Slovenes. This claim
is rejected by linguists on the basis that their dialect is by all
standards a variant of the Slovene language. The Germanic word Wenden
generally refers to the Wends, a West Slavic tribe that settled along
the now Eastern Germany. The first to define
Slovenes as a separate
branch of the Slavic people was
Anton Tomaž Linhart in his work An
Essay on the History of Carniola and Other Lands of the Austrian South
Slavs, published in 1791. In it, Linhart also established the
linguistic unity of the Slovene ethnic territory and set the
foundations of the Slovene ethnography .
After the disintegration of Yugoslavia during the late 1980s and the
formation of independent
Slovenia in the early 1990s motivated
interest in a particularly Slovenian national identity. One reflection
of this was an attempt at the rejection of a Slavic identity in favour
of a "Venetic " one. The autochthonist (protochronist ) "Venetic
theory " was advanced in the mid 1980s, but it never gained wide
currency. The identification with Slavic roots remains strong in
Slovenia and in 2004 even led to the establishment of the Forum of
Slavic Cultures in Ljubljana.
In the late 1980s, several symbols from the
Middle Ages were revived
as Slovenian national symbols. Among them, the most popular are the
so-called Slovene Hat which featured in the coat of arms of the
Slovene March , and the Black Panther , a reconstruction of the
supposed coat of arms of the
Carolingian duchy of
Carantania . After
being used in the Flag of
Slovenia , the graphical representation of
Triglav has become recognised as a national symbol. Per the
Slovenia and the Slovenian act on national symbols,
the flag of the Slovene nation is a white-blue-red flag without the
coat-of-arms. The ratio of the width to height of the flag is one to
Roman Catholic with some
Lutherans in Prekmurje. A large minority of
non-religious or atheists.
List of Slovenes
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Ljubljana: Rokus, 2001.
COBISS 18593837(in Slovene)
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* ^ Lucija Horvat (6 February 2008). "Zavest o slovenskih
koreninah". Spletna Demokracija (in Slovenian). Retrieved 10 April
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* ^ "Population by ethnicity". Republic Statistical Office of
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* ^ "Population by mother tongue and main age groups, 1910–1941,
1970–2001". Population Census 2001. Hungarian Central Statistical
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* ^ "Bericht 2006" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3
March 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
* ^ Numbers in 1991
* ^ "Etnische groepen uit Bosnië & Herzegovina, Kroatië,
Macedonië, Servië ">(PDF) (in Dutch). Archived from the original
(PDF) on 2005-06-07.
* ^ Archived 1 July 2007 at the
Wayback Machine .
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* Slavic settlement of the Eastern
* Samo\'s Realm
March of Carniola
* Kingdom of Illyria
Duchy of Carniola
* Socialist Republic
* Foreign relations
* Law enforcement
* LGBT rights
* Political parties
* Statistical regions
* Central bank
* Stock exchange
* Architecture, visual arts and design
* Public holidays
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Slavic ethnic groups
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Slavic speakers of Greek Macedonia
* GND :